CONCLAVE BIBLIOGRAPHY

 

[NOTE: The works on this topic must be used with more than ordinary care. Some are distinctly Catholic, going out of their way to say nothing disparaging about the Church, its activities, or any person in it. Some are Catholic, but distinctly Republican, and thus severely critical of the Papacy and College of Cardinals as institutions (and as persons) and even more critical of the papal monarchy. Others are distinctly Protestant, not only critical of the Roman Church as an institution, but willing to put the most negative construction on every word and action of its members.

In addition, a conclave is an occasion at which competing and contradictory interests converge. The European monarchies and lesser states have their goals, interests, and agenda. Cardinals often have national, ethnic, and linguistic loyalties, though they may also be taking retainers (pensions) from several states for their services and good will. Cardinals also have their own individual personal ambitions, friends, enemies, and goals; sometimes this includes the Throne of Peter. The members of the Roman Curia, who are present in the conclave, also have their own interests to protect.

[See: Mario Biagioli, Galileo, Courtier (Chicago: University of Chicago Press 1993), pp. 313-329; T. A. Trollope, The Papal Conclaves, (1876), 226-227; and W. Cartwright, On the Constitution of Papal Conclaves (1878) 66-78.]

List links to material on  papal conclaves


  • Synodal Decree of Pope Symmachus, de pontificali ambitu (March 1, 499), against conspiring and campaining for the Papacy in the lifetime of the Pope.

  • Synodal Decree of Pope Nicholas II, assigning the leading role in the election of a pope to the Cardinal Bishops (1059) (the bull In Nomine Domini)

  • Subscriptiones: signatures of cardinals to papal documents (1077-1289) [an indication of who was actually a cardinal, at what time, and what his title was].

  • List of Cardinalatial Titles (ca. 1159-1181).

  • Urban II's Letter notifying the Monks of Cluny of his Election and describing the event (March 13, 1088)

  • Documents relevant to the Schism of 1130-1138 [double Election of February 14, 1130].

  • Alexander III: Decree fixing the two-thirds majority requirement for papal election (March 19, 1179)

  • Cardinal Cencius Savelli, Camerarius, on the election and installation of a pope (reign of Celestine III, 1191-1198) [Mabillon, Museum Italicum II, 210-214]

  • Notes on the Conclave of 1268-1271. (J. P. Adams)

  • Gregory X's constitution  Ubi Periculum  (Second Council of Lyons, July, 1274) [another translation of Ubi Periculum, in *.PDF format]   (Gregory's decree was an unrealistically harsh solution to a difficult problem)

  • Nicolaus IV's decree  Caelestis altitudo  (July 18, 1289), granting Cardinals a share in papal income

  • Constitution of Clement V, in the Council of Vienne (1311), regulating conclaves.

  • Documents relevant to the Sede Vacante of March-September, 1378.

  • Codex Ceremonialis Vaticanus latinus 4736  (early 15th century, Avignon obedience) on Conclaves {Gattico I, 231-262]

  • Eugenius IV's bull, on the creation of Cardinals (promulgated in the Council of Basel) November 1, 1431.

  • Julius II's constitution (bull)   Cum tam divino   on Simony in papal elections (promulgated in the Lateran Council, February 16, 1513)

  • On the "Opening of the Mouth" of new Cardinals, tempore Leonis X ( Christopher Marcellus, Liber Sacrarum Caeremoniarum 1516 )

  • Oath as Cardinal Bishop, taken by Bernardino Carvajal, Bishop of Ostia, August, 1521 (Paris de Grassis)

  • Decree of Clement VII, on holding a Conclave outside Rome (September 3, 1533).

  • Julius III:  Constitution banning brothers from being cardinals (January 26, 1554  [Bullarium Romanum 6, 475-476].

  • Apostolic Constitution Quum nos superiori anno, issued by Pius VI, November 13, 1798, making special provisions for a future conclave (Conclave of 1799-1800).

  • Letter of Clement XI, assigning the office of Hereditary Marshal of the Holy Roman Church to Augustino Chigi (March 23, 1712).

  • Oath taken by the Hereditary Marshal of the Holy Roman Church as Hereditary Marshal of the Conclave (Prince Mario Chigi, 1878)

  • CAMERLENGO: Notes on privileges, duties, Officials appointed and paid by the Camerlengo during the Sede Vacante

  • Papal Masters of Ceremonies



  • Conclavi de' Pontifici Romani (Roma 1667-68) 2 volumes.
  • Conclavi de' Pontifici Romani (Cologne 1692) 3 volumes [augmented edition, by Gregorio Leti].
  • [Anonymous], Conclavia tria, seu tres historicae narrationes de Urbani VII, Gregorii XIV et Clementis VIII electionibus, ex sermone italico in latinum translatae (Francofurti: H. Parthenium 1617). [non vidi]
  • Histoire des conclaves depuis Clément V, jusqu' à présent [Innocent XII], augmentée... (Cologne: 1694) a translation of the Conclavi de' Pontefici Romani
  • Geheime und zuverlässige Geschichte von dem Konklave und der Wahl der sechs leztern Päpste als: Benedikt XIII, Clemens XII, Benedikt XIV, Clemens XIII, Clemens XIV und Pius des VIten (Mit sonnleithnerischen Schriften, 1782). [54 pp]
  • Caerimoniale continens ritus electionis Romani Pontificis Gregorii Papae XV jussu editum cui praefiguntur Constitutiones Pontificiae, & Conciliorum Decreta ad eam rem pertinentia (Venetiis: Typis Francisci Andreola, MDCCXCIX [1799]) [The Conclave of 1799-1800 was held in Venice]
  • Essai historique sur les cérémonies du conclave, pour l' élection du pape, et sur l' origine des cardinales seconde édition (Paris: Crapelet 1829).

  • Atti del convegno di studio, VII Centenario del 1º conclave (1268-1271) (Viterbo: Azienda autonoma di cura soggiorno e turismo di Viterbo 1975).

  • Cerroti, Francesco, Bibliografia di Roma medievale e moderna Volume I. Storia ecclesiastico-civile (Roma:Forzani 1893). [rich source of ms. references, conclave diaries, orations, privileges to conclavists]

  • Artaud de Montor, Alexis François, Histoire des souverains pontifes Romains 8 volumes (Paris 1851). (Catholic diplomat, discreet, follows Novaes and Moroni)
  • Artaud de Montor, Alexis François, Histoire du Pape Pie VII deuxième edition 2 volumes (Paris: Adrien Le Clerc 1837).
  • Artaud de Montor, Alexis François, Histoire du Pape Léon XII 2 volumes (Paris: Adrien Le Clerc 1843).
  • Artaud de Montor, Alexis François, Histoire du Pape Pie VII (Paris: Adrien Le Clerc 1844).
  • Berton, Charles, Dictionnaire des cardinaux (1857)
  • Cardella, Lorenzo, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Ecclesia 9 tomi (Roma: Pagliarini 1793)
  • Ciacconius, Adolphus, Vitae et Res Gestae Pontificum Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalium ab initio nascentis ecclesiae usque ad Clementem IX P.O.M. . . . ab Augusto Oldoino recognitae   4 volumes (Romae: de Rubeis 1677).
  • de Huissen, Histoire des conclaves, depuis Clément V jusqu' à présent 2 volumes (Cologne 1703).
  • Moroni, Gaetano, Dizionario di erudizione storico-ecclesiastica 103 Volumes (Venezia 1840-1861). (A member of the Papal Court)
  • Novaes, Giuseppe de, Elementi della storia de' sommi pontefici da San Pietro sino al ... Pio Papa VII third edition 16 volumes (Roma 1821-1822).
  • Novaes, Giuseppe de, Introduzione alle vite de' sommi pontefice o siano dissertazione storico-critiche... seconda edizione 2 volumes (Roma 1822) [Volume I, pp. 272-303: "Appendice II: Biblioteca de' conclavi, e delle Orazioni per l' Elezione de' Pontefice"]
  • Gregorovius, Ferdinand, The History of Rome in the Middle Ages (translated from the fourth German edition by A. Hamilton) Volume 7 part 1 (London 1900) 283-290 [Conclave of 1484] Volume 8 (London 1902) [Conclave of 1513]
  • Pastor, Ludwig, The History of the Popes (edited R. K. Kerr) Volume 7 (London: Kegan Paul 1908) (Catholic, fairly objective, but draws the veil over the embarassing)
  • Ranke, Ludwig von, History of the Popes; Their Church and State revised edition (tr. E. Fowler) Three Volumes (New York: The Colonial Press 1901) (Protestant, objective, but with a strong penchant for the critical; disliked and denounced by Catholics)
  • Raynaldi, O. [Raynaldus, Rainaldi], Annales Ecclesiastici, accedunt notae chronologicae, criticae ...auctore J. D. Mansi (Lucca 1738-1759). [a continuator of Baronius' Annales Ecclesiastici, sometimes selective in mentioning sources, to the advantage of the Roman point-of-view]
  • Allen, John L., Conclave: The Politics, Personalities and Process of the Next Papal Election .(NewYork: Image 2002) [Catholic journalist]
  • Baart, Peter A., The Roman Court, or A Treatise on the Cardinals, Roman Congregations and Tribunals, Legates, Apostolic Vicars, Protonotaries, and other Prelates 4th edition (New York; Fr. Pustet, 1899).[Catholic priest]
  • Baluzius, Stephanus [Étienne Baluze], Vitae Paparum Avenionensium 2 volumes (Paris: Apud Franciscum Muguet 1693). [with biographies of popes and cardinals, and a wealth of supporting documents] [14th century conclaves]
  • Barbier de Montault, X., Le conclave et le pape (Poitiers-Paris: H. Oudin 1878). (Roman cleric)
  • Baumgartner, F. J., "Henry II and the Papal Conclave of 1549," Sixteenth Century Journal 16 (1985) 301-314.
  • Baumgartner, Frederic J., A History of the Papal Elections (New York: Palgrave-Macmillan 2003). [President, American Catholic Historical Association]
  • Baumgartner, Frederic J., Behind Locked Doors: A History of the Papal Elections (New York: Macmillan 2005) [University professor]
  • Baxmann, Rudolf, "
  • Bayet, C., "Les élections pontificales sous les Carolingiens au VIIIe et au IXe siècles (757-885)," Revue historique 24 (1884) 49-91; 361-362.
  • Berthelet, Giovanni, La elezione del papa: storia e documenti (Roma: Forzani 1891).
  • Berthelet, Giovanni, Conclavi, Pontefice e Cardinali nel Secolo XIX. Atti concernenti la malattia, morte ed elezione del Papa (Torino-Roma 1903).
  • Bourgin, G., "Les cardinaux français et le diaire caméral de 1439-1486," Mélanges d' archéologie et d' histoire 24 (1904) 277-318.
  • Bozon, A., Le Cardinal de Retz à Rome (Paris 1878) 139-172 (Conclave of 1676)
  • Broderick, J., "The Sacred College of Cardinals: Size and Geographical Composition (1099-1986)," Archivum Historicae Pontificiae 25 (1987) 7-71.
  • Burchard: L. Thuasne (editor), Johannis Burchardi Argentinensis . . . Diarium sive Rerum Urbanum commentarii Volume I (Paris 1883) (Conclave of 1484). Volume II, Volume III [Papal Master of Ceremonies]
  • Giovanni Berthelet, Conclavi, Pontefici e Cardinali nel secolo XIX (Torino 1903).
  • Bildt, Carl Nils Daniel, Baron de, "The Conclave of Clement X (1670)," Proceedings of the British Academy 1 (1904).
  • Bildt, Carl Nils Daniel, Baron de, Christine de Suède et le conclave de Clément X (1669-1670) (Paris: Plon 1906).
  • Blumenthal, Hermann, "Johann XXIII., seine Wahl, und seine Persönlichkeit," Zeitschrift für Kirchengeschichte 21. 4 (Gotha 1901) 488-516. [1410]
  • Burkle-Young, Francis A. , Papal Elections in the Age of Transition, 1878-1922 (Lanham MD: Lexington Books 2000).
  • Burkle-Young, Francis, Passing the Keys: Modern Cardinals, Conclaves, and the Election of the Next Pope (Lanham MD: Madison Books 1999) [Conclaves of 1878, 1903, 1922, 1939, 1958, 1963, 1978]
  • Calmette, J., "L' élection du Pape Nicolas V (1447) d' après une lettre du prieur Catalan de Sent Lorens del Mont," Mélanges de l' École français de Rome 23 (1903) 419-426.
  • Cancellieri, Francesco, Notizie istoriche delle stagioni e de' siti in cui sono stati tenuti i conclavi nella città di Roma... (Roma 1823).
  • Capasso, C., La politica di Papa Paolo III e l' Italia (Camerino 1901), 1-14. (Conclave of 1534).
  • Cartwright, William Cornwallis, On the Constitution of Papal Conclaves (Edinburgh 1878) (Scottish lawyer, precise and succinct)
  • Ceccaroni, Agostino, Il conclave: storia, costituzioni, ceremonie (Torino-Roma: Giacinto Marietti 1901).
  • Christophe, J.-P., Histoire de la papauté pendant le XVe siècle (Paris 1863) Volume II, pp. 285-305; 586-587 [Conclave of 1484].
  • Ciampi, Innocenzo, Innocenzo X Pamfili e la sua corte: storia di Roma dal 1644 al 1655, da nuovi documenti (Roma: Galeati 1878).
  • Chinazzi, Ernesta, Sede vacante per la morte del papa Urbano VIII Barberini e conclave di Innocenzo X Pamfili (agosto-settembre 1644) ( Roma, 1904).
  • Cipolletta, Eugenio, Memorie politiche sui conclavi da Pio VII a Pio IX, compilate su documenti diplomatici segreti (Milano: Legros e Marazzani 1863).
  • Clemens XII (Lorenzo Corsini), Constitutio diversas continens ordinationes pro bona directione conclavis, ac rerum Sede Apostolica vacante agendarum (Romae: Reverenda Camera Apostolica 1732).
  • Conring, Hermann, De electione Vrbani IIX et Innocentii X pontificum: commentarii historici duo (H. Müller, 1651)
  • Constant, G. "Les maîtres de cérémonies du XVIe siècle: leurs Diaires ," Mélanges de l' École français de Rome 23 (1903), 161-229; 319-344.
  • Cristofori, Francesco, Il conclave del MCCLXX in Viterbo: L' assassinio di Enrico di Cornovaglia da Guido di Monforte, il Processo papale di lui, ed altri documenti inediti relativi al Pontificato di S. Gregorio X (Roma 1888).
  • Cristofori, Francesco, Storia dei cardinali di Santa Romana Chiesa dal secolo V all' anno del signore MDCCCLXXXVIII: Cronotassi dei cardinali di Santa Romana Chiesa nelle loro sedi suburbicarie titoli presbiterali e diaconi (Roma: Tipografia Vaticana 1888).
  • De Cesare, R. Il conclave di Leone XIII, con aggiunte e nuove documenti, e il futuro conclave (Città di Castello, S. Lapi, 1888).
  • De Cesare, R., Dal conclave di Leone XIII al ultimo consistoro (studi, ricordi e documenti) (Città di Castello: S. Lapi 1899). (Catholic, but republican)
  • De Leva, Giuseppe, Storia documentata di Carlo V in correlazione all' Italia Volume II (Venezia 1863). [Conclaves of 1521 and 1523]
  • De Leva, Giuseppe, "La elezione di Papa Giulio III," Rivista storica italiana 1 (Roma-Torino-Firenze 1884) 22-38.
  • Del Re, Niccolo, Il maresciallo di Santa Romana Chiesa, custode del Conclave (Roma: Istituto di Studi romani 1962).
  • Duchesne, L., "La succession du Pape Felix IV," Mélanges de l' Ecole Française de Rome (1883) 239ff. (A.D. 530)
  • Duerm, Charles van, SJ, Un peu plus de lumiere sur le Conclave de Venise et sur les commencements du Pontificat de Pie VII. 1799-1800 (Louvain: Ch. Peeters 1896). [Documents from Vienna; 700 pp.] [review in La Civiltà cattolica 47 (n.s.6) (1896), 190-196.]
  • Duruy, George, Le Cardinal Carlo Carafa (1519-1561): Étude sur le Pontificat de Paul IV (Paris 1882) [Conclave of 1555]
  • Eisler, Alex, Das Veto der katholischen Staaten bei der Papstwahl (Wien, 1907).
  • Engel-Janosi, Friedrich, Österreich und der Vatikan 1846-1918. Erster Band: Die Pontifikate Pius' IX. und Leos XIII. (Graz-Wien-Köln 1958).
  • Finke, Heinrich, Aus den Tagen Bonifaz VIII. Funde und Forschungen (Münster 1902).
  • Finke, H., "Zwei Tagebücher über das Konstanzer Konzil," Römische Quartalschrift 1 (Rome 1887) 46-79. [Martin V, 1417]
  • Floss, Heinrich, Die Papstwahl unter den Ottonen (Freiburg im Breisgau 1858). [ix-x cent.]
  • Frantz, Erich, Sixtus IV und die Republik Florenz (Regensburg 1880) 197-230 [Conclave of 1513]
  • Gachard, M. , Correspondence de Charles-Quint et d' Adrien VI (Bruxelles 1859). [Conclave of 1521]
  • Gattico, Giambattista, Acta selecta caeremonialia sanctae Romanae Ecclesiae ex variis M.S.S. codicibus et diariis saeculi XV, XVI, XVII, aucta et illustrata pluribus aliis monumentis nondum editis, collectore P. D. Joanne Baptista Gattico (Roma: Heredes Jo. Laurentii Barbiellini 1753). [available at http://books.google.com] (contains a chapter "de conclavibus... Opus ex variorum auctorum diariis collectum")
  • Louis Gayet, Le grand schisme d'Occident Les Origines 2 volumes (Paris-Florence-Berlin 1889) [especially important for the "Pièces justificatives" in each volume, containing many depositions of the participants in the two conclaves of 1378, April and September, including most of the cardinals]
  • Gérin, Charles, L' ambassade de Lavardin et la séquestration du Nonce Ranucci 1687-1689 (Paris 1874). [Conclave of 1689].
  • Gérin, Charles Le cardinal de Retz au Conclave 1655, 1667, 1670 et 1676. D'après les Archives du Ministère del Affaires ètrangères, (Revue des questions historiques, Juillet 1881),
  • Grassis, Paris de, Il diario di Leone X (ed. Pio Delicati and Mariano Armellini) (Roma 1884) [an expurgated version] (Conclave of 1513) (Papal Master of Ceremonies)
  • Grissell, Hartwell, Sede Vacante, being a Diary written during the Conclave of 1903, with additional Notes on the Coronation of Pius X (Oxford-London: James Parker 1903). [a papal gentleman of the chamber]
  • Hampe, Karl, Ein ungedrukter Bericht uber das Konklave von 1241
  • Heidemann, Joseph, Papst Clemens IV. Eine Monographie (Munster: Heinrich Schoningh 1903), 174-180. [Election of 1265]
  • Heimbucher, Die Papstwahlen unter der Karolingern (Augsburg 1889). [review: Funk, Theologische Quartalschrift 71 (1889), 682-687]
  • Herre, Paul, Papsttum und Papstwahl im Zeitalter Philipps II (Leipzig: Teubner 1907).
  • Hilliger, R., Die Wahl Pius' V zum Papst (Leipzig 1891). [Conclave of 1566]
  • Hinojosa, Ricardo, Felipe II y el Conclave de 1559 (Madrid 1889).
  • Hölder, Karl, Die Designation der Nachfolder der Päpste (Freiburg Schweiz: Universitäts-Buchhandlung R. Veith 1892).
  • Hoster, Constantin von, Papst Adrian VI 1522-1523 (Wien 1880) [Conclave of 1521]
  • Hübner, Joseph Alexandre, Sixte-Quint nouvelle édition (Paris 1882) [Conclave of 1585]
  • Infessura, Stefano, Diario della citta di Roma (a cura di Oreste Tommasini) (Roma 1890) [Conclave of 1484) (municipal Roman official, hostile to the papacy]
  • Jauret, Georges, Les coulisses des conclaves: détails intimes et indiscrétions (Paris: Garnier 1878).
  • Joelson, Olga, Die Papstwahlen des 13. Janrhunderts bis zur Einführung der Conclaveordnung (Berlin: E. Ebering 1928).
  • Klewitz, Hans-Walter, Reformpapsttum und Kardinalkolleg (Darmstadt 1957).
  • Korten, Christopher, The Making of a Pope: How Mauro Cappellari became Pope Gregory XVI (1765-1831) (Oxford diss. 2006).
  • Kuttner, Stepahn, "Cardinalis: the History of a Canonical Concept," Traditio 3 (1945) 129-214.
  • La Torre, Ferdinando, Del Conclave di Alessandro VI, papa Borgia (Firenze: Olschki 1933) [Conclave of 1492]
  • LeBlanc, Jean, Dictionnaire biographique des cardinaux du XIXe siècle : contribution à l'histoire du Sacré Collège sous les potificats de Pie VII, Léon XII, Pie VIII, Grégoire XVI, Pie IX et Léon XIII, 1800-1903 (Montréal : Wilson & Lafleur, 2007).
  • Mathieu, François Désirée, Les derniers jours de Léon XIII et le Conclave, par un Temoin (Paris: Librarie Victor Lecoffre 1904)
  • Leonetti, A., Papa Alessandro VI Volume I (Bologna 1880) pp. 33-69 [Conclave of 1492] (fawning toward Borgias, and hostile to opposition).
  • Lector, Lucius [Msgr. Joseph Guthlin]. Le conclave (Paris 1894).[Catholic priest, journalist, publisher]
  • Lector, Lucius (Msgr. Joseph Guthlin], Le conclave et le veto des gouvernements (Lyon 1894).
  • Leti, Giovanni, Vita di Sisto Quinto, pontefice romano Volume II (Torino 1852) 40-86 (Conclave of 1585). (Republican, not above an exaggeration, lie, or fiction; to be used with extreme caution).
  • Liebman, M., "Journal secret d'un conclave," La revue nouvelle 38 (1963) 32-52.
  • Linder, Th., "Die Wahl Urbans VI. 1378," Historische Zeitschrift 28 (1872) 101-127. [faithful Urbanite, no alternative voices intrude]
  • Lorenz, Ottokar, Papstwahl und Kaisertum (Berlin 1874).
  • Lumbroso, Alberto, Ricordi e documenti sul Conclave di Venezia (1800) (Roma: Fratelli Bocca 1903).
  • Manger, Hugo, Die Wahl Amadeo's von Savoyen zum Papste durch das Basler Konzil (1439) (Marburg 1901). [Antipope Felix V, 1439-1441]
  • Marciani, M., Descrittione delle Cerimonie fatte dentro, e fuori del Conclave avanti et doppo la creatione del Sommo Pontefice Innocentio Decimo (Roma: appresso D. Marciani 1644)
  • Martini, Lorenzo, Conclave dei pontifice romani, quali si sono potuti trovare fino a questo giorno (Cologne [Amsterdam] 1690-91) 3 volumes
  • Martini, Lorenzo, Histoire des conclaves depuis Clément V jusqu' à present (Cologne 1703) 2 volumes.
  • Massarelli, Angelus, "De modis seu formis per diversa tempora observatis in electione pontificum maximorum a divo Petro usque ad Iulium III," in Angelo Mai (editor) Spicilegium Romanum IX (Roma 1843), 518-532.
  • Masson, Frédéric, Le Cardinal de Bernis, depuis son ministère (Paris 1884) [Conclave of 1769]
  • Mayer, Thomas F., "An unknown diary of Julius III's conclave by Bartolomeo Stella, a servant of Cardinal Pole," in Thomas F. Mayer, Cardinal Pole in the European Context (Aldershot: Ashgate 2000). [Conclave of 1549]
  • Michaud, E., Louis XIV et Innocent XI (Paris 1882), Volume I [Conclave of 1676]
  • Moscarelli, Giacomo, Il conclave nella sua dignita e saviezza (Palermo: Pietro Pensante 1845).
  • Müller, Theodor, Das Konklave Pius' IV. 1559 (Gotha: Perthes 1889).
  • Nielsen, Fredrik, The History of the Papacy in the XIX Century (tr. A. J. Mason) Volume I (London 1906)
  • Obechea, R., El Cardinel Lorenzana en el conclave de Venezia (1975) [Conclave of 1799-1800]
  • Pallavicino, Francesco Maria Sforza Cardinal, S.J. (1607-1667), Istoria del Concilio di Trento [1656; 1664] Tomo VII (Roma 1846), 131-150. (Conclave of 1555)
  • Panvinio, Onuphrio (1530-1568), Epitome Pontificum Romanorum a S. Petro usque ad Paulum IIII. Gestorum (videlicet) electionisque singulorum & Conclavium compendiaria narratio (Venice: Jacob Strada 1557).
  • Panvinio. Onuphrio, De Cardinalium origine Liber unicus,  in Angelo Mai (editor) Spicilegium Romanum IX (Roma 1843), 468-511.
  • Pélissier, Léon-G. "Catalogue annoté sur quelques manuscrits del la bibliothèque de Corsini (Rome)," Annales de la Faculté des lettres de Bordeaux (1890) 113-146. 'Appendice I: Les récits de conclaves série'. 138-143.
  • Pennington, Arthur, The Papal Conclaves (London: SPCK 1897) [Protestant tract, responding to Lucius Lector (Joseph Guthlin)]
  • Peries, Georges, L' intervention du pape dans l' élection de son successeur (Paris 1902).
  • Pérouse, Gabriel, Le Cardinal Louis Aleman, président du Concile de Bâle et la fin du Grand Schisme (Paris: Picard 1904). [1431, 1439]
  • Pesci, Ugo, "La politica Mediceo rispetto ai conclavi," Rivista europea 6 (Firenze 1878) 26-46.
  • Petruccelli della Gattina, Ferdinando, Histoire diplomatique des conclaves 4 volumes (Paris: 1864-1866).   Volume I,   Volume II,   Volume III   Volume IV.   (Italian patriot, republican; much disliked and unjustly abused by Catholic writers for his critical attitude to their pieties)
  • Pflugk-Harttung, Julius von, Die Papstwahlen und das Kaisertum (1046-1328) (Gotha: Firedrich Andreas Perthes 1908). [Sonderabdruck. Zeitschrift fur Kirchengeschichte Band 27 Heft 8; Band 28 Heft 1, 2, 3]
  • Pham, John-Peter, Heirs of the Fisherman: Behind the Scenes of Papal Death and Succession (Oxford 2006).
  • Quazza, Romolo, L' elezione di Urbano VIII nelle relazioni dei diplomatici mantovani (Roma: Reale Società Romana di Storia Patria 1922).
  • Ravignan, Gustave de, SJ, Clément XIII et Clément XIV   2 volumes (Paris 1854) (apologist for the Clements and the Jesuits)
  • Sägmüller, J. B., Die Papstwahlen und die Staaten von 1447 bis 1555 (Tübingen: H. Laupp 1890).
  • Sägmüller, J. B., Die Papstwahlbullen und das staatliche Recht der Exklusive (Tuebingen: H. Laupp 1892).
  • Sägmüller, J. B., Thätigkeit und Stellung der Kardinale bis Papst Bonifaz VIII. (Freiburg i.Br.: Herder 1896) [extensive review by K. Wenck in Göttingsche gelehrte Anzeiger 163 (1900), 139-175.]
  • Sägmüller, J. B., "Zur Thätigkeit und Stellung der Kardinale," Theologische Quartalschrift 80 (1898) 596-614. [13th century]
  • Santosuosso, A., "An Account of the Election of Paul IV to the Pontificate," Renaissance Quarterly 31 (1978) 486-498.
  • Sanuto, Marino, I diarii di Marino Sanuto Volume 16 (edited by F. Stefani, G. Berchet and N. Barozzi) (Venezia 1886) [Conclave of 1513] (Venetian senator, collector of materials that reached the government in Venice; a prime source of valuable information)
  • Sanuto, Marino, I diarii di Marino Sanuto Volume XXXIV and Volume XXXV (Venezia 1892) [Conclave of 1523]
  • Sauerland, H. B., "Gregor XII. von seiner Wahl bis zum Vertrage von Marseille," Historische Zeitschrift 34 (1875) 74-120. [1406-1407]
  • Scheffer-Boichorst, Paul, Die Neuordnung der Papstwahl durch Nikolas II: Texte und Forschungen zur Geschichte des Papstthums im XI. Jahrhundert (Strassburg: Karl J. Trübner 1879).
  • Schmidt, Georg, Der historische Wert der vierzehn alten Biographien des Papstes Urban V. (1362-1370) (Breslau 1905) [Kirchengeschichtliche Abhandlungen, 3; ed. Max Sdralek]
  • Silvagni, D., "Diario dei conclavi del 1829 e del 1830-31 di Mons. Pietro Dardano," Rivista europea 13 (Firenze 1879), 605-648; 14 (1879) 5-29.; 249-271.
  • Souchon, Martin, Die Papstwahlen von Bonifaz VIII bis Urban VI (Braunschweig: Benno Goeritz 1888).
  • Souchon, Martin, Die Papstwahlen in der Zeit des grossen Schismas. Entwicklung und Verfassungskämpfe des Kardinalates von 1378 bis 1408 2 volumes (Braunschweig: Benno Goeritz 1898).   Volume I   Volume II
  • [Spectator Alter], Die Krisis im Papsttum (Berlin 1904) (critical of the Papacy)
  • Teige, J., "Beiträge zum päpstliche Kanzleiwesen des XIII. und XIV. Jahrh.," Mitteilungen des Instituts für österreichischen Geschichte 17 (1896) no. 3.
  • Terlinden, C., "Le conclave de Léon XII (2-28 septembre. 1823)," Revue d'histoire ecclésiastique 14 (1913).
  • Teste, Louis, Préface au Conclave (Paris: Emile Vaton 1877). [Conclave of 1878]
  • Theiner, Agostino, Storia del pontificato di Clemente XIV Volume I (Milan 1853) [Conclave of 1769] (Sub-Librarian and then Librarian of the Bibliotheca Apostolica Vaticana, a priest and a very good scholar, but constrained by his position and outlook)
  • Tobin, Greg, Selecting the Pope: Uncovering the Mysteries of Papal Elections
  • Trollope, T. Adolphus, The Papal Conclaves, as the were and as they are (London 1876) [English Protestant, with a strongly partisan viewpoint, often unacquainted with RC Church habits and traditions; riddled with mistakes]
  • Trincia, Luciano, Conclave e potere politico. Il veto a Rampolla nel sistema delle potenze europee, 1887-1904 (Roma: Edizioni Studium, 2004).
  • Valfrey, J., Hughes de Lionne, ses ambassades en Italie, 1642-1656, d' après son correspondence (Paris 1877) 194-248 (Conclave of 1655).
  • Valois, Noël, "L' élection d'Urbain VI. et les origines du Grand Schisme d'Occident," Revue des questions historiques 48 (1890), 353-420. [1378, April]
  • Valois, Noël, La France et le Grand Schisme d'Occident 4 volumes (Paris: Picard 1896-1902). [1378-1417]
  • Vitale, Antonio, Memorie istoriche e segrete del conclave del pontifice Pio VI, eletto mercoledi 15 febrajo 1775 (a cura di Ortensio Zecchino) (Rubbettino 2005).
  • Wahrmund, Ludwig, Das Ausschliessungs-recht (jus exclusivae) der katholischen Staaten Österreich, Frankreich und Spanien bei den Papstwahlen (Wien: Holder 1888).
  • Wahrmund, Ludwig, Zur Geschiste des exclusionrechtes bei den Papstwahlen im 18 Jahrhundert. Neue Beitrage aus römischen Archiven ( Mainz 1892).
  • Wahrmund, Ludwig, "Beiträge zur Geschichte des Exclusionsrechtes bei den Papstwahlen aus römischen Archiven," Sitzungsberichte der Kaiserliche Akademie der Wissenschaften in Wien, philosophisch-historische Klasse, Band CCXXII, xiii (Wien 1890).
  • Wahrmund, Ludwig, "Die Bulle „Aeterni Patris Filius” und der staatliche Einfluss auf die Papstwahlen," Archiv für katholisches Kirchenrecht 72 (Mainz 1894) 201-334. [Gregory XV, 1621]
  • Walsh, Michael, The Conclave: The Secret and Sometimes Bloody History of Papal Elections (Sheed and Ward 2003).
  • Walter, Johann Joseph, Tod des Pabstes und Wahl seines Nachfolgers (Scheer 1846). 34 pp.
  • Wrigley, J., "The Conclave and the Election of 1342," Archivum Historicae Pontificae 20 (1982) 51-81.
  • Wurm, Hermann J., Die Papstwahl. Ihre Geschichte und Gebräuche (Köln 1902).
  • Zöpffel, Richard, Die Papstwahlen und die mit ihnen im Zusammenhange stehenden Ceremonien von 11.-14. Jahrhunderts (Göttingen 1871).

© 2008 John Paul Adams

January 13, 2014 2:20 PM

John Paul Adams, CSUN
john.p.adams@csun.edu

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