(March 19, 1721—May 8, 1721)

Annibale Card. Albani, engraved portrait    Cardinal Tanara, Dean
Cardinal. Albani                                                                       Cardinal Tanara

Coat of Arms of  Msgr. Bartolomeo Ruspoli Æ


Shield with coat of arms, upon the Cross of the Knights of St. John, surmounted by clerical hat, with six tassels on each side (signifying episcopal status)

Shield with inscription

Ornamental shield, with inscription:


"L' origine de tant de médailles remonte à l'époque où le conclave se tenait toujours au palais du Vatican, et où l'on interdisait à tout le monde, pendant tout le temps de sa durée, l'entrée de la cité Léonine, c'est-à-dire du quartier appelé le Borgo. Alors tous ceux qui, soit pour leurs affaires, soit pour tout autre motif, devaient se rendre dans ce quartier du Borgo, étaient arretés en tête du pont Saint-Ange ou de tout autre pont communiquant avec le Vatican; on ne laissait passer que ceux qui étaient porteurs d'une médaille expressément frappée pendant la vacance du siége au nom de l'un des personnages nommés ci-dessus."

X. Barbier de Montault, Le Conclave (Roma 1878) 19


ANNIBALE CARDINAL ALBANI (1682-1751), was born at Urbino on August 15, 1682. His uncle became Pope Clement XI in 1700 (dying on March 19, 1721). He was created Cardinal Deacon on December 23, 1711, being appointed to the Deaconry of S. Eustachio on March 2, 1712. He became Archpriest of St. Peter's Basilica in 1712, where he had long been a Canon, and was promoted to be Cardinal Priest of S. Clemente in March, 1722, for which he was finally ordained a priest in October. He was appointed Camerlengo of the Holy Roman Church on March 29, 1719, a post he held until 1747. He became bishop of Sabina on July 24, 1730, and was translated to Porto and Sta. Rufina in 1743. From 1719 he was director of the English hospital of St. John in Jerusalem.

The Dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals was Sebastiano Antonio Tanara. He had been Nuncio in Cologne (1687), Portugal (1690), and Vienna (1692-1695). He became Cardinal Bishop of Frascati in 1715 and Cardinal Bishop of Porto and Velletri and Dean of the Sacred College on March 3, 1721, less than three weeks before the death of the pope.

The Governor of the Conclave was Msgr. Bartolomeo Ruspoli. He was born in Rome on August 29, 1697, the eldest son of Francesco Maria Ruspoli, Prince of Cerveteri. He was named secretary of Memorials by Innocent XIII (dei Conti, his maternal grand-uncle), and subsequently Protonotary Apostolic participant. Under Benedict XIII he became Secretary of the S.C. de Propaganda Fide. In 1725 he took minor orders, and on October 2, 1730 was named Cardinal Deacon of SS. Cosmas and Damian by Clement XII (1730-1740) in his second consistory. In 1731 he became Grand Prior in Rome of the Order of St. John of Jerusalem. He died in Rome on May 21, 1741.

The Governor of Rome was Msgr. Alessandro Falconieri [Romanus], Auditor of the Rota, Vice-Chamberlain.

This was the first conclave in which a Chigi served as Marshal of the Holy Roman Church. The family of the Savelli, who had been hereditary Marshals for centuries, beginning with the Conclave of 1288 (Cancelliere, 4-5), had died out in 1712. Pope Clement XI, in a brief of March 23, 1712, transferred the honor to Prince Augusto Chigi, Prince Farnese. In a brief of September 1, 1740, Pope Benedict XIV granted Prince Augusto's son Prince Augustino (d. 1769) the rights of coadjutor to his father.  Augustino's son Prince Sigismondo obtained the succession from Clement XIV.  Pius VI suspended the right in 1791, but two years later transferred the right to Prince Augustino, son of Prince Sigismondo. The hereditary succession in the office was not tampered with thereafter until 1968, when the office was abolished by Paul VI. [Josephus Catalanus, Sacrarum Caeremoniarum sive rituum ecclesiasticorum Sanctae Romanae Ecclesiae libri tres, ab Augustino Patricio ordinati, et a Marcello Corcyrensi Archiepiscopo primum editi, nunc vero tandem in duos tomos distributi, ac innumeris pene mendis purgati, et commentariis aucti   Tomus I   (Romae 1750), 18-20: Barbier de Montault, 9-10].

The Secretary of the Sacred College of Cardinals was Dominico Riveras [Riviera], canon of the Vatican Basilica, Secretary of the SC Consistoriale. He was also a member of the Arcadian Academy (Metarueo Geruntino).

The Masters of Ceremonies were Msgr. Giustiniano Chiapponi of Parma, Giovanni Battista Gambarucci, Venanzio Filippo Piersanti, Francesco Bolza, and Ignacio Reali. Msgr. Chiapponi died in the Conclave on April 15, 1721, and was succeeded as First Master of Ceremonies by Msgr. Gambarucci.   Msgr. Gambarucci was a member of the Arcadian Academy (by 1705), as was Cardinal Orsini (since 1686).


Death of Pope Clement XI

ON March 10, Clement XI had an interview around 11:00 a.m. with the French Chargé in Rome, the Bishop of Sisteron, Pierre François Lafitau, SJ  [Albanés, Gallia christiana novissima I (Montbéliard 1899) 776-778].  The Pope had sent for Lafitau the previous day through Cardinal Albani   [Lafitau, Vie de Clément XI   II, 212-213].  When he entered the papal presence, he was greeted with the words:

Pourquoi croiriez-vous que je vous ai mandé? C'est pour vous apprendre que ma poitrine commence déjà de se remplir; que ma fin est proche, et que je vous quitterai bientôt.

Despite Lafitau's protestations to the contrary, the Pope was insistent that his last days were at hand.

On March 14, Pope Clement XI (Albani) was already ill.  The French Chargé Lafitau, who was attempting to get the Pope and his nephew to make a committment to raising the French First Minister Dubois to the Cardinalate, noted that the Pope was in a delirious condition and nothing could be accomplished [Jobe, 292].

On March 16, 1721, which was Quadragesima Sunday, Pope Clement XI (Albani) did not participate as usual in the Services.  He nevertheless celebrated Mass in his private chapel in the Quirinale Palace.  He put off to another day taking some medicines provided by Monsignor Paoli to keep him healthy, since he suffered from changes in the seasons.  He was also suffering pains in his thorax and had troubles in breathing from the cold air in his rooms where his books were along with the registries of his writings.

On Monday the 17th, he celebrated Mass privately again, and then gave several audiences to various prelates, including the Archbishop of Ravenna, Geronimo Crispi (1720-1746) [Gams, 718].  Around midday the Pope was stricken with an extraordinary chill, which was followed by a strong attack of fever that caused him to take to his bed, without having had supper. His pulse was slow, and he coughed up a thick liquid streaked with blood.  That night he was unable to sleep, and suffered some mental disorder (qualche alienazione di mente).  The fever abated however, and his mental confusion passed  [Polidori, p. 404-405].  

On Tuesday,  however, the fever was even more violent and the pulse irregular; the sputum was foamy and mixed with blood, indicating a problem in the lungs. (The doctors recognized, according to Polidori, that the illness would be fatal).   When the Pope was informed of the seriousness of his condition, Cardinals Paolucci and Albani, the papal nephews, had the papal confessor, the Master of the Sacred Palace, frater Gregorio Selleri, OP, summoned [Selleri became a Cardinal in December, 1726]. The Pope made his confession and his Profession of Faith and received Holy Communion at 20:00 hours.  He was aware that the principal Master of Ceremonies, Msgr. Giustiniano Chiapponi, was himself ill, and so, to make sure that everything necessary was done smoothly, he summoned all the other Masters of Ceremonies, and instructed them in their responsibilities [Lafitau, II, 215]. Cardinal Albani, Don Carlo and the Pope's nephews then arrived and the Pope told them that his attention was entirely directed to eternal affairs.  He declined to receive various cardinals who were making for the papal palace on the Quirinal [Polidori, 406]. He apologized to Cardinal Paolucci, the Major Penitentiary, for not having consulted him during the last days of his pontificate.  The "King of England", James Francis Edward Stuart, the "Old Pretender",   attempted to get in to see the dying pope,  sending a message to Cardinal Albani to smooth his way;  but Albani replied that, in the dangerous state of the pope's condition, he did not consider a visit possible. Extreme Unction was administered by the Papal Sacristan, Msgr. Niccolo Agostino degli Abbati Olivieri, Bishop of Porfirio, at the third hour of the night. Prayers and the exposition of the Blessed Sacrament were ordered in the churches of Rome.  The Pope was still alive and still had the use of his faculties.

On Wednesday the 19th. the "King of England" was on his way to the Quirinal to present himself in person to provide new evidence of his devotion to the Pontiff. At the same moment, the Pope's fever returned with great force.  He slowly lost the ability to speak,  his eyes clouded over, and little by little his respiration diminished.  Cardinal Paoluzzo and Msgr. Selleri, renewed the prayers for the dying, and, at twelve forty-five in the early afternoon, Clement XI died. He was 71 years, 7 months and 27 days old.  He had reigned for 20 years, 3 months, and 26 days.

Three hours after the Pope's death, Cardinal Albani, the Cardinal Chamberlain, escorted by the Clerics of the Apostolic Camera, was admitted into the chamber where the body lay, and he performed the ceremony of Recognition and Absolution (no mention of a silver hammer, or calling aloud the name of the deceased) [Lafitau II, 222]. Also present were Cardinals Altieri (Dean of the Sacred College), Molari, Colonna, Ricci, Cavalieri, Negroni, Palaggi, Sardini, and Sacripanti.  Monsignor Rasponi Pro-Maestro di Camera, presented Cardinal Albani with the Fisherman's Ring.  The Notary Secretary of the Apostolic Camera read the two documents, the recognition of the body, the Rogito, as well as the statement of the surrender of the Fisherman's Ring.  Cardinal Albani retired to the antechamber, descended the Scala Regia, entered his carriage, and was driven in procession, accompanied by the Swiss Guard under the leadership of Captain Corrado Phiffer von Altishoffen to his Palace at Quattro Fontane.  The bell of the Campidoglio began the funeral knell, informing the People of Rome that their master and pastor was dead.

On Thursday, the 20th, around 21:00 hours, the body was opened and examined by the doctors, prelimary to the enbalming.  The autopsy indicated a problem on the left side of the thorax, where there was stagnant blood and the beginning of gangrene [Relazioni, p. 18]

furono ritrovate le viscere dell' infimo ventre di buona costituzione. Ma nel medio ventre, ò sia torace apparve il grave danno ne' polmoni, e particolarmente dal sinistro lato ove il sangue stagnante aveva cominciata cancrena. Nel centro superiore il cervello fù riconosciuto d' ottima struttura, con la sola osservazione di alquanto di linfa attraversata nella violenza del male.

The rest of the day the body was placed on view in the Consistorial Hall, where the Penitentiaries of the Vatican Basilica continuously recited prayers for the Deceased. Numbers of people were admitted to view the body and kiss the feet. At the second hour of the night the body was taken in a torchlight procession, organized by Msgr. Venanzio Filippo Piersanti, one of the Masters of Ceremonies, from the Quirinal to the Vatican Palace, where it was placed in the Sistine Chapel.  The procession was viewed by the 'King and Queen (Maria Clementina Sobieska) of England" from the balcony of Princess Orsini.  At the Sistine Chapel, the Penitentiaries vested the body in pontifical papal vestments and placed on a funeral bier surrounded by torches, and Absolution was given. 

The same evening the First Congregation took place in the Hall of Parchments.  Present were Cardinal Bishops Tanara (the Dean), Giudice, Paolucci,  and Barberini; Cardinal Priests Corsini, Aquaviva, Gualtieri, Vallemani, Paracciani, Fabroni, Priuli, Conti, Zondodari, Corradini, Tolomei, Scotto, Nicolò Spinola, S. Agnese [Giorgio Spinola], d'Althan, and Salerno; Cardinal Deacons Panfilj, Imperiali, Altieri, Colonna, Albani, and Olivieri—a total of twenty-six.  The Fisherman's Ring was defaced and the leaden seals of the Apostolic Camera broken.  Monsignor Alessandro Falconieri, Auditor of the Rota and Vice-Chamberlain, was confirmed in his post as Governor of Rome [He later became a cardinal, d. 1734].  Monsignor Bartolomeo Ruspoli was named Governor of the Conclave and Governor of the Borgo.  Cardinals Barberini, Corsini, Altieri and Albani were named to oversee the construction of the Conclave area.  Abbot Giovanni Vicenzo Lucchesini, Secretary of Latin Letters, was assigned the honor of giving the Funeral Oration, and Camillo Mari, Bishop of Aleria, was assigned to give the Oration pro pontifice eligendo.

After the Congregation, the Cardinals participated in the procession which transferred the body of Clement XI to the Vatican Basilica.  The funeral took place three days later in the Vatican Basilica.  The Funeral Oration was delivered by Msgr. Giovanni Vincenzo Lucchesini, Secretary of Latin Letters and Canon of the Vatican Basilica.


The Cardinals

There were sixty-eight cardinals at the time of the death of Pope Clement [a list is given in Diario delle novità di Roma in tempo di Sede Vacante Num 7. 8. in data di 23 e 26 Aprile 1721]. Only fourteen survived from earlier reigns. The creature of Innocent X were Orsini and Marescotti. The only surviving creatura of Innocent XI was Cardinal Pamphili.   Alexander VIII's creature were Ottoboni, Del Giudice, Imperiali, Barberini, and Altieri.   Clement IX's creature were: Tanara, Boncompagni, Sacripante, Cornaro, Paolucci, and Noailles.  An official list of Cardinals and their Conclavists is provided in an attachment to the motu proprio  Nos Volentes of Innocent XIII of May 18, 1721 [Bullarium Romanum  Turin edition  21 (1871), pp. 869-875].

Two cardinals (de Noailles and Alberoni) were invited to the Conclave, even though they were excommunicated; Noailles had been leading the opposition in France to the papal Bull Unigenitus, which condemned Jansenist propositions  [P. F. Lafitau, Histoire de la Constitution Unigenitus  (Besancon 1820)].

A list of the functions of the cardinals in the Roman Curia can be found in the 1722 edition of 'Chracas', Notizie per l'anno 1722 (Roma: Galeazzo Chracas 1722), 149-182.


Cardinals attending:

  1. Sebastiano Antonio Tanara (aged 70), Suburbicarian Bishop of Ostia e Velletri (since March 3 [Cardinal Fulvio Astalli, Bishop of Ostia e Velletri, had died on January 14, 1721, aged 66]) , Dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals.  former Nuncio in Portugal (May 26, 1690—March 15, 1692), and in Austria. Tanara was of a Bolognese senatorial family, and his brother, the Marchese Tanara, was Ambassador of Bologna before the Holy See from 1691-1710.  He was Abbot Commendatory of the Abbey of Nonantola (1695-1724). He died on May 4, 1724, at the age of 74.  His funeral inscription is in S. Maria della Vittoria [V. Forcella, Inscrizioni delle chiese di Roma  XI, p. 70 no. 138].
  2. Vincenzo Maria Orsini de Gravina, OP (aged 72), 12th Duca di Gravina, 3rd Principe di Solofra, 3rd Principe di Galluccio, Conte di Muro Lucano e Signore di Vallata, Nobile Romano and Patrizio Napoletano (1658-1667; he renounced his titles to become a Dominican monk);  eldest son of Ferdinando III Duke of Gravina, and Giovanna daughter of Carlo Frangipani della Tolfa, duca di Grumo.  Suburbicarian Bishop of Porto e Santa Rufina   Archbishop (and then Administrator) of Benevento (1686-1730)  (died as Bishop of Rome on February 21, 1730)  [He was a member of the Arcadian Academy from 1709 (biography by Giovanni Andrea Tria, Archbishop of Tyre, in Crescimbeni,  Vite degli illustri Arcadi V, 1-66]
  3. Francesco del Giudice (aged 73) [Neapolitanus, of Genoese origin], son of Nicolas, Prince of Cellamare and Duke of Giovennazo.  Suburbicarian Bishop of Frascati (Tusculum). He had earlier been Cardinal Priest of S. Sabina (1700–1717), and of S. Maria del Popolo (1690–1700).  He came to Rome in the reign of Clement IX, and was made Protonotary Apostolic participantium. Under Clement X, he was made pro-Legate of Bologna, then Governor of Fano.  He then became Cleric of the Apostolic Camera, and was promoted under Innocent XI to the post of Praefectus Annonae in the Apostolic Camera.  With the patronage of the Marquis of Cocogliudo (Duke of Medina Celi), he was created cardinal by Alexander VIII on February 13, 1690, with the title of S. Maria del Popolo.  When Innocent XII became pope,  del Giudice did not received expected favors, and so he left Rome for Spain, where he became first Minister of Philip V and Grand Inquisitor (from 1712).   From November 23, 1702 to April 4, 1705, he had been Viceroy Interino of Sicily and Captain General on behalf of the King of Spain [V. Di Blasi, Storia cronologica dei Vicere luogotenenti e presidente del Regno di Sicilia (Palermo 1842), 444-452]. He had been Archbishop of Monreale in Sicily since 1704 (to 1725) [Rocco Pirro, Sicilia Sacra I editio tertia (Panormi 1733), 484; Gams, 951].  In 1714, he styles himself Protector of the Kingdom of Sicily and Inquisitor General of all the realms and seigneuries of His Majesty the King, and member of his Council of State (Spain).  His influence lasted until the arrival of Philip's new Queen, Elizabeth Farnese, whose factotum Carlo Alberoni quickly undermined del Giudice's position.  He returned to Rome, and with papal sanction (since the breaking of a solemn oath was involved), changed his allegiance to that of the Emperor.  In December of 1718 the Cardinal published a 'letter' to a friend, explaining his motives in changing allegience [The History of Cardinal Alberoni, Chief Favourite of their Catholic Majesties and Universal Minister of the Spanish Monarchy (London 1719), 213-216].   He was named Imperial Orator to the Holy See. He died on October 10, 1725.  His body was buried temporarily in the Minerva, but transferred eventually to the family chapel in the Church of the Carmelites in Naples.
  4. Fabrizio Paolucci de Calboli (aged 70) [Forli], Suburbicarian Bishop of Albano.  Appointed Bishop of Macerata by Innocent XII (1697-1698) [Ughelli-Colet, Italia sacra II (1717), 746].  Administrator of the Diocese of Fermo.  Nuncio in Cologne.  Apostolic Legate in Poland.  Bishop of Ferrara (1697-1701)  [Ughelli-Colet, Italia sacra II (1717), 563-564].   Doctor in utroque iure, Rome (La Sapienza).  Secretary of State of His Holiness (1700-1721).  Major Penitentiary (1709-1721).  Pope Innocent XIII made him Vicar of the City of Rome. He died on June 12, 1726, at the age of 76, and was buried in S. Marcello [V. Forcella, Inscrizioni delle chiese di Rome II, p. 320 no. 990 ; Oreste Raggi, Monumenti sepolcrali eretti in Roma agli uomini celebri  II (Roma 1841) pp. 70-72].
  5. Francesco Pignatelli, Theat. (aged 69), Suburbicarian Bishop of Sabina   (died December 5, 1734). Archbishop of Naples.
  6. Francesco Barberini (aged 58), Suburbicarian Bishop of Palestrina   (died August 17, 1738)

  7. Giacomo Boncompagni (aged 68), [Sora, his family's feudal property], son of Ugo, Duca di Sora, and Maria Ruffo, daughter of the Duke of Bagnara.  He was a great-great grandnephew (atnepos) of Pope Gregory XIII, grand-nephew of Cardinal Francesco Boncompagni, and nephew of Cardinal Gerolamo Boncompagni (who was Archbishop of Bologna, 1651-1684).  Cardinal Priest of S. Maria in Via (1696-1724).  Doctor in utroque iure, Rome (La Sapienza).  He was appointed to the governorate of Orvieto by Innocent XI.  Alexander VIII made him vice-Governor of Fermo. Archbishop of Bologna (1690-1731). He was appointed Legatus a latere by Innocent XII to preside over the marriage of Joseph, King of the Romans, and Wilhelmina Amalia of Brunswick     (died March 24, 1731).
  8. Giuseppe Sacripante (aged 79), Cardinal Priest of S. Prassede.  Prefect of the Congregation of the Clergy (1695-1700). Before becoming cardinal, he had been Vice-Datary of Innocent XI. Prefect of the SC de Propaganda fide (1704-1727)  [V. Forcella, Inscrizioni delle chiese di Roma  X, p. 105, no. 188].   (died January 4, 1727) .
  9. Giorgio Cornaro (aged 62), Cardinal Priest of SS. XII Apostoli (died August 10, 1722). Bishop of Padua.
  10. Lorenzo Corsini (aged 68), Cardinal Priest of S. Pietro in Vincoli.(died February 6, 1740) Doctor in utroque iure, Pisa.
  11. Francesco Acquaviva d'Aragona (aged 55), Cardinal Priest of S. Cecilia (died January 9, 1725) Doctor in utroque iure, Fermo. Protector of Spain.
  12. Tommaso Ruffo (aged 57) [Naples]. Cardinal Priest of S. Maria in Trastevere Doctor in utroque iure, Rome La Sapienza. Vice-Legate in Ravenna (1692).  Inquisitor in Malta.  Nuncio in Florence.  Maestro di Camera of Innocent XII (1697) and Clement XI.  Named Cardinal on May 17, 1706.  Governor of Ferrara (1707). Bishop of Ferrara (March 10, 1717-May, 1738); first Archbishop of Ferrara (1738).  Vice-Chancellor S. R. E. (1740).    (died February 16, 1753, at the age of 89; buried in S. Lorenzo in Damaso [V. Forcella, Inscrizioni delle chiese di Roma  V, p. 212, no. 605]).
  13. Orazio Filippo Spada (aged 61), Cardinal Priest of S. Onofrio (died June 28, 1724). Doctor in utroque iure, Rome La Sapienza.. Bishop of Osimo.
  14. Filippo Antonio Gualterio (aged 61), Cardinal Priest of S. Crisogono (died April 21, 1728). Doctor in utroque iure, Fermo. Protector of England.
  15. Giuseppe Vallemani (aged 72), Cardinal Priest of S. Maria degli Angeli (died December 15, 1725). Doctor in utroque iure, Macerata.
  16. Giandomenico Paracciani (aged 74), Cardinal Priest of S. Anastasia (Died May 9, 1721). Vicar-General of Rome [left the Conclave due to illness, and died the day after the election of Cardinal Conti.  His funeral, which took place on Saturday, May 10,  and was attended by forty-two cardinals, is described in  Diario di Roma 14 Maggio  (Firenze 1721), p. 4].  He was buried in the Church of S. Rocco, next to the Mausoleum of Augustus.
  17. Carlo Fabroni (aged 69), Cardinal Priest of S. Agostino (died September 19, 1727).
  18. Pietro Priuli (aged 52), Cardinal Priest of S. Marco (died January 22, 1728). Bishop of Bergamo.
  19. Michelangelo Conti (aged 65), of the Conti di Pola.  His uncle was Cardinal Giovanni Niccolò Conti, Bishop of Ancona. Cardinal Priest of SS. Quirico e Giulitta (1709-1721).  Governor of Viterbo. Nuncio in Switzerland (1695-1698); Nuncio in Portugal (March 24, 1698-1709; named cardinal in pectore in 1706).  Bishop of Osimo (1709-1712); Bishop of Viterbo (1712-1719).   (died as Bishop of Rome on March 7, 1724).
  20. Ulisse Giuseppe Gozzadini (aged 70), Cardinal Priest of S. Croce in Gerusalemme (died March 20, 1728). Doctorates in utroque iure, Bologna. Professor of Law at Bologna. Archbishop-Bishop of Imola.
  21. Luigi Pico della Mirandola (aged 52), Cardinal Priest of S. Silvestro in Capite (died August 10, 1743). Doctor in utroque iure. Archbishop-Bishop of Senigaglia
  22. Gianantonio Davia (De Via) (aged 60), Cardinal Priest of S. Callisto (died January 11, 1740). Doctor in utroque iure, Bologna. Archbishop-Bishop of Rimini.
  23. Agostino Cusani (aged 65), Cardinal Priest of S. Maria del Popolo (died December 27, 1730). Doctor in utroque iure, Pavia. Archbishop-Bishop of Pavia.
  24. Giulio Piazza (aged 58), Cardinal Priest of S. Lorenzo in Panisperna (died April 23, 1726). Doctor in utroque iure. Archbishop-Bishop of Faenza.
  25. Antonio Zondadari (aged 55), Cardinal Priest of S. Balbina (died November 23, 1737). Doctor in utroque iure, Siena
  26. Giovanni Battista Bussi (aged 64), Cardinal Priest of S. Maria in Ara Coeli   Doctor in utroque iure, Rome La Sapienza. Archbishop-Bishop of Ancona (1710-1726).  (died December 23, 1726).
  27. Pier Marcelino Corradini (aged 62), Cardinal Priest of S. Giovanni a Porta Latina (died February 8, 1743).
  28. Armand-Gaston de Rohan-Soubise (aged 46), Cardinal Priest without titulus (died July 16, 1749). Doctor of Theology, Paris Sorbonne. Bishop of Strasbourg (1704-1749).  Minister of France before the Holy See.
  29. Card. SchrattenbachGraf Wolfgang Hannibal von Schrattenbach (aged 60) [Steyermark], Cardinal Priest of S. Marcello (died July 22, 1738). [portrait at right].   Doctor of Philosophy, Doctor of Theology (Rome La Sapienza).  Bishop of Olomouc (1711-1738).  Councillor of Emperor Charles VI.  Regent of Naples (1719-1722) for the Emperor Charles VI.
  30. Giovanni Battista Tolomei, SJ (aged 67) [Pistoia], Cardinal Priest of S. Stefano al Monte Celio  Protector of the Trinitarians.  (died January 19, 1726)
  31. Benedetto Odescacalchi Erba (aged 41); his mother Lucrezia was a niece of Pope Innocent XI.  Cardinal Priest of SS. Nereo ed Achilleo (1715-1725)   Doctor in utroque iure, Pavia. Apostolic Nuncio to Poland, for which purpose he was created Titular Archbishop of Thessalonike (1711-1712).  Archbishop of Milan (1712-1736).   (died December 13, 1740).
  32. Henri Thiard de Bissy (aged 63), Cardinal Priest without titulus (died July 26, 1737). Doctor of Theology, Paris. Bishop of Meaux, France. [He arrived in Rome on April 27].
  33. Innico Caracciolo (aged 78), Cardinal Priest of S. Tommaso in Parione (died September 6, 1730). Doctor in utroque iure, Rome La Sapienza. Bishop of Aversa.
  34. Bernardino Scotti (aged 65), Cardinal Priest of S. Pietro in Montorio (died November 16, 1726).  He had been Auditor to Cardinal Ottoboni, the nephew of Alexander VIII. Previously Auditor of the Rota.   [He finally entered Conclave on April 12, suffering from a cold and incapacitated by gout]
  35. Niccolò Caracciolo (aged 62) [Neapolitanus], Cardinal Priest of S. Martino ai Monti). Doctor in utroque iure (Naples); then he attended the Seminario Romano.  Governor of Perugia (1699). . Archbishop of Capua (1713-1728).  (died February 7, 1728)
  36. Giovanni Battista Patrizi (aged 62) [Romanus, son of Marchese Patrizi and Virginia Corsini. Cardinal Priest of Ss. Quattro Coronati . Doctorates in Philosophy, Law, and Theology, Siena. Legate in Ferrara, for three terms.  Previous to his cardinalate, he had been Thesaurius Generalis of the Apostolic Camera (1707-1715). Titular Archbishop of Sebasteia (1702-1715). Voting member of the Sacred Roman Rota.   Member of the Governate of the Borgo. (died July 31, 1727; his heart was buried in S. Maria Maggiore [Forcella, Inscrizioni delle chiesa di Roma 11, p. 90 no. 178]).    He entered Conclave on April 4.
  37. Nicolò Spinola (aged 62) [Genoa], son of Giovanni Domenico, Conte di Pezzuola. Cardinal Priest of S. Sisto (died April 12, 1735). Titular Archbishop of Thebes.  Cleric of the Apostolic Chamber under Innocent XII.   Doctor in utroque iure (Rome La Sapienza).
  38. Giberto Bartolomeo Borromeo (aged 49), Cardinal Priest of Ss. Bonifacio ed Alessio.  Bishop of Novara (1717-1740), and titular Latin Patriarch of Antioch Syriae (1711-1717 and in commendam to 1740).  Praepositus cubiculae of Clement XI.  Protonotarius Apostolicus de numero participantium.  After the death of Clement XI, he retired to his diocese, which he administered, and collected books.  (died January 22, 1740).
  39. Emericus (Imre) Csácky (aged 48), His family claimed descent from an 8th century king of the Huns; his father Estvan was Regiae Curiae Judex in Hungary. Cardinal Priest without titulus (died August 28, 1732). Archbishop of Kalocsa and Bács in Hungary (1710-1732) [Gams, 372], previously bishop of Varadinum (Nagy-Várad) (1702), Abbot of Waradin (Várad);   Canon of Eger. Educated at the Collegium Romanum [Gams, 382]
  40. Giorgio Spinola (aged 53), Cardinal Priest of S. Agnese fuori le mura (died January 17, 1739).  Former Apostolic Nuncio in Vienna. Nuncio to Poland (1710). Nuncio to the Duke of Florence.   Former Governor of Viterbo (1699), and before that Centumcellae. Doctor in utroque iure, Rome La Sapienza.    [Secretary of State May 10, 1721— March 7, 1724]
  41. Cornelio Bentivoglio (aged 53), Cardinal Priest of S. Girolamo dei Croati (died December 30, 1732). Doctor in utroque iure (Ferrara). Legate in the Romagna.
  42. Thomas Philip Wallrad d'Hénin-Liétard d'Alsace-Boussu de Chimay (aged 41), Cardinal Priest without titulus (died January 5, 1759). Doctor in Theology, Doctor in Philosophy (Rome Gregorian). Archbishop of Mechlin [arrived on May 7]
  43. Gianfrancesco Barbarigo (aged 62), Cardinal Priest of Ss. Marcellino e Pietro (died January 26, 1730). Doctor in utroque iure (Pavia). Bishop of Brescia.
  44. Michael Althan (aged 38), Cardinal Priest of S. Sabina (died June 20, 1734). Doctor in Canon Law, Doctor in Theology (Prague). Bishop of Vác. Privy Councillor of the Emperor.
  45. Giovanni Battista Salerni, SJ (aged 49), Cardinal-Priest of S. Prisca (died January 30, 1729) Professor of Theology, Professor of Canon Law at the Collegio Germanico [left the Conclave, due to illness, but apparently returned on May 7]
  46. Álvaro Cienfuegos Villazón, SJ (aged 64), Cardinal Priest without titulus (died August 19, 1739). Professor of Theology, Salamanca. Bishop of Catania.

  47. Benedetto Pamphili, O.S.Io.Hieros.(aged 67), Cardinal Deacon of S. Maria in Via Lata. Prior of the Roman house of the O.S.Io.Hieros.  Archpriest of the Liberian Basilica, appointed by Innocent XII (1694—ca.1697).   Archpriest of the Lateran Basilica.  He opened and closed the Holy Door at the Lateran in 1700 [V. Forcella, Inscrizioni delle chiese di Roma  VIII, p. 73 no. 195); he was still Archpriest in 1729 [Forcella, p. 77, nos. 209-210]; he was succeeded by Cardinal Pietro Ottoboni in 1730 [Forcella, p. 79, no. 214].  Cardinal Protodeacon.  He had been Legate in Bologna under Alexander VIII.  Grand-nephew of Innocent X (Pamphili).  He was a member of the Arcadian Academy [Crescimbeni II, 255].  Librarian of the Holy Roman Church.   (died March 22, 1730). 
  48. Pietro Ottoboni (aged 53), Cardinal Deacon of S. Lorenzo in Damaso (died February 29, 1740). Vice-Chancellor of the Holy Roman Church (1689-1740) and Legate in Avignon. Protector of France. Grand-nephew of Alexander VIII. Archpriest of the Liberian Basilica [Forcella, Inscrizioni delle chiesa di Roma 11, p. 89 no. 174].
  49. Giuseppe Renato Imperiali (aged 69), [Genoa, but born in the family feudal estate of Francovilla in the Kingdom of Naples].  His father Michele Imperiale was Prince of Francovilla, and his mother Birgitta Grimaldi was sister of the Prince of Monaco.  Cardinal Deacon of S. Giorgio in Velabro.  In 1711 he was sent to Milan as Legate to confer with the Emperor Charles VI and King Philip V of Spain.  Protector of the Order of the Hermits of  S. Augustine (OESA).  He  died on January 15, 1737, and was buried at S. Agostino  [V. Forcella  Inscrizione delle chiese di Roma 5, p. 103, no. 307;  Guarnacci I, 359-364]
  50. Lorenzo Altieri (aged 49), son of Gaspare Paluzzo Albertoni, Prefect General S.R.E., who was adopted by Clement X (Altieri); his mother was Laura Catherina Aliteri, niece of Clement X.  He was also related through marriage to Alexander VIII.  Cardinal Deacon of S. Maria in Aquiro (1690-1707), created on November 13, 1690, at the age of 19.  His uncle Cardinal Paluzzo Paluzzi Altieri took him in hand. Cardinal Deacon of S. Nicola in Carcere (1707-1718). Cardinal Deacon of S. Agata alla Suburra (1718-1730).  Cardinal Deacon of S. Maria in Via Lata (1730-1741). He died on August 3, 1741, at the age of 70, and was buried in S. Maria in Porticu  [V. Forcella, Inscrizioni delle chiese di Roma  V, p. 382, no. 1048].
  51. Carlo Colonna (aged 55), Cardinal Deacon of S. Angelo in Pescheria (died July 8, 1739).
  52. Annibale Albani (aged 38), Nephew of Clement XI.  Cardinal Deacon of S. Maria in Cosmedin (1715-1722),  previously Cardinal Deacon of S. Eustachio (1712-1716).  Archpriest of the Vatican Basilica [from 1712; he still held the post in 1747: Andreucci, De vicariis basilicarum Urbis 2nd ed. (Rome 1854), p. 85; Henry Stuart Cardinal York held the position on November 14, 1751.  It is likely that Cardinal Albani was Archpriest for life].  Governor of Frascati and Castelgandolfo (1712-1726).  Cardinal Camerlengo (1719-1747).  Orator of the Emperor before the Holy See (1720-1748).  He was not yet ordained a priest.  Doctor of Theology.  Doctor of Law.  (died October 21, 1751)
  53. Curzio d'Origo (aged 60), Cardinal Deacon of S. Eustachio, Legate in Bologna  (died March 18, 1737). .
  54. Damian Hugo Philipp von Schönborn Bushein (aged 44), Cardinal Deacon without deaconry (died August 19, 1743). Bishop of Speyer. [arrived on May 7]
  55. Fabio Olivieri (aged 62), Cardinal Deacon of Ss. Vito, Modesto e Crescenzia (died February 9, 1738).
  56. Card. Giulio AlberoniGiulio Alberoni (aged 56) [Piacenza], Cardinal Deacon without deaconry.  He had received his red hat from Clement XI on July 12, 1717, at the specific request of King Philip V and Queen Elizabeth (of Parma) of Spain. It was in fact extortion.  Alberoni began his career as a poor priest in the cathedral of Piacenza.  He advanced when he found a place in the entourage of the Vice-Legate of Ravenna, Giorgio Barni, Bishop of Piacenza (1687-1731).   Initially he was attached to the Duke de Vendôme, who was conducting the Italian theater of the War of the Spanish Succession (in concert with the Duke of Parma); thanks to the Duke's influence he was appointed Canon in the Cathedral of Parma. Alberoni subsequently served with him in the war in Flanders (from 1707), and then followed him to the Court of Spain; he lost his patron to death on June 11, 1712. Alberoni was nothing but an adventurer from Parma who had ridden to power in Madrid on the wedding veil of King Philip V's second Queen, to whom he had attached himself like a leech. He had then helped Elizabeth Farnese to rid Spain of her rival, Princess Orsini. He had engineered the fall of Cardinal del Giudice as Grand Inquisitor of Spain and principal minister of Philip V.  He had himself named Bishop of Malaga, but the bulls were never provided; he received the income of the Bishopric of Malaga, nonetheless, during the vacancy of 1717-1725 [Gams, 49].  His fall from power in Spain was sudden and complete, his dismissal being handed to him on December 5, 1719, along with an order to leave Madrid within eight days and Spain within twenty-one.  At Lerida, his belongings were searched, on the grounds that he had left Madrid with state papers in his possession. After leaving Barcelona, he was plundered by bandits.  At Narbonne, too, his baggage was searched, this time by Customs officers under orders from the Chevalier de Marcieu, who had been ordered by the Regent of France to accompany Alberoni, and extract whatever information he could from the Cardinal.  Sailing for Italy, he was met at Sestri Levante in Genoese territory by a papal official, who forbade his entry into the Papal States, on penalty of imprisonment [Professione, 264].  When Alberoni retreated to Genoa, France, the Emperor, and the Pope each tried to have him detained.  On March 19, 1720, Clement XI appointed a Commission of Cardinals to try his case: Albani, Astalli, Barberini, Bentivoglio, Conti, Corradini, Corsini, Fabroni, Paracciani, Paolucci, Scotti, Tanara, Tolomei, Vallemani, and Zondadari; they were joined by three other prelates: Alamanni, Marefoschi and Riviera   [Professione, 277].  The Genoese, however, allowed him to go on his way, and he reached Modena and Lucarno; he found refuge in a castle in the Alps (Castelnuovo Scrivia, in Austrian territory in Lombardy) until the death of Clement XI.  He then emerged, to head by way of Bologna to Rome for the Conclave.  The majority of the Cardinals voted to allow him to participate, but many of them refused to have anything to do with him personally.
         The new Pope, Innocent XIII (Conti) turned him over to a commission of Cardinals, which convicted him and imposed a three-year sentence in a monastery.  This was reduced by the Pope to a single year. When the Regent of France, Philippe d'Orleans, died in July of 1723, another of Alberoni's enemies was removed. But he did not receive a deaconry, S. Adriano al Foro, until 1724.  He was not consecrated a bishop until 1725.  (died June 26, 1752, at the age of 88)   [Cardella, Memorie de' cardinali VIII, 169-176]

Cardinals not attending:

  1. Galeazzo Marescotti (aged 93), Cardinal Priest of S. Lorenzo in LucinaDoctor in utroque iure. Governor of Fano. Appointed Inquisitor of Malta by Alexander VII. Appointed Assessor at the Holy Office on May 26, 1666 by Alexander VII. Appointed Legate in Ferrara by Clement X.  Titular Archbishop of Corinth (1668-1675). Nuncio to Poland (1668-1670).  Appointed Nuncio to Spain (1670-1675) by Clement X.   Bishop of Tivoli (1679-1690).  Named Prefect of the Holy Inquisition (1700-1716) by Pope Clement XI.  Cardella notes that he resigned all his functions in 1715.   He died on July 3, 1726, at the age of 98, and was interred in the Gesù [V. Forcella, Inscrizioni delle chiese di Roma 10, p. 486 no. 813].    [Guarnacci I, 73-76; Cardella VII, 230-231].
  2. Louis-Antoine de Noailles (aged 69), Duke of S. Clodoald, Peer of France, Member of the Order of the Holy Spirit, Provisor of the Sorbonne.  Son of Anne Duc de Noailles and Louise Boyer, Lady-in-Waiting to Queen Anne d'Autriche.  Cardinal Priest of S. Maria sopra Minerva. Doctor of Theology (Paris), 1676. Bishop of Cahors (1679-1680) [Gallia christiana I, 153].  Bishop of Chalôns-sur-Marne (1680-1695) [Gallia christiana 9, 901], which See made him an Ecclesiastical Peer of France; he participated in the Assembly of the Clergy in 1682, out of which came the Gallican Articles.  Archbishop of Paris (1695-1729)  [Gallia christiana 7 (1744), 188-191], on the nomination of Louis XIV and with the support of Mme. de Maintenon. He was named Cardinal by Innocent XII in 1700, on the nomination of Louis XIV.  He and Clement XI had a serious falling-out over adherence to the papal Constitution Unigenitus (1713), and, though Noailles had made some efforts to reconcile their differences by publishing a Mandement in the Diocese of Paris in 1720, compelling the Clergy to adhere to the Constitution, he attached such a number of explanations to the condemned propositions that his effort to appease Clement was unsuccessful.  (died May 4, 1729)
  3. Lorenzo Fieschi (aged 78), Cardinal Priest of S. Maria della Pace.   Archbishop of Genoa (1705-1726). Doctor in utroque iure (Rome La Sapienza). He sent word, which was public in Rome on April 5, that he was excusing himself due to old age. (died May 1, 1726).
  4. Christian August von Sachsen-Zeitz [Ágost Keresztély] (aged 54), Cardinal Priest without titulus (died August 23, 1725). Bishop of Györ 1695-1707, then Administrator until 1725);  translated to Strigonia [Esztergom, Gran] (1707-1725) [Gams, 374; 381]. Supreme Chancellor of Hungary. Imperial Councillor.
  5. Nuno da Cunha e Attaíde (aged 56), Cardinal Priest without titulus (died December 3, 1750). Privy Councillor of King John V of Portugal [arrived in Rome just after the election]
  6. Melchior de Polignac (aged 59), [Chateau de la Ronte, near Puy en Vélay, Auvergne, France], second son of Louis-Armand, Vicomte de Polignac and Marquis Chalancon, Governor of Puy; and Jacqueline de Beauvoir -Grimoard-de Roure (his third wife). Cardinal Deacon without deaconry    He studied at the College de Clermont, and then the College de Harcourt in Paris, where a professor enthusiastic for Aristotle turned him into a Cartesian.  His thesis  in Theology at the Sorbonne (1683) was on pious kings of Judah who took away the high places.   At the age of 28, he was a conclavist of Cardinal de Bouillon from August to October, 1689 [Crescimbeni Vite degli Arcadi V, 206].  After the Conclave, he assisted the efforts of Cardinal de Bouillon and the Duc de Chaulnes to lessen the tensions between Louis XIV and the Holy See;  Alexander VIII formed a good opinion of him.  When he was sent back to France to report personally to Louis XIV, the King formed the opposite opinion, "Je viens d' entretenir avec un homme, et un jeune homme, qui m' a toujours contredit, sans pouvoir me fâcher." [Faucher, I, 17-18]   Polignac was sent back to Rome with more instructions, and, when Alexander VIII died, he served Cardinal Bouillon again in the Conclave of 1691  [Bullarium Romanum   Volume 20 (Turin edition 1870), pp. 170].  He returned to France immediately thereafter.  Louis XIV chose to use Polignac's talents of ingratiation and negotiation by sending him as Ambassador Extraordinary to Poland; one of his assignments was to detach Poland from its alliance with Venice, leaving Austria weakened in its struggle against the Turks.  He arrived in Danzig (Gdansk) in the last week of July, 1693.  He was received in Warsaw by Cardinal Augustyn Michal  Radziejowski, the nephew of King John III Sobieski.  When the King died on June 17, 1696,  Polignac became involved in the struggle between the Prince de Conti and King Augustus of Saxony for election to the Polish throne. Radziejowski and Polignac were defeated. Augustus, backed by Russia and Austria, was elected (1697-1706).  In disfavor with King Louis XIV, Polignac was exiled to his Abbey of Bon-Port for three years, where he spent his time entirely in literary pursuits.  
          Polignac was elected a Member of the Académie Française in May,1704, taking the chair of Bossuet.  Pope Clement XI demonstrated his favor by naming him Auditor of the Rota (1706).  In 1709 Polignac was sent as plenipotentiary with Marshall d' Uxelles to the conference at Gertruidenberg in Holland, but the negotiations were unsuccessful; the pair, however, succeeded in the negotiations that led to the Peace of Utrecht in 1713.  While in Holland, he met and conversed with the famous Bayle.   In 1715, he was appointed an honorary member of the Académie des Sciences.   On June 8, 1715,  Louis XIV named Abbé de Polignac, who was serving as his Master of the King's Chapel (1713-1716),  Abbot commendatory of the Abbaye d' Anchin, in succession to the late Cardinal d' Estrées, though he still had not been ordained priest.  In 1717, he became an honorary member of the Académie des Inscriptions et Belles-Lettres.  He fell afoul of the Regent of France, Philippe d' Orléans, in 1718, joining the conspiracy of the Duke and Duchess of Maine to replace Philippe d' Orleans as Regent with King Philip V of Spain,  and on December 29 Polignac was confined to his abbey of Anchin; his exile lasted until until December of 1720, when the Regent revoked the lettre de cachet of exile.  It was during this period of enforced inactivity that he wrote the greater part of his poem, Anti-Lucrèce (Like the de rerum natura of Lucretius, it was published after his death, in 1745).
          Polignac had been created Cardinal deacon in 1712 (in pectore), on the recommendation of "King James III of England" [Crescimbeni, V, p. 212].  He was presented with the red biretta at Versailles by Louis XIV on June 6, 1713.   He was not permitted by the Regent, however, to go to Rome for the Conclave of 1721.  It would have presented difficulties for Polignac anyway, as he was not yet ordained a deacon—which was the minimum requirement for participation in a Conclave.  He was ordained a deacon on September 8, 1722, at Anchin by Msgr. Pierre Sabatier, Bishop of Amiens;  on the Saturday of Ember Week, September 19, he was ordained a priest.   He did not receive a Roman deaconry until after the Conclave of 1724, that of S. Maria in Porticu (which he held only from September to November), but he was quickly promoted to  Cardinal Priest of S. Maria degli Angeli (1724–1741).  Louis XV, having attained his majority,  had appointed Polignac French Ambassador before the Holy See (1724-1735).    He was named Archbishop of Auch by the King (1726–1741), and consecrated in Rome by Pope Benedict XIII.  In 1728 he was granted the Collar of the Order of the Holy Spirit.   He was also Abbot of Begars, Mouron, and Corbie; and Prior of Montdidier, Voute-sur-Loire, and Nagent le Rotron.  He became a Member of the Arcadian Academy in Rome in 1724, under the name of Teodosso Cesisio [biography in Crescimbeni,  Vite degli illustri Arcadi V, 203-224, at 214]   He died in Paris on November 20, 1741, of "hydropsie", and was buried in S. Sulpice.
  7. Carlo Maria Marini (aged 54), Cardinal Deacon of S. Maria in Aquiro (died January 16, 1747).
  8. Léon Potier de Gesvres (aged 64), son of Léon, Duc de Gesvres, Peer of France, Governor of Paris; and Marie-François-Angelique du Val, daughter of François, Marquis de Fontenay-Mareüil.   Cardinal Priest without titulus, nominated in 1707 by King Stanislas of Poland and confirmed by King Augustus.  Doctor of Law, Paris Sorbonne.  Protonotary Apostolic de numero participantium. Archbishop of Bourges (1694-1729), consecrated by Cardinal César d'Estrées;  Jacques Potier de Novion, Bishop of Evreux; and François Bochart de Sarron de Champigny, Bishop of Clermont. (died November 12, 1744)
  9. François de Mailly (63), son of Louis Marquis de Mailly and Jeanne de Monchy, marquise de Nesle-Paris.  Cardinal Priest without titulus. Doctor of Law, Paris Sorbonne. Archbishop of Reims (1710-1721) [Gallia christiana 9, 164]; previously Archbishop of Arles (1698-1710), consecrated by Cardinal Forbin de Janson [Gallia christiana novissima (1901) 990-995].  He died on September 13, 1721, four months after the end of the Conclave.
  10. Luis Antonio Belluga y Moncada (aged 58) [Motril, Spain], Cardinal Priest without titulus.  Studied in Granada and Seville. Doctor in Theology, Sevilla (1686).  In 1687 he became a Canon at Zamora, and then Prebend in the Cathedral of Cordoba.  In Cordoba he introduced the Congregation of the Oratorians of S. Philip Neri. He supported the party of Philip V de Bourbon in the War of the Spanish Succession.  In gratitude, Philip named him Bishop of Cartagena.  He was consecrated on April 19, 1705.  In 1706 he was named Viceroy of Valencia and Captain General of Murcia.  On November 29, 1719, Pope Clement XI named him cardinal.  He had sworn a personal vow not to accept any office that was incompatable with residence in his diocese, but the Pope dispensed him.  In 1724 he resigned his bishopric and travelled to Rome, in time for the Conclave of 1724.  He established his residence in Rome, and sought to live a life of prayer and meditation.  He was offered the Archbishopric of Toledo, but he refused.  Protector of Spain before the Holy See.   He died in Rome on February 22, 1743, at the age of 80, and was buried in the Chiesa Nuova (S. Maria in Vallicella) [V. Forcella  Inscrizione delle chiese di Roma IV, p. 179, no. 449].      [Biografia eclesiastica 14 (Madrid 1862), 239-240].
  11. José Pereira de la Cerda (aged 58), Cardinal Priest without titulus (died September 28, 1738). Doctor in utroque iure, Coimbra. Professor of Theology at Coimbra. Bishop of Faro in the Algarve (1716-1738).
  12. Carlos de Borja-Centelles y Ponce de León (aged 57), Cardinal Priest without titulus (died August 8, 1733). Doctor in utroque iure, Alcala. Patriarch of the West Indies (1707-1733).


Opening of the Conclave

etching of Cardinal  Alvaro Cienfuegos

The Conclave of 1721 began on Sunday, March 31. There were sixty eight living cardinals, fifty-four of whom had been named by Clement XI.  The Mass of the Holy Spirit was sung by Cardinal Tanara, the Dean, in the Chapel of the Choir of the Vatican Basilica, in the presence of twenty-six other cardinals and the "King and Queen of England".  The Oration pro pontifice eligendo was pronounced by Msgr. Camillo Mari, Theat., Bishop of Aleria (1720-1741).  The Cardinals then proceeded to the Apostolic Palace and gathered in the Paoline Chapel.  There they heard the reading of the various Apostolic Constitutions regulating the Conclave, and took their individual oaths to observe their terms.  The ceremonies concluded, and some cardinals returned to their palaces, others stayed on in the Vatican. At the sixth hour of the Evening (around 9:00 p.m.) they assembled again and the Conclave was enclosed. 

Cardinal Marescotti, who was 93 years of age, was in Rome but did not enter Conclave, though he intended to be present toward the end.  Cardinal Scotti, who was ill, also did not enter.  His problem was diagnosed as gout (podagra) and a kidney condition (He was finally well enough to enter on April 12).   Later that night Cardinal de Rohan arrived and was escorted to the palazzo of the Duca d' Altemps. Cardinal Bentivoglio, the Legate of the Romagna also arrived in Rome.  They both entered the Conclave on the morning of April 2.

On the morning of April 1, and every morning thereafter, there was a procession of secular and religious clergy from S. Lorenzo in Damaso to the Vatican, where the Mass of the Holy Spirit was offered at the stairs that led to the Conclave.  On April 1, twenty-eight cardinals were in conclave. Cardinal Pico della Mirandola arrived in Rome in the evening.

On Thursday morning, April 3, Cardinal Spada entered Conclave, and that evening Cardinal Pico della Mirandola as well.  On Friday April 4,  Cardinals Buoncompagni, Patrizi, and Origi entered Conclave.  Cardinal Tommaso Ruffo and Cardinal Ulisse Gozzadini arrived in Rome on April 5 and entered Conclave together late in the afternoon of Sunday, April 6.  Cardinal Giovanni Francesco Barbarigo arrived from Brescia on Sunday evening and entered Conclave late in the afternoon of Monday, April 7.  Next day Cardinal Giulio Alberoni, the deposed First Minister of Spain, who had arrived the previous day, entered Conclave during the day; His entry into the Conclave was opposed by Cardinal Acquaviva and by the King of Spain, but without effect (Processione, 294). Later, on the 8th, just at sunset, Cardinal Giulio Piazza joined the Cardinals. By April 9, forty cardinals were in attendance.

No scrutinies took place during Holy Week, from Palm Sunday on April 6 to Easter on April 13.  This was a pious excuse, of course.  The fact was that on Palm Sunday the Conclave contained a bare majority of the total number of cardinals, thirty seven, and no convincing election by a two-thirds majority of only 25 cardinals could take place.  Next day, the 14th, Cardinal Scotto entered, but Cardinal Salerni exited.  On the 15th in the evening Cardinal Odescalchi entered Rome, and on the 16th joined the Conclave.  Cardinal Caraccioli arrived in Rome on April 17, and entered Conclave on the evening of the 19th.  Cardinal Orsini entered on the 18th. On the same day Cardinal Cienfuegos arrived in Rome (he entered Conclave on Sunday, April 20, in the late afternoon), and on the 19th Cardinal Cornaro arrived and entered.  On Saturday the 19th, in the afternoon, Cardinal Caraccioli also entered Conclave.  The number of cardinals now stood at 46.

Cardinal Cusano arrived in Rome on April 20, and on April 24 he entered Conclave.   On Tuesday the 23rd, Cardinals Davia and Schrattenbach entered Conclave.   As of April 24, there were 49 cardinals in Conclave, requiring 33 votes to elect a pope. But that was still less than half of the living Cardinals. On April 28 Cardinal Paracciani left the Conclave, but on the 29th Cardinal Henri Thiard de Bissy entered, keeping the number of electors at 49. On the afternoon of May 2, Cardinal Emericus Csácky arrived in Rome. The Cardinal of Alsace appeared in Rome on May 5, and Schonborn on May 6.

The number eventually rose to fifty-five, though four Cardinals —the Portuguese da Cunha and Pereira, and the Spanish Belluga and Borgia—who arrived in the neighborhood of Rome, and were there for some days, did not enter conclave until the day after the successful election of Cardinal dei Conti. On April 28 Cardinal Paracciani left the conclave due to illness, which claimed him on the next day.


Factions and Candidates

The cardinals were divided into four factions: the Zelanti, the French, the Austrian, and the followers of Cardinal Albani, the Cardinal-Nephew. Albani's group amounted to only eight to ten, a surprise considering the number of creature there were of the late pope.(Petruccelli, 4-5). The Imperial party counted some twenty members, enough to prevent the election of any unacceptable candidate, or so it seemed in advance of the conclave (Petruccelli, 5). The Emperor Charles VI dispatched Count Franz Ferdinand Kinski to be his Ambassador Extraordinary to the Conclave, with instructions in favor of Gozzadini, Tanara, Pignatelli and (with reservations) Conti (Petruccelli, 8). Cardinal Albani was offered a pension of 25,000 florins. To be avoided were Corsini, Zondanari and (above all) Paolucci and Cornaro. The French government, in particular Abbe Dubois, the Minister of Foreign Affairs, was represented by Armand Gaston Cardinal de Rohan, Bishop of Strasbourg and Grand Almoner of France (who had left Paris for Rome on February 26, on other business entirely).   The French Chargé d' affaires in Rome was Pierre-François Laffitau, SJ, Bishop of Sisteron [Gallia christiana novissima II, p. 776], who was Dubois' intermediary with Cardinal Gualtiero (Boutry 19-20, Jobez, 288). Both were well aware that Dubois' greatest desire was to be named a cardinal. Pope Clement and his nephew, Cardinal Albani, had often been importuned on the subject, and had failed to make a commitment. On the 14th of March, however, five days before the pope died, he wrote to Bishop Laffitau that he had been looking for the right moment, amidst the pope's sufferings, to get a committment, but that the pope was in a delirious condition (Jobe, 292). The Portuguese ambassador in Rome was working in favor of Cardinal Michelangelo dei Conti (Petruccelli, 12, n.1). The Jesuits, however, were working against him, having been offended by some of Conti's actions when he was Nuncio in Lisbon (Petruccelli, 12, from a dispatch of Giacobazzi, April 12).

The Marquis Giacobazzi, the agent of the Duke of Modena in Rome, noted (in dispatches of March 26 and March 29) that there were ten papabili: Cardinals Paolucci, Fieschi, Corsini, Parracciani, Conti, Tanara, Gozzadini, Buoncompagni, Cornaro and Barbadigo. In his view, Conti and Gozzadini were the most probable (Petruccelli, 5-7). Cardinal Giorgio Cornaro, Bishop of Padua, was favored by the French, the Genoese, the Venetians, and some of the Zelanti, and for that reason he was also opposed by the Imperialists, who did not desire a Venetian on the papal throne as a potential obstruction to their designs in the Po Valley (Petruccelli, 8). The Duke of Parma was promoting Cardinal Giacomo Buoncompagni, the Archbishop of Bologna (Petruccelli, 10).



Card. Fabrizio PaolucciThe earliest real candidate, though, was Cardinal Fabrizio Paolucci [portrait at left], the late Pope Clement's Secretary of State. In the first scrutiny, on April 1, 1721, with twenty-eight cardinals present, after the accessio Cardinal Paolucci had fourteen votes; five more and he would be pope. At that point Cardinal Althan remarked in a loud voice that, if the cardinals would listen to what Cardinal [Alvaro] Cienfuegos, [SJ,] had to say, he probably had instructions from the Emperor to communicate.  Cardinal Cienfuegos, of course, had nothing that he dared to communicate viva voce inside the Conclave hall. Althan was attempting to invoke a veto without having to actually declare one. 

The great powers (the Emperor, the King of France, and the King of Spain) each claimed the right to "exclude" a candidate who was hostile to their interests.  In Italy,  Naples, Savoy and the Grand Duke of Tuscany also tried to claim the 'right" from time to time —with little success. Though this 'right' was enshrined nowhere in Canon Law or Apostolic Constitutions, it was nevertheless allowed by the cardinals as a 'custom', one which they submitted to in consideration of the realities of politics.  But a Power could only use the 'right' once, and against one candidate.  Althan was attempting to get the Spanish to use their veto, so that he could preserve his freedom of action for a later moment.  Uproar ensured immediately.   (Petruccelli, 11, from dispatches of Giacobazzi, Bartolomei and De Gubernatis) All of the agents of the crowns immediately wrote home for additional instructions, and began delaying tactics until responses should arrive.





Imperial Veto

Paolucci appeared to be winning the second scrutiny; but during the reading of the votes, after he had obtained the two-thirds needed, but before a result of the vote was announced by the Scrutators, the Veto (exclusiva) was pronounced against him by Michael Cardinal Althan, the Imperial representative inside the Conclave.    Imperial instructions had been given Count Kinsky to see to it that Paolucci was not elected.  With that very fact staring him in the face,   Althan had been driven to use the obnoxious 'right'  [Montor, 330; Wahrmund, 216-218].

Cardinal Tencin  engraving of Michael Cardinal Althan
Abbé Tencin                                              Cardinal Althan


On March 19, Archbishop Dubois had written to the Bishop of Sisteron, Laffitau, in Rome [Sevelinges 38-39]:

Dans la malheureuse conjoncture où nous sommes, le principal soin doit consister à mettre en oeuvre et a fixer M. le cardinal Albani dans le dessein qu'il a formé avec vous, de s'unir à la France dans le conclave. S'il persiste dans cette résolution, Son Altesse Royale [Philippe d' Orléans] consent à toutes les conditions que vous avez proposeés en sa faveur et pour sa famille. Don Carlo, son frère, a déjà reçu le titre de cousin; mais pour ôter tout doute, on continue à le lui donner dans les lettres que je vous envoie. M. le cardinal de Rohan à été chargé des lettres de protection pour M. le cardinal Albani et pour Don Carlo, son frère. J'envoie a M. le cardinal de Rohan une lettre de crédit de 30,000 écus romains, payable à son ordre, pour tirer M. le cardinal Albani de l'embarras où il se trouve....


MM. les cardinaux de Bissi, de Polignac et de Mailly vont partir, et feront toute la diligence possible. M. le cardinal Acquaviva a ordre, du roi d'Espagne, de s'unir avec les cardinaux français, et de se concerter avec eux. M. le cardinal Bentivoglio suivra les ordres et les influences de l'Espagne....

On March 27, in a separate but not unrelated matter, the French and Spanish entered into a defensive alliance, thanks in part to the good offices of the Duke of Parma. [Sevelinges 44-45]

When Cardinal Wolfgang Schrottembach (Bishop of Olomouc and Regent of Naples) and (on April 8) Cardinal Giulio Alberoni arrived, additional complications were introduced. Schrottembach let it be known that the Imperial Court did not favor a Florentine pope. Vienna was looking to the future, when the Grand Duchy of Tuscany would become vacant by the death of the last Medici. They expected to have an Austrian Grand Duke, and they did not want a revived republican Florence, or even a Florence reasserting her independence. This affected the hopes of Cardinal Corsini. (Petruccelli, 12-13, from dispatches of April 5 and 12 from De Gubernatis). Alberoni (former Ambassador of the Duke of Parma in Spain, where he arranged the marriage of Elisabeth Farnese of Parma to King Philip V and became Prime Minister, from which he was expelled in December, 1719) had enemies to work against as well: Paolucci, Acquaviva, Imperiali and Albani. He was still under the cloud of excommunication, and had grudges against both Venice and the Emperor, to say nothing of France and Dubois.

By the 9th of April, forty cardinals were in attendance (Montor, 329).


Imperial Support for Conti

The Queen of Portugal, Maria Anna of Austria, who had employed the services of Cardinal Conti as confessor and advisor when he was Nuncio in Portugal (1698-1706), had been using her influence with the Emperor Charles in Conti's favor. Convinced by her assurances, the Emperor and Count Kinski decided to revise their attitude to Conti, and sent word to Cardinal Althan to support his candidacy (Petruccelli, 14-15, from dispatches of de Gubernatis to the King of Sardinia on April 26 and 29). Kinsky himself was dispatched as Ambassador Extraordinary.  He arrived in Rome on Sunday, April 27, and presented his credentials to the College of Cardinals on Wednesday, April 30.


French Negotiations

On April 22, Rohan wrote to Dubois on the subject of a memorial containing half a dozen major points which had been agreed upon with the previous pope to the advantage of France, but were now in an uncertain state.  Eager that the same positions should be adopted by the new pope, Rohan had been discussing them with Cardinals Albani, Gualtierio and Imperiali. The memorial "a été communiqué aussi au cardinal Conti et pareilement approuvé par lui; c'est ce qui m' a été confié sous le plus grand secret." (Sevelinges 59-61). In a dispatch of May 3, Giacobazzi wrote to the Duke of Modena that it was believed that Conti was committed in writing to giving Dubois the red hat (Petruccelli, 9 n.1).

On Sunday, May 4, the French Cardinal Henri de Thiard de Bissy and his conclavist, the Abbé Pierre de Tencin [Bullarium Romanum, p. 871], entered the Conclave. The Cardinal had instructions of his own from Abbé Dubois (Boutry, 26-28). The conclavist Tencin, who also had instructions, immediately got in touch with the secretary and conclavist of Cardinal Conti, Father Matteo Scaglione [Bullarium Romanum, p. 870] (who became Secretary of Briefs to Princes when his master became pope).  Archbishop Dubois himself wrote of Tencin: "M. l'abbé de Tencin, qui accompagne M. le cardinal de Bissi, a été au conclave où le pape qui vient de mourir fut elu. C'est l' homme du monde qui m'a témoigné toujours le plus d'amitié, et qui est le plus ardent pour tout ce qui me regarde; vous pouvez lui parler en toute confiance" (Sevelinges 51).  In fact, Tencin owed his rise to influence to the fact that his sister (a former nun) was the mistress of Archbishop Dubois.

On May 5, the Bishop of Sisteron wrote (Sevelinges 75-80):

...J'e trouvai que M. le cardinal de Rohan avait déjà obtenu deux assurances de celui qui agit au-dedans du conclave, au nom du cardinal Conti: l'une que M. l'archêveque de Cambrai aurait le chapeau; l'autre qu'il aurait un des trois qui vaqueront au moment que le pape sera élu, et qu'il aurait sans attendre la vacance d'aucun autre. Il n'y avait plus qu'à signer l'écrit qui parte ces conditions, et M. le cardinal de Rohan en cepère toujours la signature. Une seule difficulté en arrêtait la conclusion: le cardinal Conti ne voulait signer cet écrit, que lorsque nous aurions delivré au roi d'Angleterre [James III, the Old Pretender, the 'Chevalier de Saint Georges'] la promesse en bonne forme de lui faire payer les anciennes pensions qu'il percevait de la France....

Cardinal Althan insisted that the Conclave await the entry of Cardinals Damian Hugo Schönbrunn (Bishop of Speyer) and Thomas Philip Wallrad d'Hénin-Liétard d'Alsace-Boussu de Chimay (Bishop of Malines), who were already in Rome. On May 7, they presented themselves, along with Cardinal Giovanni Battista Salerno, S.J., who had left the Conclave earlier [ Diario delle novita di Roma in tempo di Sede Vacante, Num. 11, pp. 3-4; Petruccelli, 17; others suggest that Salerni did not return.]. The number of Cardinals present stood at 55, and 37 votes were needed for a canonical election.

On May 7, Cardinal Rohan wrote to King Louis XV,  "Je crois pouvoir annoncer à Vôtre Majesté l' exécution de ses ordres; M. Le Cardinal Conti sera élu pape demain et c'est à vous qu'il devra une grande partie de son exaltation." [Boutry, 32-33]  That very day, according to Cardinal Polignac, Cardinal Conti undertook in writing to provide Abbe Dubois with his red hat (Boutry, 34-35) Whether this was simony or not is a matter for learned canonists. In a letter of May 8, the Bishop of Sisteron adds some detail, "Je me rendis au conclave avant-hier au soir dans la nuit. M. le cardinal de Rohan m'y apprit d'abord qu'il avait fini; qu'il n'avait plus rien à désirer du cardinal Conti, et qu'il allait le surlendemain proceder à son election. Je vis le cardinal Albani, qui me dit absolument la même chose."  



Finally, on Thursday, May 8, Cardinal Michelangelo dei Conti, Bishop of Viterbo, son of Carlo, Duke of Poli, was elected with all the votes except his own (he voted for the Dean of the College of Cardinals, Tanara), In truth, once Conti passed the required two-thirds majority, the rest of the cardinals 'acceded' to him.  He took the name Innocent XIII.

On May 11, Innocent XIII appointed as Vicar of the City of Rome Cardinal Fabrizio Paolucci, in succession to the late Cardinal Paracciani. On May 13, Cardinal Corradini was made pro-Datary; Cardinal Giorgio Spinola Secretary of State; Cardinal Curzio Origo Prefect of the SC of the Council; Monsignor Ruspoli, who had been Governor of the Conclave, was named Secretary of Memorials; Msgr. Scaglione was named Secretary of Briefs to Princes; and Msgr. Doria, who was Governor of the Hospidale dello S. Spirito, was appointed Maestro di Camera.

The ceremonies in the Vatican Basilica were presided over by Cardinal Annibale Albani, the Archpriest of S. Peter's, who presented the Fisherman's Ring to the new Pope.  The coronation, performed by Benedetto Cardinal Pamfili, the Cardinal Protodeacon, took place on May 18 in the Loggia of the Vatican Basilica, in the view of the citizens of Rome and strangers as well.

On Sunday, November 16, 1721, the new pope took possession of the Lateran Basilica.  The ceremonies are described in a contemporary pamphlet, Esattisima Relazione della solenne Cavalcata fatta del Palazzo Vaticano alla Basilica Lateranense e di tutte le cerimonie octorse in occasione del possesso preso dalla Santita di N. Sig. Papa Innocenzo XIII. (Roma: Marcello Silvestri 1721).


Guillaume Dubois was created Cardinal on July 16, 1721. He had been Archbishop of Cambrai, on the nomination of the French Regent, Philippe d' Orleans, since June 9, 1720 (to August 10, 1723);  Cardinal de Noailles had refused to preside over his consecration, and the Cardinal de Rohan was substituted. In fact Dubois had obtained a papal brief allowing him to be ordained subdeacon, deacon and priest on the same day.  At the Regency Council that was held on the day of his ordination, one of the members apologized for not being able to attend Dubois' first communion.  That Dubois was an atheist was common knowledge.  His elevation was a disgrace to the Church in France and to the Papacy both [Duclos, Mémoires  pp. 397-404].   Pierre Guérin de Tencin had to wait until February 23, 1739 for his hat.

Cardinal Guillaume Dubois
Cardinal Dubois




Relazione della morte del Sommo Pontefice Clemente Undecimo (Venetia: Appresso Angelo Geremia 1721) [24 pp.]. Diario delle novita di Roma in tempo di Sede Vacante, Num. 2. In data delli 2 Aprile 1721 (Venezia: Angelo Geremia 1721) [24 pp.];   Num. 3 in data delli 5 Aprile 1721 (Venezia: Angelo Geremia 1721) [24 pp.];  Num 4. in data delli 9 Aprile 1721 (Venezia: Angelo Geremia 1721) [24 pp.];  Num. 5. 6.  in data di 16 e 19 Aprile 1721 (Venezia: Angelo Geremia 1721) [24 pp.];  Num 7. 8. in data di 23 e 26 Aprile 1721 (Venezia: Angelo Geremia 1721) [24 pp.];  Num. 9. 10. in data di 30 Aprile e 3 Maggio 1721 (Venezia: Angelo Geremia 1721) [24 pp.];  Num. 11. a data di 10 Maggio (Venezia: Angelo Geremia 1721) [24 pp.];  Num. 12. 13 in data di 14 & 17 Maggio (Venezia: Angelo Geremia 1721) [24 pp.]; Num. 14. in data di 18 Maggio 1721 (Venezia: Angelo Geremia 1721) [24 pp.]; Num, 15 in data di 18 [actually 24] Maggio 1721 (Venezia: Angelo Geremia 1721) [24 pp.].  Distinta Relazione di quanto e successo in Roma in occasione dell' Elezione del nuovo sommo pontefice Innocenzio XIII. (Firenze: Cosimo Lapini, Anton Francesco Alinari, Cartolai alla Condotta, 1721) [10 pp., contains a (defective) list of participants].  Conclave fatto per la Sede vacante di Clemente XI. nel quale fu creato Papa il Sig.e Cardinale Michelangelo Conti che prese il nome di Innocenzo XIII..  Il Conclavista, che ha distesto questo Conclave finge di scrivere una lettera  ad un suo Amico, che sta fuori, ed in essa gli racconta, cio che e seguito nell' elezione del suddetto Pontefice. (Codex Vaticanus Ottobonianus 2799, ff. 147-186) [V. Forcella, Catalogo dei manoscritti relativi alla storia di Roma III (Roma 1881), p. 70 no. 76].  Roma sacra e moderna, Gia descritta dal Pancirolo ed accresciuta da Francesco Posterla... E di nuovo con somma diligenza, e studio riordinata da Gio: Franceco Cecconi... aggiuntovi anche in fine un Diario Istorico, che contiene tutto cio che e accaduto di piu memorabile in roma dalla clausura delle Porte Sante 1700. fino all' aperatura delle medesime nell' anno 1724... (Roma: Mainardi 1725)  [pp. 671-676].

Diario di Roma, contenente le feste fattesi per la gloriosa esaltazione del sommo pontefice Innocenzio XIII (Firenze 1721).

Pierre François Lafitau, SJ,  Vie de Clément XI (Padoue 1752)  2 volumes [Lafitau was the French Chargé d' Affaires in Rome].  P. Polidori, De vita et rebus gestis Clementis XI p.m. Libri sex (Urbino: Fantauzzi 1727) [especially Book V, §§ LVII-LXII].  Simon Reboulet,  Histoire de Clément XI, pape  2 volumes (Avignon 1752).

Charles Pinot Duclos,  Mémoires secrets sur les regnes de Louis XIV et de Louis XV,  in  A. Petitot et Monmerqué (editors) Collection des Mémoires relatifs a l' histoire de France  Tome LXXVI (Paris: Foucault 1829).

See: Ferdinando Petruccelli della Gattina Histoire diplomatique des conclaves Volume IV (Bruxelles 1864), 1-20. Cf. Giuseppe de Novaes, Elementi della storia de' Sommi Pontefici third edition Volume 13 (Roma 1822), 7-9. G. Moroni, Dizionario di erudizione storico-ecclesiastica Vol. XIV (Venezia 1842) 60-61. Alexis François Artaud de Montor, Histoire des souverains Pontifes Romains, Volume VI (Paris 1851), pp. 329-332. Max von Meyer, Die Papstwahl Innocenz XIII, nach Original-Quellen (Wien 1874). For Ruspoli, Dictionnaire des Cardinaux col. 1485-1486.

Giovan Mario Crescimbeni, Le vite degli Arcadi illustri  Parte prima (Roma: Antonio de' Rossi 1708); Parte Seconda (1710); Parte Terza (1714); Parte Quarta (1727); Parte Quinta (1750). [Ludovico Antonio Muratori was also an Arcadian, under the name of Leucoto Gateate].

M. de Sevelinges. Memoirs secrets et correspondence inédite du Cardinal Dubois Tome II (Paris: Pillet 1815). Alphonse Jobez, La France sous Louis XV Tome II (Paris: Didier 1865) 288-298. Maurice Boutry, Une créature du Cardinal Dubois: Intrigues et missions du Cardinal de Tencin deuxième édition (Paris 1903). P. Bliard, Dubois, cardinal et premier ministre (Paris: Lethielleux 1901).

On Cardinal Alberoni, see Charles Bertin, Dictionnaire des Cardinaux (1858) 205-208.   G.P.R. James,  Lives of the Most Eminent Foreign Statesmen, Vol. IV (London 1837), pp. 130-267 [derived from John Russell, Memoires of the Affairs of Europe from the Peace of Utrecht I (London 1824)].  Alfonso Professione, Il ministero in Spagna e il processo del Cardinale Giulio Alberoni (Torino 1897) 293-295.  Camillo Pariset, Il Cardinale Giulio Alberoni (Bologna: Nicola Zanichelli 1905).  S. Harcourt-Smith, Cardinal of Spain: The Life and Strange Career of Alberoni (1944).

For the career of Cardinal Lorenzo Corsini, see Luigi Passerini, Genealogia e storia della Famiglia Corsini (Firenze: M. Cellini 1858) 157-172.

DeGubernatis: Conte M. de Gubernatis, the Count of Bauzone (son of Count Giovanni Marcello De Gubernatis), Ambassador of the Duke of Savoy (soon to be King of Sardinia), Victor Amadeus II, in Rome. See Domenico Carutti, Storia della diplomazia della Corte di Savoia III (Torino: Bocca 1875-1880)

Graf Kinski: J. E. Folkmann, Die gefürstete Linie des uralten und edlen Geschlechtes Kinsky (Prag 1861) 52-53.

X. Barbier de Montault, Le conclave et le pape (Paris 1878). Francesco Cancellieri, Notizie storiche delle stagioni e di siti diversi in cui sono stati tenuti i conclavi . . . (Roma 1823).

Characas, L. A., Roma trionfante nel glorioso Possessio preso il giorno di Dominica 16 Novembre 1721, dalla Santità di N.S. Papa Innocenzo XIII, romano della nobilissima fameglia Conti . . . (Roma: Characas 1721)

Ludwig Wahrmund , Das Ausschliessungs-recht (jus exclusivae) der katholischen Staaten Österreich, Frankreich und Spanien bei den Papstwahlen (Wien: Holder 1888).

Chrysostome Faucher,  O.Min., Histoire du Cardinal de Polignac  2 vols. (Paris 1780) [fulsome and fawning, plagarizing the Eloge of Cardinal de Polignac presented to the Academie Royale des Sciences in 1741].   P. Paul, Le Cardinal Melchior de Polignac (Paris, 1922).

E. de Barthelemy, Le Cardinal de Noailles, Évêque de Chalôns, Archévêque de Paris, d' après sa correspondence inédite (1651-1728)  (Paris: Léon Techener 1886).



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