Citing References and Source Materials

CSUN Economics Department Policy: Citing Reference and Source Materials

The CSUN Department of Economics has adopted standards for citing reference materials in term papers and other research.

  • Students are to use the APA standard for bibliographic citations (citations of articles, books, electronic sources and other sources of information) in term papers and other research assignments. Use this guide: APA Form for Citation of References.
  • All citations in the body of the paper should be of the "in-text" type rather than in footnotes. Use this guide: APA In-Text Citation.

If you use a direct quote OR if you paraphrase an idea or statement someone else has made, you must use an "in-text citation." If it is a direct quote, you must put it in quotation marks. See the CSUN Policy on Plagiarism below. The Economics department will strictly enforce this policy.

...Cheating or plagiarism in connection with an academic program at a campus is an offense for which a student may be expelled, suspended, or given a less severe disciplinary sanction...
(California State University Northridge Undergraduate/Graduate Catalog)

Plagiarism: Intentionally or knowingly representing the words, ideas, or work of another as one's own in any academic exercise. Comments [modified from the original as the Department of Economics is requiring in-text citations rather than alternative methods of citation, such as footnotes]:

  • Direct Quotation: Every direct quotation must be identified by quotation marks, or by appropriate indentation or by other means of identification, and must be followed immediately by an in-text citation (see the APA In-Text Citation guide linked above).
  • Paraphrase: Prompt acknowledgement is required when material from another source is paraphrased or summarized in whole or in part in your own words. To acknowledge a paraphrase properly, one might state: "to paraphrase Locke's comment..." and include an in-text citation identifying the exact reference. A citation acknowledging only a direct quoted statement does not suffice to notify the reader of any preceding or succeeding paraphrased material.
  • Borrowed Facts or Information: Information obtained in one's reading or research which is not common knowledge among students in the course must be acknowledged. Examples of common knowledge might include the names of leaders of prominent nations, basic scientific laws, etc. Materials which contribute only to one's general understanding of the subject may be acknowledged in the bibliography and need not be immediately cited. One citation is usually sufficient to acknowledge indebtedness when a number of connected sentences in the paper draw their special information from one source. When direct quotations are used, however, quotation marks must be inserted and prompt acknowledgement is required.