Sede Vacante 1389

October 15, 1389—November 2, 1389


In June of 1384, angered at the disrespect shown him by King Charles III of Naples (Charles of Durazzo) and the people of the Kingdom, Urban VI retired to the town of Nocera, which belonged to his nephew, Butillus. The death of King Charles' competitor for the throne of Naples, Louis Duke of Anjou, in September 1384, made Charles' opposition to Urban and his ambitions much easier. The College of Cardinals, moreover, were appalled at the behavior of Urban, and began to consider action against him. Cardinal Bartholomaeus Mezzavacca ( who was still at Naples with the Curia) along with several other cardinals employed Bartholomaeus of Placentia to engage in enquiries as to what could be done if a pope were insane (a report of which was read by Theoderic of Nyem)

quod si papa esset mente captus aut nimis negliens vel inutilis ad regendum vel adeo inniteretur suo sensui, quod per eius factum periclitaretur iniversalis ecclesia, vel esset effrenis, ita quod absque consilio cardinalium pro libito voluntatis omnia facere vellet, nunquid liceret ipsis cardinalibus super hoc universali ecclesie providere sibique deputare ydoneum curatorem vel aliquos ydoneos curatores ad eorundem cardinalium eleccionem, iuxta cuius seu quorum consilia seu racionis dictamen ipse papa expedire singula ecclesie maiora negocia teneretur....

Mezzavacca also sought the opinions of Masters of Theology and several Doctores in utroque iure. The Sicilian Chronicle (Theoderic de Nyem, ed Erler, p. 78 n. 1) relates that the cardinals conferred with King Charles, Queen Margaret, Mezzavacca, and Villanucio (Prefect of provisions of Naples). Gobelinus Persona, in his Cosmidromius (VI. 78) states that the plan was to capture Urban, convict him of heresy, depose him, and burn him at the stake.

But Urban was warned by Cardinal Tommaso Orsini, and he immediately, on January 11, 1385, ordered the arrest of six cardinals. The Cardinals, Joannes de Amelia, Gentilis de Sangro, Adam de Eston, Ludovicus Donati, Bartholomaeus de Cucurno, and Martinus de Judice (Theoderic of Nyem I. 42, pp. 77-79 Erler), were let down into a cistern, where they languished until they were carried along with Urban in his flight to Genoa. (Five of them were finally killed in December of 1386 on Urban's orders). King Charles and Queen Margaret were excommunicated (Gobelinus Persona, Cosmidromius VI. 78, p. 101 ed. Jansen)

In July of 1385, while Urban VI was at Nocera (Luceriae), there appears to have been serious talk again about deposing him. The Cardinals who were in Naples met with King Charles, according to Theoderic de Nyem (I. 55, pp. 99-100 Erler), and plotted the capture and deposition of Urban:

Interim eciam quod duravit huiusmodi guerra inter regem Karolum et papam predictos, non dabatur licentia curialibus ipsis, qui tunc erant in Neapoli, ut abinde per mare vel terram recedere possent, et huiusmodi causa fuit, quia rex, et qui cum ipso erant cardinales prefati, credebant, quod uitque dictum castrum Lucerie per eiusdem regis Karoli gentes facile vi caperetur sicque ipse Urbanus et sui complices, qui secum erant in eodem castro, ad manus ipsius regis infallibiliter devenirent, quo peracto forsan ad eleccionem novi summi pontificis ipsi curiales essent processuri, sed si interim ipsi curiales recederent, dicti novi pontificis curia non valeret. Sed postquam dictus Urbanus cum suis curialibus et aliis, qui secum erant in ipso castro, abinde recesserunt, ut prefertur, rex et cardinales secum existentes predicti ex hoc plurumum doluerunt timentes indubie, quid ipse Urbanus contra eos postea prout fecit, omnia mala possetenus attemptarent.

A letter survives, written by five cardinals—Pileus de Prata, Lucas Radulfucii, Poncellus Orsini, Bartholomaeus Mezzavacca and Landulphus Marramaldus—at some point after the arrest, imprisonment and torture of the six cardinals began, in which they announce to the Clergy of Rome that they have removed themselves from the Obedience of Urban VI and are calling for his removal from the Papal chair as an heretic. Four of the five were deprived of their cardinalates.

Death of Urban VI

Theoderic of Nyem ( I. 69; pp. 120-121 Erler) reports that Urban VI had an accident around the Eve of the Assumption (August 14), 1389. He had been staying at Perugia, but left the city on August 8, 1389, intending to head for Rome, and then to move in the direction of the Kingdom of Naples. On the road, some ten miles from Perugia to Narnia, he suffered a fall:

Sed postquam pervenerat ad spacium XXmm miliarium vel circiter a Perusio, mula, super quam sedebat, cespitans ad terram cum pontifice cecidit vehementer, quo casu precipiti dictus Urbanus in diversis partibus corporis lesus non potuit ulterius equitare, et ad eandem civitatem, quam exiverat, redire nolebat, sed se versus Tiburtum ultra Romam in eodem vehiculo portari fecit. Qui cum prope esset iuxta pontem super flumen, quod labitur per Tiburtum, recta via, qua de ipsa urbe ityur ad Tiburtum, et illic tunc pernoctare vellet, multi Romani ad eum venierunt obnixe rogantes quod sibi ad sedem suam redire placere.

Urban was unwilling to agree to go to Rome, and his party were ordered to make for Ferentino, since Urban still intended to enter the kingdom of Naples. But his money ran out and he was unable to pay his guard, and so at the beginning of September he arrived in Rome and took to his bed. There were the usual rumors that he had been poisoned (Sozomen, Specimen Historiae, column 1140).

Urban VI (Bartholomeo Prignano) died in Rome, in the Papal Palace at St. Peter's, on October 15, 1389.   Next day, xvii kal. Novembris, the papal Chancery issued a series of announcements to each of the potentates of Europe and to the archbishops of the Church, sealed by the three Cardinals who were senior in each order, stating "hesterna die judicio divino et naturali cursu labilis vitae transitus felicis recordationis domini Urbani papae VI..." (Baronius-Theiner, sub anno 1389, x, p 490, prints the copy sent to Wenceslaus, King of the Romans and King of Bohemia). Urban was buried on the day after his death, October 16, in a modest tomb in the Chapel of S. Andrew in St. Peter's Basilica (Gobelinus, Cosmidromius cap. 81; p. 126 ed. Jansen; Dollinger, anonymous Conclave report, 361):

Anno pontificatus sui duodecimo Urbanus iste Romae obiit et in capella sancti Andreae apud sanctum Petrum sepultus est; ad cuius sepulchrum dum postea veneram, et videns corpus eius non mausoleo, sed communi sepulchro reconditum, infrascrptos vers confeci .... Postea tamen corpus eius in ecclesiam sancti Poetri translatum honorificentiori sepulchro traditum est.



Tomb of Urban Vi, Vatican
Tomb of Urban VI (St. Peter's)

The Annales Forolivienses provided an epitaph for Urban VI (Muratori, Rerum Italicarum Scriptores XXII, column 196):

Fuit enim vir pessimus, crudelis et scandalosus absque consilio Cardinalium, cuius dolis scismata incoepere in Ecclesia Christi.


"He was the worst sort of man, a cause of scandal, and unwilling to take the advice of his Cardinals. Thanks to his tricks, the Schism began in Christ's Church."


College of Cardinals

Every one of the Cardinals who had participated in the events of April, 1378, had refused to recognize Urban VI or had deserted him. Most of the Curia Romana, too, followed the Cardinals when they elected Robert of Geneva as Clement VII on September 20, 1378. The only cardinals of the "Roman Obedience", therefore, were cardinals who had been created (but not yet killed or deposed) by Urban. A list of the thirteen cardinals who attended the Conclave is given by Konrad Eubel, Hierarchia Catholica editio altera (1913), p. 25, n. 7. Cf. Souchon I, p. 44 n.1. Onuphrio Panvinio (Epitome, pp. 261-262) also lists thirteen cardinals. The anonymous conclave narrative ( Döllinger, p. 361), however, is quite certain, and quite wrong, that there were fourteen cardinals in attendance after Cardinal Bontempi arrived on October 27. Souchon I, 42 n. 1; 44 n. 1.

Panvinio includes as a cardinal who was not in attendance Elziarius (de Sabrano), who died in 1380 [He is certainly referring to the Cardinal Reatinus, Bartholomaeus Mezzavaca, who had been deprived by Urban VI in 1383]. Panvinio also includes Pileus de Prata, who had left the allegiance of Urban VI in June, 1387, and was a supporter of Pope Clement VII. Also named as not attending was Petrus, Bishop of Palencia, of unknown titulus; there was a Petrus Sancius who was Bishop of Palencia in Spain (1396-1403), but he was never a Cardinal; there was no "Petrus" currently in Urban VI's College of Cardinals.

Nine votes were needed for a canonical election.

Cardinals attending:
  1. Francesco Moricotti (Prignani Butillo), of Naples, Cardinal Bishop of Palestrina. "Pisanus" Vice-Chancellor S. R. E. Nephew of Urban VI.  He was Treasurer of Salisbury [Rymer, Foedera VII, p. 406 (August 4, 1383)].   [died February 6, 1394].

  2. Andrea Bontempi, of Perugia, Cardinal Priest in the title of SS. Marcellino e Pietro. [died July 16, 1390] [Legate in the Romagna, he arrived late, on October 27, 1389]
  3. Poncello Orsini, Roman, Cardinal Priest in the title of S. Clemente. "Aversanus" [died February 2 (or 11), 1395] [Cardella II, 278].
  4. Perinus [or Pietro] Tomacelli (aged somewhere between 30 and 45: Souchon I, 48 n. 2), Neapolitan, Cardinal Priest in the title of S. Anastasia. "Neapolitanus" [died October 1, 1404] [He is called Perrinus de Thomacellis by Pedro de Luna (Pope Benedict XIII) in a letter of 1408: Döllinger, Beiträge II, 361].  He was confirmed in the Prebendary of Coryngham in the Church of Lincoln by Richard II [Rymer, Foedera VII, p. 427 (May 14, 1384)].  He also held the Prebend of Gilyngham in the Monastery of Shafton and the Prebend of South Neuton in the Monastery of Winton in the Diocese of Salisbury   [Rymer, Foedera VII, p. 571 (March 20, 1388)].  On November 24, 1388, he was also confirmed as Prebendary of Sutton in the Church of Lincoln on provision of Urban VI  [Rymer, Foedera VII, p. 609].
  5. Angelo Acciaioli (aged 40), of Florence, son of Jacobus Acciaioli and Bartholomea de Ricasolis. Cardinal Priest in the title of S. Lorenzo in Damaso.  Canon of Patras. Bishop of Rapolla, in the Kingdom of Naples (1375-1383). Archbishop of Florence (1383-1385).  [died at Pisa, May 31, 1408] "Florentinus" [Cardella II, 296-298]
  6. Francesco Carbone, OCist, Neapolitan, Cardinal Priest in the title of S. Susanna.    Major Penitentiarius. "Monopolitanus"  [died June 18, 1405]    [Cardella II, 297-299]
  7. Stefano Pelosii, a Roman, Cardinal Priest in the title of S. Marcello. [died April 24, 1396] "Tudertinus" He had been one of the assistants of the Custodian of the scandalous Conclave of April, 1378, in Rome. He was granted the Prebend of the Benedictine Monastery of Wilton in the Church of Salisbury [Rymer, Foedera VII, p. 619 (May 15, 1389)].

  8. Tommaso Orsini, Romanus, of the Manupello branch (owners of Narnia, Amelia and Terni), Cardinal Deacon of S. Maria in Domnica.  Vicar of the Patrimony of S. Peter  [died July 10, 1390] [Cardella II, 292-293; F. Savio, "Le tre famiglie Orsini di Monterotondo, di Marino, e di Manoppello,"  Bolletino della societa unbra di storia patria 2 (1896), 89-112;    D. Benucci, "Ancora gli Orsini,"  Bolletino della societa unbra di storia patria 2 (1896)  549]
  9. Marinus Vulcani [Marino Bulcani], Neapolitan, consanguineus of Urban VI.  Cardinal Deacon of S. Maria Nuova.   Camerlengo S.R.E. [Cardella II, 303-304; Augustin Theiner, Codex diplomaticus dominii temporalis S. Sedis Tome troisième (Rome 1862), p. 1, no. 1; Bliss, Calendar of Papal Registers  IV, p. 265 (November 28, 1386)]   [died August 8, 1394]
  10. Francesco Renzio, of Alise (Kingdom of Sicily), Cardinal Deacon of S. Eustachio. [died September 26 (or 27), 1390] Nephew of Cardinal Marino Bulcani, relative of Urban VI [Cardella II, 304]
  11. Raynaldus [Rinaldo] Brancaccio, Neapolitan, Cardinal Deacon of SS. Vito e Modesto.[died October 1427]
  12. Ludovico Fieschi, of Genoa, Cardinal Deacon of S. Adriano. Bishop of Vercelli [died April 3, 1423]. Former Auditor of the Rota
  13. Angelo d'Anna de Sommariva, OSB.Cam., Neapolitan, Cardinal Deacon of S. Lucia in Septisolio "Cardinal of Lodi" .[died July 21, 1428]. [Cardella II, 306-307]
Cardinals not attending:
  1. Philippe d'Alençon de Valois (aged 58/59), Cardinal Bishop of Ostia and Santa Rufina. Legate in Germany; he returned to the Curia on March 4, 1390 [died August 16, 1397] Nephew of King Philip de Valois [Eubel I, 23 and n. 12, 36, 38 and n. 8; François Duchesne, Cardinaux François (1660), ch. clxxii, pp. 718-720; Cardella II, 249-252].
  2. Valentinus Quinquecliensis [Bálint Alsáni, or de Alsán] (aged ca. 59), Hungarian, Cardinal Priest in the title of SS. IV Coronati  [Baronius Theiner, sub anno 1404, no. 10, p. 115; cf. Eubel I, p. 24, p. 41, and 46 n. 1; Cardella IV, p. 288].   Doctor Decretorum.  Pro-Chancellor of King Lodovico of Hungary, ca. 1376.  Bishop of Pécs (1383-1408).  Named royal ambassador to Venice in 1381; brought to Hungary the relics of S. Paul the Hermit.  Created cardinal , on the nomination of the King of Hungary.   Legate in Hungary.  He first appeared at the Curia in 1407 [died November 19, 1408]   [Michael Szvorényi, Purpura pannonica (Agriae 1811), pp. 7-9].

  3. Bartholomaeus Mezzavacca, Cardinal Priest in the title of S. Marcello [died July 29. 1396]  "Reatinus". Deprived of the dignity of Cardinal by Urban VI on October 15, 1383 (? 1385), he was ineligible to attend; he was restored by Boniface IX as the Cardinal of S. Martino (since S. Marcello had been given to Stephanus Pelosii) on December 18, 1389. [died July 29, 1396] [Eubel I, 23].
  4. Adam Eston, OSB  [English, Hertford],  Cardinal Priest in the title of S. Cecilia. [Ciacconius I, 1032, says that he participated in the Conclave of 1389—yet another of his multitudinous mistakes].
            Monk of Norwich. Member of Gloucester College, Oxford, ca. 1355-1366, and Prior studentium in 1366.   He was Professor of Theology [D.D. 1363-1364].  But he was neither Bishop of Hereford nor Administrator of the See of London; it was Cardinal William Courtney who was from Hereford and was Bishop of London (and it is said he refused the dignity of cardinal)   [Cardella II, 283-285 and 309; Eubel I, 24].  Ciaconius-Olduin states [II, 648, citing mss. in the Vatican Library on the Great Schism] that he gave a deposition in 1379, while still just a Benedictine monk, as to the events around the (uncanonical) election of Urban VI.  That would indicate that he was in Rome by early in 1378, in the reign of Gregory XI.  Eston was created cardinal on December 21, 1381.  The reason why is a mystery.  W.A. Pantin [The English Church in the 14th Century (Cambridge 1955), 178] points out that Eston's Defensorium was probably written between 1376 and 1378, and was dedicated to Urban VI; "it was perhaps partly as a reward for this that Easton was made a cardinal" [post hoc, ergo propter hoc]. Pantin also points out that only the Prologue and Book I, out of six books, survive, and that "it is possible that the whole work was never completed."  Urban must have been terribly impressed by being offered an uncompleted work.  Pantin's conjecture is not compelling.
          Urban VI provided Cardinal Eston as Dean of York on March 7, 1382 [Le Neve Fasti Ecclesiae Anglicanae III, 123].  But Cardinal Eston was apparently a participant in the conspiracy of the cardinals against Urban, and was arrested on January 11, 1385.  On June 5, 1385, he was deprived of the Deanery of York. Reginald Lane Poole [in the Dictionary of National Biography 16 (1888), p. 334] states, on the authority of a manuscript in the Bodleian Library at Oxford, that  Eston wrote a letter or tract  'de sua calamitate'  to the monks of his order, who moved Richard II to intervene on his behalf. The entire congregation of [Benedictine] monks in England also wrote to Pope Urban, according to John Bale.  Cardinal Eston had been degraded from the dignity of the Cardinalate by Urban VI in 1385, and was therefore ineligible to participate in the Conclave of 1389. On December 18, 1389, the new pope of the Roman obedience, Boniface IX, restored his cardinalate.  Boniface even wrote to the Magnum Concilium Regis Angliae to commend Cardinal Eston.   A list of his works is contained in the manuscript of John Bale's mid-16th century  Index Britanniae Scriptorum [Anecdota Oxoniensia 9 (Oxford 1902),  pp. 4-6 (edited by Reginald Lane Poole)]. He was skilled in Hebrew and translated the Bible into Latin directly from the Hebrew.  In September, 1396, Cardinal Eston was granted the Benedictine priory of St. Agnes Ferrara [Bliss, Calendar of Papal Registers IV, p. 536-537].  He died on August 15, 1398 [his memorial inscription in S. Cecilia in Trastevere: Vincenzo Forcella, Inscrizioni delle chiese di Roma II (Roma 1873), p. 23 no. 75].
          The memorial inscription seems to state that Adam Eston was Perpetual Administrator of the Diocese of London (according to Forcella), which is impossible, since there were no vacancies in the See in his time. In fact William Courtney was translated to Canterbury and his successor appointed to London on the same day, September 9, 1381 [Le Neve, Fasti Ecclesiae Anglicanae II, 293].  The successor, Robert de Braybroke, held the see of London until 1404.   A perpetual administrator would not be out of place, however, in one of the French dioceses which were actually in the domain of Pope Clement VII—perhaps St. Pol de Leon (Leonensis).  The memorial inscription actually reads:  LEONDINENSIS.
  5. Landolfo Maramaldo, Neapolitan, Cardinal Deacon of S. Nicola in Carcere Tulliano [died 1415].  Archbishop of Bari (1378-1384), but he was unable to take possession, since Queen Johanna of Naples adhered to the papacy of Pope Clement VII.  He was appointed by Urban to compose the differences between the Malatesta and the Dukes of Urbino, at which he was successful.  He was then sent to the Kingdom of Naples in aid of King Ladislaus.   He was, however, eposed along with Pileus de Prato (who went over to Pope Clement VII in 1387) by Urban VI, allegedly as supporters of Charles III of Naples; he was therefore ineligible to participate in the Conclave of the Roman obedience of 1389. He was rehabilitated by Boniface IX on December 18, 1389. called "Barensis" [Cardella II, 290-291].  He died at the Ecumenical Council of Constance in 1415.


tomb of Cardinal Adam Eston
Tomb of Cardinal Adam Eston,
S. Cecilia in Trastevere



The Cardinals met daily during the Novendiales, dispatching such Church business as the apostolic Constitutions allowed. It is known that they wrote letters, on October 16 and 18 to the city of Corneto, urging them to remain faithful to the Roman obedience (Souchon 44 and n. 2; from Theiner, Codex diplomaticus dominii temporalis sanctae sedis II, 658ff.)


The Conclave began on October 25, at the conclusion of the Novendiales, in the Apostolic Palace at the Vatican (Döllinger Conclave; Eubel I, 25 n. 7). The Custodian of the Conclave was Cosimo Gentile de' Migliorati, the Vice-Camerlengo (Muratori, Rerum Italicarum Scriptores III. 2, 832).

One narration of the election is provided by Theoderic de Nyem (Dietrich of Niem), Book II, Chapter VI (p. 129 ed. Erler):

Defuncto eodem igitu Urbano, ut prefertur, in urbe in eodem pallacio apostolico prope dictam basilicam principis apostolorum et eius corpore tradito sepulturae cardinales de ipsius obediencia tam illi, qui in Roman presentes, quam alii, qui tunc in propinquis provinciis erant, pro celebranda eleccione futuri poontificis in eadem urbe invicem convenientes dictum Petrum de Thomacellis in papam, postquam multis diebus insimul remanserunt in conclavi, eligerunt. Quo electo, infra horam prandii publicabatur eius eleccio, et statim concurrentibus illic ad dictum pallacium multis Romanis ac curialibus ad maius altare predictum in eodem basilica principis apostolorum more solito trahebatur. Quo facto cum ad pallacium rediret, obviantibus et congratulantibus sibi pluribus, omnibus una sentencia respondit dicens: "Gaudium meum gaudium vestrum est."

Theoderic provides no information whatever as to what happened inside the Conclave

According to an anonymous Conclave narrative recorded by Panvinio and published by J.J.J. Dollinger, it was discovered after the first scrutiny that there was going to be a major problem. It appeared that Cardinal Acciaioli, a member of the very rich Florentine banking family, had been attempting to engage in simoniacal transactions with most of the cardinals. Some were promised large sums of money, others were offered large benefices in exchange for their votes. Somehow news of what was going on reached outside the sealed conclave and came to the ears of the Roman Officiales. The Senators, Bandarenses and Capita Regionum went to the Cardinals and threatened them with death if they failed to produce an honest election (Echoes of the election of 1378 are unmistakable):

Qua simonia perventa ad audientiam Romanorum, Senatores cum Banderensibus et Capitibus Regionum venerunt catervatim ad cardinales, dicentes, "Nisi feceritis veram electionem sine fraude, nos interficiemus omnes vos."

There would have been difficulties, even without the revelation of Cardinal Acciaioli's scandalous misbehavior. Six of the Cardinals (according to the anonymous Conclave narrative) were committed to Cardinal Poncius Orsini, and six had been won over by Acciaioli. Since nine votes were needed to elect, and only five to veto a candidate, there appeared to be a stalemate. It was Cardinal Carbone, a Neapolitan, who suggested another candidate, his fellow Neapolitan, Perinus Tomacelli. Swift agreement was reached.

Perinus (Pietro) Tomacelli was elected on November 2, 1389; he was in his thirties. Theoderic of Nyem [II. 39], however, says that he was around forty when elected to the papacy. Sozomen (Muratori XVI, 1140) states that he was thirty-three:

Bonifacius Papa IX. die II. Novembris Romae Papa eligitur, qui tunc tertium et trigesimum annum agebat, et licet iuvenis et non nimium eruditus; tamen quia Neapolitanus erat et satis mitis et gratiosus, sua electio laudata fuit.

The New Pope

Perinus Tomacelli, according to the Annales Forolivienses (Muratori, Rerum Italicarum Scriptores XXII, 204), was unlearned and easily led: "indoctus fuit, pulcher et magnus corpore, robustus, benignus, et precibus aliorum faciliter condescens." His known to have studied the liberal arts, and to have been proficient in Rhetoric, but he did not study in any of the higher faculties: Philosophy, Theology, Medicine or Law. Theoderic of Nyem (de scismate II. 6, p. 130 Erler), however, adds that he did not know how to write and that he sang badly: "nesciens scribere, eciam male cantabat." What is probably meant is that he could not write in the style expected from a high-ranking prelate of the Roman church, and his Gregorian chant was substandard. The reasons for his being selected by Urban VI to be a cardinal, on December 21, 1381 (seven years earlier, when he was between twenty-three and thirty-three), are not easily discerned, unless it was that he was cute and agreeable. Nor are the reasons obvious that induced a two-thirds majority of the Cardinals at the Conclave to believe him to be worthy of the Throne of Peter. His family were Neapolitan Patricians, related to the Cibo of Genoa; his mother was a Filomarino. As a youth he was made Canon of the Cathedral of Naples. When he was introduced to Urban in Rome, he is said to have liked Tomacelli's modest bearing and appointed him a Protonotary Apostolic and then Cardinal Deacon of S. Giorgio in Velabro, all allegedly within fifteen days of his arrival in the Eternal City. He was soon promoted to Cardinal Priest of S. Anastasia and Archpriest of the Lateran Basilica (Novaes, Elementi IV, 252), again without obvious qualifications or achievements.


Boniface IX was consecrated, by the Cardinal Bishop of Ostia, Francesco Maricotti, and crowned by the Protodeacon, Cardinal Tomasso Orsini, on November 9 (Eubel I, 25), or on the Feast of St. Martin, November 11 (according to the anonymous Conclave narrative). The procession to the Lateran Basilica for the ceremony of the possessio was much dampened by a continuous downpour (Theoderic of Nyem II. 6, p. 130 Erler).

Pope Clement VII immediately excommunicated Boniface IX. (Baronius-Raynaldi, sub anno 1389, no. 14).




Theodericus de Nyem [Dietrich Niem] [ca. 1338/1348—1418]:   Georg Erler (editor), Theoderici de Nyem de scismate libri tres   (Lipsiae 1890). Georg Erler, Dietrich von Nieheim [Thoedericus de Nyem]. Sein Leben und seine Schriften (Leipzig: Alfons Dürr 1887).

Gobelinus:   Cosmidromius Gobelini Person ed. Max Jansen (Munster i. W.: Aschendorff 1900)

Ludovicus Antonius Muratori, Rerum Italicarum Scriptores Tomus Tertius (Milan 1723), 830-832; 1115.

Sozomen Pistoriensis (xv. century): Ludovicus Antonius Muratori, Rerum Italicarum Scriptores Tomus Decimussextus (Mediolani 1730) 1059-1198.

Raynaldi: Caesaris S. R. E. Cardinalis Baronii, Od. Raynaldi et Jac. Laderchii Annales Ecclesiastici   Tomus septimus (Lucca: Typis Leonardi Venturini 1752) [Baronius-Raynaldi]. Caesaris S. R. E. Cardinalis Baronii, Od. Raynaldi et Jac. Laderchii Annales Ecclesiastici denuo excusi et ad nostra usque tempora perducti ab Augusto Theiner Tomus Vigesimus sextus 1356-1396 (Barri-Ducis: Ludovicus Guerin 1872) [Baronius-Theiner]

Johannes J. J. Döllinger (unter der Leitung von), Beiträge zur politischen, kirchlichen, und cultur- Geschichte der sechs letzten Jahrhunderte III. Band (Regensburg: Georg Joseph Manz 1882), pp. 361-362: "Conclave, quo Bonifacius IX. papa creatus est" (Vat. Cod. Lat. Monac. 150, fol. 46)

Martin Souchon, Die Papstwahlen von Bonifaz VIII bis Urban VI (Braunschweig: Benno Goeritz 1888), I 21-51; II, 266-270.     F. Gregorovius, History of Rome in the Middle Ages, Volume VI. 2 second edition, revised (London: George Bell, 1906) [Book XII, chapters 3-4], pp. 536-545. L. Zanuto, Il Pontificato di Bonifacio IX (Udine 1904).



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