ANTONIO CARDINAL BARBERINI, iuniore (1607-1671), was the son of Carlo Barberini and Costanza Magalotti. He was the nephew of Pope Urban VIII (Maffeo Barberini, 1623-1644), of the Capuchin Antonio Card. Barberini, seniore, (1624), and of Lorenzo Card. Magalotti. His brother Francesco became Cardinal on the election of their uncle to the papacy, and his brother Taddeo became Prince of Palestrina and Prefect of Rome. He was the cousin of Francesco Maria Card. Machiavelli (who became cardinal in 1641), and uncle of Carlo Card. Barberini (1653). He was Grand Prior in Rome of the Order of St. John of Jerusalem.
The accession of his uncle brought Antonio Barberini and his brothers many positions of power, wealth and influence. He became Cardinal Deacon of S. Maria in Aquiro in 1627, and Camerlengo of the Holy Roman Church on July 28, 1638, a position which he held until his death on August 3, 1671. In that capacity he presided over the Conclaves of 1644, 1655, 1667 and 1669-1670. The authoritarianism, arrogance and greed of the family ("Quod non fecerunt Barbari, fecerunt Barberini.") brought a strong reaction on the death of Urban VIII. In 1645 Antonio and Taddeo fled to Paris (where Urban VIII had once been ambassador), and remained in exile at the Court of Louis XIV (under the patronage of the Sicilian Giulio Card. Mazzarini) until 1653; he became Grand Almoner of France and a member of the Order of the Holy Spirit. In 1657 he was nominated Archbishop of Rheims, a choice which was approved by Pope Alexander VII. He became Cardinal Bishop of Palestrina in 1661. He died in Rome on August 3, 1671.
The Secretary of the Sacred College of Cardinals was Giuseppe Frenfanelli, canon of the Vatican Basilica.
The Ceremoniarii were Gaspar Servantius, Dominicus Bellus, Francesco Maria Phebaeus, and Carolo Vicenzio Cavaratius. [Bullarium Romanum (Turin edition) Volume 15, p. 355]
The official list of Conclavists with the names of each of their Cardinals is contained in the usual bull on the privileges and absolutions granted to the Conclavists: Bullarium Romanum 15 (Augustae Taurinorum 1868), pp. 355-358 (January 31, 1645). A helpful list of forty Cardinals and their assigned titles is contained in the Constitution of Innocent X, Militantis Ecclesiae Regimini, on the titles and insignia of Cardinals (Bullarium Romanum [Augustae Taurinorum 1868], 341-342 (December 19, 1644). Patritius Gauchat, Hierarchia Catholica IV (Monasterii 1935), p. 27 n. 2.
- Marcello Lante della Rovere (aged 83), Bishop of Ostia and Velletri, Dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals. (died 1652)
- Pier Paolo Crescenzi (aged 72), Bishop of Porto e Santa Rufina. (died February 19, 1645)
- Francesco Cennini de' Salamandri (aged 77), Bishop of Sabina, called the Cardinal of S. Marcello. (died October 2, 1645)
- Guido Bentivoglio d' Aragona (aged 64), Bishop of Palestrina [died during the Conclave, on September 7, 1644] (His conclavists are listed in the List of Conclavists).
- Giulio Roma (aged 59), Bishop of Tusculum (Frascati). (deid 1652)
- Luigi Capponi (aged 62), title of S. Lorenzo in Lucina. Archbishop of Ravenna (died 1659)
- Alfonso de la Cueva-Benavides y Mendoza-Carrillo (aged 72), title of S. Balbina. [became Bishop of Palestrina on October 17, 1644] (died 1655)
- Antonio Barberini, OFM.Cap. (aged 75), title of S. Onuphrio. Librarian of the Holy Roman Church. Major Penitentiary (died 1646).
- Ernest Adalbert von Harrach (aged 45), title of S. Prassede. Archbishop of Prague. (died 1667)
- Bernardino Spada (aged 50), title of S. Petri in vinculis. (died 1661)
- Federico Baldissera Bartolomeo Cornaro [Cornelius] (aged 64), title of S. Marco. (died 1653)
- Giulio Cesare Sacchetti (aged 58), title of S. Susanna. (died 1663)
- Giovanni Domenico Spinola (aged 64), title of S. Caecilia. Bishop of Mazara. (died 1646)
- Giovanni Battista Pamphili (aged 70), titulus of S. Eusebio. Prefect of the S.C. of the Council (died 1655)
- Gil Carrillo de Albornoz [Aegidius Alternotius] (aged 55), title of S. Pietro in Montorio. (died 1649)
- Alphonse-Louis Duplessis de Richelieu, O.Carth.(aged 62), titulus of Sma. Trinità al Monte Pincio. Archbishop of Lyon. (died 1653)
- Ciriaco Rocci (aged 63), title of S. Ciriaco e Salvatore in Lauro. Former nuncio in Switzerland and Austria. (died 1651)
- Giovanni Battista Pallotta (aged 50), title of S. Silvestri in Capite. (died 1668)
- Cesare Monti (aged 51), title of S. Maria Transpontina. Archbishop of Milan.(died 1650)
- Francesco Maria Brancaccio (aged 52), title of the Basilica XX Apostolorum. Bishop of Viterbo e Tuscania.(died 1675)
- Alessandro Bichi (aged 48), titulus of S. Sabina. Bishop of Carpentras. (died 1657)
- Ulderico [Rodericus] Carpegna (aged 49), title of S. Anastasia.(died 1679)
- Marco Antonio Franciotti (aged 52), title of S. Maria de Pace. Bishop of Lucca. (died 1666)
- Stefano Durazzo (aged 50), title of S. Lorenzo in Panisperna. Archbishop of Genoa, legate in Ferrara.(died 1667)
- Francesco Macchiavelli (aged 36), title of SS. Ioannis et Pauli. Bishop of Ferrara. (died 1653)
- Ascanio Filomarino (aged 61), title of S. Maria in Aracoeli. Archbishop of Naples.(died 1666)
- Marco Antonio Bragadin (aged 53), title of S. Nereus et Achilles. Bishop of Vicenza.(died 1658)
- Pier Donato Cesi (aged 61), titulus of S. Marcello.(died 1656)
- Girolamo Verospi (aged 45), titulus of S. Agnese in Agone. Bishop of Osimo. (died 1652)
- Vincenzo Maculani, OP (aged 65), titulus of S. Clemente. (died 1667)
- Francesco Peretti di Montalto (aged 49), titulus of S. Geronimo de' Illyrici (Croati).(died 1653)
- Giovanni Giacomo Panciroli (Aged 56), Cardinal Priest without titulus [titulus of S. Stefano in Monte Celio from November 28, 1644].
- Fausto Poli (aged 63), titulus of S. Crisogono. Bishop of Orvieto.
- Lelio Falconieri (aged 59), titulus of S. Maria del Popolo.
- Gaspare Mattei (aged 46), titulus of S. Pancrazio.
- Cesare Facchinetti (aged 35), titulus of SS. Quattuor Coronatorum. Bishop of Senigaglia and Titular Archbishop of Damietta.
- Girolamo Grimaldi (aged 48), [titulus of S. Eusebio as of October 17, 1644, in succession to Pope Innocent X].
- Carlo Rosetti (aged 30), bishop of Faenza and titular archbishop of Tarso.
- Giambattista Altieri (aged 55), titulus of S. Maria sopra Minerva. Bishop of Todi (1643-1654).
- Mario Theodoli (aged 43), titulus of S. Bonifacio ed Alessio.
- Francesco Angelo Rapaccioli (aged 36), titulus of S. Maria in Via. Legate in Viterbo.
- Francesco Adriano Ceva (aged 64), titulus of S. Prisca.
- Angelo Giori (aged 58), titulus of SS. Quirici et Julitta.
- Juan de Lugo, SJ (aged 60), titulus of S. Stefano in Monte Celio [titulus of S. Balbina, from October 17, 1644]
- Carlo de' Medici (aged 49), Cardinal Deacon of S. Nicolaus in Carcere Tulliano. (died 1666)
- Francesco Barberini (aged 46), Cardinal Deacon of S. Lorenzo in Damaso.(died 1679)
- Marzio Ginetti (aged 58), Cardinal Deacon of S. Eustachio. Vicar General of Rome (died 1671)
- Antonio Barberini, iuniore (aged 37), Cardinal Deacon of S. Maria in Via Lata. Legate in Bologna, Ferrara and Romandiola. S.R.E. Camerlengo
- Girolamo Colonna (aged 40), Cardinal Deacon of S. Angelo in Foro Piscium (from March 14 to December 12, 1644). Archbishop of Bologna.(died 1666)
- Giangiacomo Teodoro Trivulzio (aged 47), Cardinal Deacon of S. Cesareo. (died 1656)
- Giulio Gabrielli (aged 40), Cardinal Deacon of S. Agatha (died 1677)
- Virginio Orsini (aged 29), Cardinal Deacon of S. Maria in Cosmedin..(died 1676)
- Rinaldo d'Este (aged 26), Cardinal Deacon [of S. Maria Nuova, from November 28, 1644]. (died 1672)
- Vincenzo Costaguti (aged 32), Cardinal Deacon of S. Maria in Porticu.
- Giovanni Stefano Donghi (aged 34), Cardinal Deacon of S. Georgio ad velum aureum.
- Paolo Emilio Rondinini (aged 27), Cardinal Deacon of S. Maria in Aquiro.
- Achille d'Estampes de Valençay (aged 51), Cardinal Deacon of S. Adriano.
Cardinals not attending:
- Gaspar Borja y Velasco (aged 64), Bishop of Albano and Archbishop of Seville (d. December 28, 1645) (He and his conclavists are not in the Conclavist list) (Gauchat, p. 12 no. 29)
- François de la Rochefoucald (aged 86), former Bishop of Senlis. (died February 14, 1645) (Gauchat, p. 10 no. 11)
- Baltasar Moscoso y Sandoval (aged 55), Bishop of Jaén (died 1665) (Gauchat, p. 13 no. 36).
- Agustin Spinola Basadone (aged 47), titulus of S. Bartolomeo all' Isola. Archbishop of Santiago de Compostela (1630-1645) (died 1649) (Gauchat, p. 15 no. 60)
- Jules Raymond Mazarin (aged 44) Cardinal Priest without titulus (arrived too late). First Minister of Louis XIV (died 1661) (Gauchat, p. 25 no. 55)
The Conclave of 1644 began on August 9, though the closing of the doors did not take place until the next day. Fifty-six cardinals entered conclave, among whom a considerable number were considered 'soggetti papabili'.
Election of Cardinal Pamphili
On the 16th of September Cardinal Giambattista Pamphili was elected with 49 votes. He was crowned Pope Innocent X on October 4 by the Cardinal Protodeacon, Carlo Cardinal de'Medici, and on November 23 he took formal possession of S. Giovanni Laterano. On that latter occasion, the Pope distributed to the Cardinals and Roman Princes gold and silver medals with the inscription "Unde veniet auxilium mihi".
For the Conclave of 1644, see Giuseppe de Novaes, Elementi della storia de' sommi pontefici da San Pietro sino al ... Pio Papa VII third edition, Volume 10 (Roma 1822) 6-10. Alexis Francois Artaud de Montor, Histoire des souverains pontifes V (Paris 1851) 375-390. F. Petruccelli della Gattina, Histoire diplomatique des conclaves III (Paris 1865), pp. 96-129. Hermann Conring (editor), De electione Vrbani IIX et Innocentii X Pontificum Commentarii historici duo (Helmestadii: Henningus Mullerus 1651). Ernesta Chinazzi, Sede vacante per la morte del papa Urbano VIII Barberini e conclave di Innocenzo X Pamfili (agosto-settembre 1644) (Roma, 1904).
Henri Coville, Étude sur Mazarin et ses démêlés avec le Pape Innocent X. 1644-1648 ( Paris: Champion 1914).
D. Marciani, Descrittione delle Cerimonie fatte dentro, e fuori del Conclave avanti et doppo la cretione del Sommo Pontefice Innocentio Decimo (Roma: appresso D. Marciani 1644) [non vidi].