Sede Vacante 1144

March 8—March 12, 1144


The situation of the Norman Kingdom of southern Italy and Sicily was a major concern to the Papacy in March of 1144. Bad as affairs were in the city of Rome, the situation was worse with King Roger II. He was the Pope's most important vassal, and yet the Pope had refused him the recognition as King of Sicily which had been granted by Anacletus II and admitted by Innocent II. But the fact was that Roger had been in complete control over all church appointments in his kingdom for a decade, since he had captured Pope Innocent II in 1139, and forced from him papal investiture with the lands of the south (Treaty of Mignano). The Historia Pontificum of John of Salisbury provides some of the details of the confrontation, in which the King insisted on naming persons whom he wanted to be elected, and the Pope insisted on inhibiting them from being consecrated:

Rex enim aliorum more tirannorum ecclesiam terrae suae redegerat in servitutem, nec alicubi patiebatur electionem libere celebrari, send praenominabat quem eligi oporteret, et ita de officiis ecclesiasticis sicut de palatii sui muneribus disponebat. Ob hanc causam taliter electos inhibuit Romana ecclesia consecrari, adeo quod processerat inhibitio, ut paucae sedes propriis auderent episcopis et fere in omnibus ecclesiis residebant viri a multis annis electi. Nam consecrationis oleum defecit in terra eius, ex quo cepit Innocentium papam. Praeterea legatos ecclesiae Romanae non patiebatur intrare terram suam nisi a se vocatos, aut licentia ante impetrata destinatos, et eos tunc non ecclesiae sed ipse propriis sumptibus exhibebat aut faciebat ab ecclesiis exhiberi.

Apparently Innocent complained, but King Roger replied that it had been the custom since the time of Robert Guiscard, and he had no intention of ceasing [Chronicon Ignoti Monachi Cisterciensis S. Mariae de Ferraria p. 27 ed. Gaudenzi]:

Mcxlij et xiij anno eiusdem Innocentii idem Apostolicus misit eidem regi quod non esset iuris sui pastores eligere ecclesiarum et ab hac presumptione discederet. Cui rex ita respondit, quod a tempore Roberti Guiscardi ducis et ducis Rogerii et Guildemi ducis usque modo hec consuetudo extitit, a qua discedere nullo modo volumus, sed eam tenere firmiter volumus.

This had been an element of contention between him and Pope Celestine during his brief reign (September 26, 1143–March 8, 1144). As Romuald of Salerno puts it [MGH SS 19, 424], Hic concordiam quae inter Innocentium papam et regem Rogerium facta est, ratam habere noluit, sed eam revocavit in dubium.

The Roman Commune, then, was brought into being in the wake of the disastrous later years of the reign of Innocent II, where his arrogance and treachery led to one reversal after another for the Roman Church. Innocent had been able to return to Rome only because of the military support of the Emperor Lothar, who was no friend of the Romans. During the entire time of the schism, the leaders and people of Rome had supported the Pierleoni. The return of the Papareschi, with the weapons of the Imperialists behind them, did not alter that allegiance. Innocent's military campaign against Roger of Sicily immediately after his demonstration of papal power at the II Lateran council further enhanced the Roman position and discredited the Imperialists, who withdrew from southern and central Italy. But Lothar died in December of 1137, and Innocent in September of 1143. The brief interlude of Celestine II (September 26, 1143—March 8, 1144, saw some efforts to come to terms with the Romans. But at the same time, the friends of Arnold of Brescia (who was himself protected by one of the several Cardinals named Guido, perhaps Guido de Ficeclo) continued their campaign against the secular power of the Church.

The absence of an Emperor from Italy brought ever increasing disorders in Lombardy and north-central Italy. Venice was at war with Ravenna, Verona and Vicenza with Padua, Pisa and Florence with Lucca and Siena [Otto of Frising Chronica VII. 29; MGH p. 264]

Death of Celestine II   (Guido da Citta di Castello)

Pope Celestine died at the Palladium (S. Maria in Pallara) on the Palatine Hill on March 8, 1144. Ciaconius [Ciaconius-Olduin, column 1014 D] states (but without a source) that Celestine died in the plague: peste demum, quae pene totam Italiam affixerat, periit Coelestinus apud Palladium. This monastery of the Palladium was on the Palatine Hill, situated infra domos Leonis et Cencii Fraiapanem situm ("Life of Gelasius II", in Watterich II, p. 95; Gregorovius IV. 2, p. 486-487) They were the biggest supporters of the faction of Gregory Papareschi (Innocent II, whose Chancellor had been Cardinal Gerardus of Bologna). Celestine was buried at the Lateran Basilica ["Vita Coelestini," by Cardinal Boso, in Watterich II, 276]. He had reigned for five months and thirteen days [Watterich, p. 276; Baronius-Theiner 18, sub anno 1144, no.1, p. 621 (or fourteen days, in other sources)]. The date of his death, March 8, is also given by the Necrology of the Cathedral of Civita Castello (Castello-felicitatis) [J.-B. Mittarelli & A. Costadoni, Annales Camaldulenses (Venetiis 1758) III, p. 282]:

VIII. idus martii obiit Coelestinus Romanae sedis pontifex, et hujus ecclesiae canonicus.

The same statement can be found in the Necrology of the monastery of Fontis-Avellanae under VIII. martii:

Obiit Coelestinus II papa noster commissus anno M.C.XXXXIV.

The Cardinals

      Onuphrio Panvinio (Epitome, pp. 111-112) provides a list of thirty-four cardinals who took part in the Election of Lucius II (6 Bishops, 17 Priests, 11 Deacons).   He includes: Iozelinus of S. Cecilia (who died in 1132, and whose titulus was currently occupied by Cardinal Goizo); Cardinal Anselmus of S. Lorenzo in Lucina (who last subscribed in 1141: Zenker, p. 123); Cardinal Lucas of SS. Giovanni e Paolo, who was dead and had been succeeded by Hubaldus; Martinus of S. Stefano in Celio monte (who had been succeeded by Rainerius by December, 1143); Robertus Pullen, who was not yet a cardinal; Boetius of SS. Vito e Modesto (who last signed in May of 1138); Jacinthus Bobonis of S. Maria in Cosmedin (whose earliest subscription on May 26, 1144: JL 8631].   He omits: Petrus of S. Pudenziana (1140–December 1144); Hubaldus of S. Giovanni e Paolo (1141-1149); Niccolò of S. Ciriaco (1143-1151); Raynaldus of Montecassino; Adenulfus of Farfa; Ubaldus of S. Maria in Via Lata; Pietro of S. Maria in Aquiro; Rodulfus of S. Lucia in Saepta Solis; and Iohannes of S. Maria Nuova.
      Ciaconius-Olduin (columns 1020-1021), also provide a list of cardinals who took part in the Election of 1144; it contains forty-two names. At the same time, their text at column 1019 states that forty-three cardinals assembled: "biduo post iv. Idus Martii Cardinales tres et quadraginat in unum coeunt." For some reason Guido of SS. Cosma e Damiano is listed as a Cardinal Priest. Listed as present are: Robert Bollonus the Englisman, Albert of S. Anastasia (his name was Aribertus), Adinulpus of S. Maria in Cosmedin, Jacinthus Bobo, Raynaldus of Montecassino, along with Julius of S. Marcello (not yet a cardinal) and Hubaldus of S. Maria in Via lata (deceased). He omits: Guido Summanus of S. Lorenzo in Damaso and Hugo of S. Lucia in Orphea.
      Salvador Miranda states that "forty two cardinals took part in the election" (6 Bishops, 20 Priests, 16 Deacons) and one Cardinal Priest, Guido Moricotti of S. Lorenzo in Damaso, he lists as absent.   He counts Abbot Rainerius of Montecassino as present, for which there is no evidence whatsoever.   He includes Hugo of S. Lorenzo in Lucina (who first subscribes on May 26, 1144); Julius of S. Marcello (who did not subscribe until May 26 of 1144); Giacinto Bobone, who did not become Cardinal Deacon of S. Maria in Cosmedin until December, 1144 (Miranda is unaware that another of his Cardinals, Adinulfus of Farfa, was the Cardinal Deacon of S. Maria in Cosmedin at the time of the Election of March, 1144); Robertus Pullen of SS. Siilversto e Martino (not S. Eusebio, as Miranda reports), who was not yet a cardinal; and Hubaldus of S. Maria in Via Lata, whose latest subscription is on December 16, 1143 [JL 8459]. This is exactly the list of Ciaconius-Olduin, except for Guido of S. Lorenzo being marked absent and a correction to ‘Guido Cardinal Priest of SS. Cosma e Damiano’.

Cardinals alive at the time of the Election of 1144:

  1. Conradus, a native Roman from the Suburra region. Between 1111 and 1114 Pope Paschal II promoted him to be Cardinal Priest of S. Pudenziana, and Honorius II had promoted him to the See of Sabina in 1128 [Zenker, p. 46-47]. He had been the Vicar for the city of Rome of Pope Eugenius III while the latter was in France (1147-1149) and again from the Summer of 1150 to December of 1152, when the pope was in exile due to his conflicts with the Commune of Rome. He had been a cardinal for over forty years before his election to the Papacy.
  2. Theodwinus [German], Can. Reg. of Saint Augustine, Bishop Silva Candida (Santa Rufina). His latest subscription is April 14, 1150 [Migne PL 180, no. ccclxxx, columns 1411-1413; JL 9380]. Cardinal Theodwin died on March 7, 1151 [Brixius. p. 47 and p. 95, note 85; Zenker, p. 28 n. 106]. The See was vacant until the beginning of 1154. Miranda chooses to follow the Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1928, rather than Brixius and Zenker, and makes Theodwin die in 1153, though conveniently after the Election on July 8.   Abbot Wibaldus, Ep. 225 in Migne's edition (Jaffé, Ep. 252, pp. 376-378), demonstrates that Theodwin returned from the East in 1150, went to Germany, and rejoined King Konrad's court. It is the Historia Pontificum of John of Salisbury, sub anno 1150, that makes Cardinal Theodwin die in the East, but apparently this was during a return trip that his death came in 1151. The year 1151 is given by the Annales Palidenses, which provide a substantial biographical notice [MGH SS 16, 85].
  3. Alberic, OSB.Clun. [French], Bishop of Ostia (1138-1148). Legate to England and Scotland for Innocent II; held a synod at Carlisle on September 26-28, 1138 (at which the Scottish Church, now that Anacletus II was dead, finally accepted Innocent II: Concilia Scotiae I, xxvi-xxviiii) , and at Westminster on December 13, 1138 [Gervase of Canterbury I (ed. Stubbs), p. 107-109; J. Le Neve, Fasti ecclesiae Anglicanae I, p. 8]; he officiated at the consecration of Archbishop Theobald of Canterbury on January 8, 1139. He and the new archbishop then proceeded to Rome so that the Archbishop could receive the pallium. In 1145 he was Legate in France {Baronius-Theiner 18, sub anno 1144, no.3, p. 622; Zenker, 18-19]. He accompanied Eugenius III on his trip to Germany and France in 1147 and 1148, and was present at Trier for Christmas of 1147 [Balderic, Gesta Alberonis, in MGH SS 8, 254-255]. Died in 1148.
  4. Stephanus, O.Cist. [French], Bishop of Palestrina (1141-1144). He subscribed on March 6, 1144 [Migne, PL 179, coilumn 816] and March 15, 1144 [Migne PL 179, column 825]. His successor was Cardinal Guarinus, who signs on January 31, 1145 (?) [Brixius, p. 51; Zenker, pp. 41-42]
  5. Petrus "Papareschi", Bishop of Albano [Brixius, p. 45 and 93; Zenker, p. 36]. Nothing is known about him. He subscribed JL 8742 on April 28, 1145. There is no proof that he was Innocent II's brother or a Papareschi.
  6. Hymarus (Imarus), OSB [Gallus], Bishop of Tusculum (since 1142). Appointed Legate in England by Lucius II in 1144 and 1145, and then also in France [Baronius-Theiner 18, sub anno 1144, no. 4, p. 622, and no. 11, p. 624 (Watterich, 454, 461)].

  7. Gerardus "Caccianemici" [Bononiensis], Cardinal Priest of S. Croce in Ierusalem (1123-1144). His connection with the Ursi-Caccianemici family of Bologna has been discounted as errors and interpolations which amount to falsification, and in fact the name "Caccianemici" does not appear until the XIII Century. Gerardus is claimed as a Canon of S. Maria di Reno, but with insufficient documentary evidence; he appears to sign himself as a witness to a diploma of Lothar II in 1126 as a Canon of S. Frediano of Lucca; but he is also claimed as a Canon Regular of the Lateran. He had a nephew, however, who is listed in the Necrology of S. Maria de Reno [G. Trombelli, Memorie istoriche cocern. le due canoniche di S. Maria di Reno e di S. Salvatore (Bologna 1752), p. 354] as having died on December 6, 1193: Gerardus Caccianimigo nepos dni Lutii pp. ii praepositus s. mariae de reno archiepiscopus aquensis [sic] a.d. m.cxciii.
          He was made a Cardinal in 1123 by Calixtus II, and Bibliothecarius S. R. E. by Honorius II [Baronius-Theiner 18, sub anno 1144, no.1, p. 617. In 1125 Honorius II sent him to Germany as Legate, where he achieved (or so it is said) the election of Lothar II as Emperor, and again in 1126-1127 he is attested as Apostolicae Sedis Legatus in Germany [J. Bachmann, Die päpstlichen Legaten in Deutschland und Skandinavien (1125-1159), 5-7]. In 1128 he was Rector of Beneventum. He supported Innocent II in the Schism of 1130-1137, and was immediately sent to Germany to assure the support of the German episcopate for his side. He also worked both in Ravenna and Bologna to ensure their adherence to the faction of Innocent. In 1137 he was sent along with Innocent's Chancellor Aymeric to Salerno to attempt to win over King Roger II, with a notable lack of success. Innocent also ordered him to engage in negotiations with some citizens of Beneventum [Falco of Benevento, Muratori RIS 5, p. 121; Kehr Italia Pontificia 9, p. 37 no. 87-91 (May 21-24, 1137)] in an attempt to get control over the city, which was solidly in the hands of the followers of Anacletus II and Roger of Sicily; Gerard stayed on for some weeks, and installed the Subdeacon Octavianus (later Cardinal Priest of S. Cecilia) as Rector. On September 5-6, 1137, he was sent to King Lothar to attempt to get him to intervene in the difficulties at Benevento [Kehr Italia Pontificia 9, p. 39 no. 92]. Appointed S.R.E. Cancellarius (1141-1144) by Innocent II in succession to Cardinal Aymeric. He is said to have been "Compater et amicus" of King Roger of Sicily [Romualdus Salernitanus, in Watterich II, p. 280]. Giuliano Milani, "Lucio II" Enciclopedia dei Papa (2000).
  8. Gregorius, (died 1163). Cardinal Priest of S. Maria in Trastevere tituli Calixti (ca. 1138/1140 until after June 25, 1154). Later Bishop of Sabina. In the treaty of January, 1155, between Frederick I and Adrian IV, he is referred to: mediante domino Gregorio tunc Sancte Marie Transtiberim nunc episcopo Sabinensi {MGH Diplomata (Urkunden) Friedrich I, Part I: 1152-1158, no. 98, pp. 165-167]. The words nunc episcopo Sabinensi are an addition in 1155 to the original document of 1153 [Doeberl, Monumenta Germaniae Selecta 3-4 nr. xxvii].
  9. Guido "Bellagio" [Florentinus], presbiter cardinalis sancti Chrysogoni (1140-1157?) [Cardella I. 2, p. 86]. He could speak French, and had a taste for logic. In 1141 he was Legatus Apostolicae Sedis at Lucca [Kehr, Italia Pontificia 3, p. 456 no. 3 (April 3, 1141)].. Apost. sedis Legatus in tota Langobardia, along with Cardinal Hubaldus, attested in July-October, 1144 [Kehr, Italia Pontificia VI, xxviii; p. 80, etc.; Pflugk-Harttung, Iter Italicum (1883), no. 58, pp. 469-471 (Novara, August, 1144)]. Legate in Piacenza in 1146; Legate in the Holy Land, 1147-1151 [Historia Pontificalis, MGH SS 20, 540]; and in Verona in 1157. He last subscribes on June 13, 1157 [JL 10296]. [Brixius p. 43].
  10. Ranierus, Cardinal Priest of SS. Prisca et Aquila. (subscribes April 3, 1140 to May 7, 1146). Previously Cardinal Deacon without Deaconry (1140) [JL 8076, 8085].
  11. Goizo, Cardinal Priest of S. Cecilia, subscribes from March 12, 1140 to April 15, 1144 [Nachrichten von der k. Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften zu Göttingen . Phil.-hist. Klasse (1896), pp. 298-300]. He was previously a Cardinal Deacon [JL 8077, 8086] [Zenker, pp. 65-66 nr. 2]. Under Celestine II, he served as Apostolic Legate in Lombardy along with Cardinal Gregory of SS. Sergius and Bacchus and Cardinal Guido of SS. Cosma e Damiano [Kehr, Italia Pontificia VI. 1, p. xxvi and 277 no. 13].
  12. Petrus, Cardinal Priest of S. Pudenziana tit. Pastoris (1140-1144). Archpriest of the Vatican Basilica (by August 12, 1144)
  13. Tommaso [Mediolanensis], Can. Reg. of S. Maria de Crescenzago, Cardinal Priest in the title of S. Vitale.(subscribed April 11, 1141 to October 1146). He may have been a Cardinal Deacon (from 1140) [JL 8089; JL 8130], though his Deaconry is unknown {Brixius, p. 47 no. 50, and p. 96 note 86; Zenker, p. 114].
          Cardinal Deacon Thomas' subscription, JL 8130 can be found in Migne, PL 179, 536-537(erroneously dated March 3, 1130; it was Innocent II's Year XII and Indiction IV, which would have been 1141): Ego Thomas sanctae Romanae Ecclesiae diaconus cardinalis.
  14. Hubaldus, Cardinal Priest of SS. Ioannes et Pauli tit. Pammachi (1141—1149). He was papal legate in Poland and Denmark in 1145; his name is absent from subscriptions from February 19, 1144 to October 9, 1145, and thus it is possible that he missed the Election Lucius II on March 12, 1144. On March 2, 1145 he was at Gniezno [Maleczynski, Studia nad dokumentem polskim (Wroclaw 1971) 55-76; I owe the knowledge of this reference to the generosity of Tomasz Karlikowski]
  15. Gilbertus (Gislibertus), Cardinal Priest of S. Marco (subscribed December 23, 1143—1150). Originally Cardinal Deacon of S. Adriano by February 23, 1142 (JL 8216) [Zenker, p. 153], he was promoted to the Title of S. Marco by Celestine II by December 23, 1143 (JL 8460). On April 28, 1145, he suscribes as Ghilibertus indignus sacerdos sancte Romane ecclesie [Nachrichten der K. Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften zu Göttingen, phil.-hist. Klasse (1906), no. 29, p. 67]. On May 20, 1148, he subscribes as Gilibertus indignus sacerdos tit. S. Marci [Nachrichten der K. Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften zu Göttingen, phil.-hist. Klasse (1906), no. 39, p. 82; Lawrie, Early Scottish Charters (1904) p. 130 (May 14, 1144)]. The donation inscription on the tabernacle at S. Marco, ordered made by Cardinal Gilbertus for the redemption of his soul, gives him the title Magister and calls him GII PRESBYTER CARDIINALIS SANCTI MARCI [Forcella Inscrizioni delle chiese di Roma IV, no. 818]. The tabernacle was completed and dedicated in 1154, the date of the inscription.
  16. ? Petrus Pisanus, Cardinal Priest of S. Susanna (by January 24, 1118). He was previously Cardinal Deacon of S. Adriano (1113-ca. 1116/1117). His latest subscription is on February 29, 1144 [Pflugk-Harttung, Acta... inedita II, nr. 377, p. 335, who forgets the leap-year; JL 8505]; there is a possibility he was dead by March 12, 1144.
  17. Guido Summanus (according to Balderic, Gesta Alberonis), wrongly called "Maricotti", Cardinal Priest of S. Lorenzo in Damaso (subscribed December 28, 1143 to May 6, 1149). In 1142, there were two Cardinal Deacons named Guido [JL 8227], one of which was possibly our Guido. Celestine II employed Cardinal Guido and Cardinal Gregory of SS. Sergio e Baccho as judges between the Bishop and clergy of S. Petrus de Canneto [Kehr, Italia pontificia 1, p. 158 no. 11]. On July 10, 1144, Lucius II warns the Prior of S. Angelo in Foro in Lucca that he must abide by the oath administered by Cardinal Guido or suffer the prohibition of the celebration of Mass [Kehr, Italia Pontificia 3, p. 411, nos. 7-8]
  18. Nicolaus (Niccolò), Cardinal Priest of S. Cyriacus in Thermis Diocletiani. [Ciaconius-Olduin I, column 1003]. Nicolaus signs a bull on October 29, 1142 [JL 8242], as Nicolaus diaconus cardinalis sanctae romanae ecclesiae, immediately after Cardinal Octavianus of S. Nicolai in Carcere. He was promoted to Cardinal Priest of S. Ciriaco in December, 1143 [Brixius, p. 45]. He died on April 1, 1151 [Zenker, p. 109], as the Necrologio dei SS. Ciriaco e Nicolao records [P. Egidi, Necrologi e libri affini della Provincia romana, (Roma 1908), p. 25]
  19. Manfredus, Cardinal Priest of S. Sabina (1143-1157). His latest subscription is on June 28, 1157 (JL 10229].
  20. Aribertus, presbiter cardinalis tituli sanctae Anastasiae (1143-1158?), a creation of Celestine II. His latest known subscription is on January 25, 1156. [cf. Brixius, p. 97, 135; Zenker, 72-73]
    [His tomb in SS. Silvestro e Martino is dated 1160; but Aribert was dead before April 16, 1158, when his successor, Cardinal Joannes Neapolitanus, was already in office at S. Anastasia (JL 10401)]
  21. Hubaldus "Allucingoli", O.Cist. [of Lucca], Cardinal Priest of S. Prassede, February 23, 1141 [Watterich, 333]; some consider him the same Hubaldus as was created Cardinal Deacon of S. Adriano in 1138 [RIS III. 1 p. 442 column 2]; he first subscribed on January 25, 1139 [JL 7947]. [Future Pope Lucius III, September 1, 1181–November 25, 1185] He had been legate of Innocent II in Lombardy in 1142. [Cardella I. 2, pp. 27-29]
  22. Hubaldus "Caccianemici" [Bononiensis], presbiter cardinalis tituli Sanctae Crucis in Ierusalem. (subscribed June 28, 1144–September 12, 1170) He was a relative (propinquus) of Pope Lucius II, who gave him his own titular church of S. Croce in Gerusalemme in 1144 [Cardella I. 2, p. 51; Besozzi La storia della basilica di Santa Croce in Gerusalemme (Roma 1750) p. 107; G. Trombelli, Memorie istoriche cocern. le due canoniche di S. Maria di Reno e di S. Salvatore (Bologna 1752), 220-221]. [Brixius, p. 51 nr. 5, p. 103, p. 136; Zenker, p. 132]. He was not a Canon of S. Maria de Reno in Bologna, only a benefactor.
  23. Rainerius, Cardinal Priest of S. Stefano in Celio Monte. Subscribed from December 23, 1143 [Pflugk-Harttung, Acta... inedita I, nr. 193, pp. 170-171] to October 26, 1144 [JL 8657] [Brixius, 140]. His successor, Cardinal Villanus, was probably created on December 22, 1144, the Ember Day; he subscribes from January, 1145.

  24. Gregorius Tarquinius, Cardinal Deacon of SS. Sergius and Bacchus (1123-1145). He is still subscribing on June 17, 1145 [JL 8771], and his successor, Cardinal Cinthius, begins to subscribe on September 21,1145 [Brixius, p. 34 nr. 17, p. 74 note 16; p. 143]. Under Celestine II, Cardinal Goizo of S. Cecilia served as Apostolic Legate in Lombardy along with Cardinal Gregory of SS. Sergius and Bacchus and Cardinal Guido of SS. Cosma e Damiano [Kehr, Italia Pontificia VI. 1, p. xxvi and 277 no. 13]. Celestine II employed Cardinal Guido Summanus of S. Lorenzo and Cardinal Gregory of SS. Sergio e Baccho as judges between the Bishop and clergy of S. Petrus de Canneto [Kehr, Italia pontificia 1, p. 158 no. 11]
  25. Oddo Bonecase [MGH SS 8, 255; Zanker, 159], diaconus cardinalis sancti Georgii ad velum aureum (1132-1161). He was sent on a diplomatic mission to France in May, 1154-April, 1155 [Zenker, 159; E. Ernst, Archiv fur Diplomatik, Schriftgeschichte, Siegel- und Wappenkunde (1987), p. 260]. His latest subscription is JL 10684 (January 31, 1161).
  26. Guido da Vico [Pisanus], Cardinal Deacon of SS. Cosma e Damiano (subscribes from March 8, 1132- May 16, 1149). In the Summer of 1139, Innocent II named him Rector of Beneventum, where he remained until March 1, 1140 [Kehr Italia Pontificia 9, p. 40 no. 96]. Under Celestine II, Cardinal Goizo of S. Cecilia served as Apostolic Legate in Lombardy along with Cardinal Gregory of SS. Sergius and Bacchus and Cardinal Guido of SS. Cosma e Damiano [Kehr, Italia Pontificia VI. 1, p. xxvi and 277 no. 13]. On July 16, 1146, a letter of Eugenius III [Migne, PL 180, cxxv, column 1151] refers to Cardinal Guido as judge in a dispute between the Canons of Verona and their bishop Tebaldus He died in 1149.
  27. Gerardus, Cardinal Deacon of S. Maria in Domnica (1138-1144). He signed on March 3, 1144; and the bull issued on the day of the death of Pope Celestine on March 8, 1144 [Pflugk-Harttung, Acta...inedita III, nr. 54, p. 53; and nr. 55, p. 55 = JL 8516]
  28. Petrus, Cardinal Deacon of S. Maria in Aquiro (1141-1144). Latest subscription May 20, 1144 [Migne, PL 179, xlv bis, column 884]
  29. Petrus (Pietro), Cardinal Deacon of S. Maria in Porticu. (subscribed 1141 to May 17, 1145)
  30. Rodulfus, diaconus cardinalis sanctae Luciae in Saepta solis (Septisolio) (December, 1143–1160) [Watterich II, p. 493; Zenker, p. 141].
  31. Joannes Paparo, deacon of S. Adriano.(subscribes from February 14, 1144 to March 2, 1151) [Ciaconius-Olduin I, columns 1016-1017]. He became Cardinal Priest of S. Lorenzo in Damaso (1151-1154).
  32. Gregory of S. Angelo in Pescheria (1137 or 1143–April 13, 1154). [Brixius, p. 49 nr. 3, and p. 97 note 101; but cf. Zenker, p. 174, who does not accept Brixius' notion that there were two successive Gregories at S. Angelo, but instead dates Cardinal Gregory between 1137 and 1154; cf. Maleczek, Papst und Kardinalskolleg, p. 242 n. 246, who prefers the two-Gregory theory]. On January 1, 1144, he subscribes as G(re)G(orius) diaconus cardinalis sancti Angeli [Julius v. Pflugk-Harttung, Acta pontificum Romanorum inedita III (Stuttgart 1886), no. 48, pp. 43-44 (JL II, 8474)].
  33. Iohannes (Giovanni), Can. Reg. of S. Frediano di Lucca, Cardinal Deacon of S. Maria Nuova. (subscribes January 1, 1144-January 24, 1152). Nephew of Lucius II [Wibald Stabulensis, Abbot of Corvey, former Abbot of Montecassino, Epist. 50 and 51: Migne, PL 189, columns 1163-1164 (A.D. 1148)]. By grant of Celestine II, confirmed by Lucius II and Eugenius III, the Cardinal Deacon of S. Maria Nova was chosen from the canons of S. Frediano of Lucca, if an appropriate candidate could be found [Bullarium Lateranense (1727), pp. 28-29].
  34. Astaldo degli Astalli, deacon of S. Eustachio juxta templum Agrippae.
  35. Ugo, Can. Reg. of S. Maria di Reno. Cardinal Deacon of S. Lucia in Orphea (December, 1143-May, 1144) [Zenker, 123-125]. Subsequently Cardinal Priest of S. Lorenzo in Lucina, first subscribing on May 22, 1144 [Migne PL 179, xlviii, 887-888 = JL 8620]
  36. ?? Gregorius Luc. This unknown S.R.E. Deacon signs as Gregorius Luc. sanctae Romanae ecclesiae indignus diac. on January 12, 1142 [Nachrichten der K. Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften zu Gottingen, phil.-hist. Klasse (1905) nr. 5, p. 28]. [See under the Election of 1145, on Gregorio, deaconry unknown].

Cardinals not attending the Election of 1144:

  1. Octavianus de' Monticelli [Sabinensis, not Tusculanus] (aged 49). Octavianum cardinalem presbyterum, qui de nobilissimo Romanorum descendit sanguine, according to Pope Adrian IV in a remark to Frederick Barbarossa [in Otto of Frising, MGH SS 20, 406]. Cardinal Deacon of S. Niccolò in Carcere (1138-1150). Later Cardinal Priest in the titulus sanctae Ceciliae (from 1151). Antipope "Victor IV" (1159-1164).
          Legate to King Roger of Sicily for Popes Celestine II and Lucius II (1143-1145) [Chronicon Ignoti Monachi Cisterciensis S. Mariae de Ferraria p. 27 ed. Gaudenzi]. The same Cistercian records that Cardinal Octavianus and Cencius Fraiapani were at Palermo engaged in discussions with King Roger when news was brought that Pope Celestine was dead and that Cardinal Girardus had succeeded him and taken the name Lucius. "Quod audiens rex congratulatur et exultat non modicum."
  2. ? Raynaldus, Abbot of Montecassino (died 1166). He is commemorated in the Necrologion Casinense [Muratori, Rerum Italicarum Scriptores VII, 943] in July: " Idibus. Obiit Ven. mem. Dominus Rainaldus presbyter cardinalis et Abbas hujus loci." [July 15].
          He became Abbot in 1137, after Abbot Wibaldus, the Imperial supporter, had fled along with the Imperial party in the face of King Roger of Sicily: licet officio eidem ecclesiae administrare desierimus (as Wibald confessed). Wibald wrote to congratulate him on his election [Epist. 3 and 4: Migne, PL 189, columns 1129-1130].
          It is alleged that Rainaldo di Collemezzo Abbot of Montecassino [Cardella I.2, pp. 26-27] was created Cardinal Priest, allegedly of SS. Marcellino e Pietro by Innocent II in 1140 (Is the date '1140' merely an inference because Cardinal Crescentius, the previous incumbent, last subscribes in April of 1139?); or maybe created by Anacletus II (thus, before January 25, 1138, but then not yet or not at all appointed to SS. Marcellino e Pietro) and welcomed into the faction of Innocent II, who allowed him to keep his title [rejected by Cardella, p. 27, rightly]. In fact, it would seem that, as an adherent of King Roger of Sicily and of Anacletus II, Rainaldo would have been one of those excommunicated and deposed by the Lateran Synod of 1139, as all of Anacletus' cardinals were, in an oath-breaking act of treachery on the part of Innocent II. And he may have been one of those pardoned along with King Roger after the Normans captured Pope Innocent on July 22, 1139; but there is no evidence for such suppositions (cf. Luigi Tosti, La storia della Badia di Monte-Cassino II [1842], pp. 153-168). Innocent II was not uniformly forgiving to all of the supporters of Anacletus: In August he deposed Rossemanus, Archbishop of Benevento, and others, because they had favored Anacletus II (Falco, Chronicon Beneventanum: Watterich, pp. 253-255). And there is no evidence that he was Cardinal of S. Marcellino e Pietro.
          In a document of December 12, 1147, however, King Roger of Sicily calls him vir venerabilis Raynaldus S. Romanae Ecclesiae cardinalis, et sacri Cassiniensis coenobii religiosissimus abbas, fidelis noster (Tosti II, pp. 193-194). Rainaldus is called "cardinalis et venerabilis Montis Casini abbas" in other documents (e.g. Tosti, pp. 196-198 [March 1155]). G. A. Loud, The Latin Church in Norman Italy (Cambridge 2007), p. 241, states that Rainaldo "seems to have been an honorary cardinal from 1141, but never an active member of the college."   It is a fact that the title 'cardinal' was used in other churches than the Church of Rome, at Ravenna, Naples, Milan, and Compostela for example [e.g. Bulletino dell' "Archivio paleografico italiano" num. 1 (Perugia 1908), p. 75; Ughelli, Italia sacra II, 371: per manum Alberti, diaconi cardinalis Ravennatensis ecclesiae; L. A. Muratori, "De Cardinalium institutione," Antiquitates Italicae 12, Dissertatio 61, pp 569-616], most usually for canons or at least senior canons of the Cathedral of the city. Pope Urban IV refers to the canons of Ravenna being called "cardinales" in a mandate of June 11, 1264 [Guiraud, Registres d' Urbain IV III (1904), p. 274, no. 1760].   Ciaconius-Olduin (I, 1053) list him as one of the living cardinals in July, 1154, at the time of the Election of Anastasius IV.
  3. ? Adenulfus, OSB, Abbot of Farfa, Cardinal Deacon of S. Maria in Cosmedin (1131/1132-1144) His career: MGH SS XI, pp. 584-585. [death: MGH SS XI, p. 589; Il Chronicon Farfense II, p. 321 ed. Balzani]
  4. Guido di Castro Ficelo [not Castelfidardo], deaconry not known, over a period of seven years. He first subscribes on April 29, 1140 (JL 8092), and his latest is on December 27, 1146 (JL 8974). This latest subscription [Migne, PL 180, column 1175, reads: Guido S. R. E. indignus diaconus, but he signs first among the four Cardinal Deacons [Zenker, pp. 188-190; see also L. Spätling, "Kardinal Guido und seine Legation in Böhmen-Mähren (1142-1146)," Mittheilungen des Instituts für Oesterreichische Geschichtsforschung 66 (1958) 309 ff.; See Zenker, p. 190]. Guido is mentioned as legate in Moravia by Innocent II in a letter of August 21, 1142 [Migne, PL 179, column 597, no. dxxxi: JL 8238; Erben p. 104,-105 no. 236 and 238]. Ciaconius-Olduin term him altaris Lateranensis minister.   On March 18, 1144, he and his brothers made a donation to Pope Lucius II [Kehr, Italia Pontificia 3, p. 482 no. 1], practically guaranteeing that he was present in Rome at the time of the Election of March 12.
          Apparently he is not the same Cardinal Guido as Guido Sanctae Romanae Ecc. diac. card., who subscribed on March 14, 1145, immediately after Cardinal Berardus [Migne PL 180, 1016; JL 8717]. He may be the Cardinal Guido who was the friend and protector of Arnold of Brescia [Zenker, p. 189]. He subscribed on January 31, 1145 [Pflugk-Harttung, Acta...inedita III, p. 64]: Ego in Romana Ecclesia Guido altaris minister indignus, suggesting that he may have been in Rome for the Election of February 15, 1145.

Salvador Miranda

In his internet list of Cardinals who were created by Innocent II (1130-1143), Salvador Miranda (Librarian Emeritus, Florida International University) notes that the following cardinals, in his opinion were still alive, and therefore (some of them, at least) eligible to participate in the Election of 1144:


It should be kept in mind that at this time the old regulations on papal elections, promulgated by Nicholas II at the Lateran Synod of 1059 in his bull In Nomine Domini, still applied. There it was legislated that it was the Cardinal Bishops who chose the name of the Candidate and then presented it for a majority vote of the Cardinals and then the approval of the Clergy, Nobility and People of Rome: inprimis cardinales episcopi diligentissima simul consideratione tractantes, mox sibi clericos cardinales adhibeant, sicque reliquus clerus et populus ad consensum novae electionis accedant. The "Life of Pope Paschal" (Watterich II, p. 1), for example, states that on August 13, 1099, patres cardinales et episcopi, diaconi primoresque Urbis, primiscrinii et scribae regionarii in ecclesia sancti Clementis conveniunt. Hic dum de multis agitur, subito de hoc commodius placuit. (See R. Zoepffel, Die Papstwahlen, pp. 111-115).

The Election probably took place on the third day after the Pope's death, as canon law required [Baronius-Theiner 18, sub anno 1144, no.2, p. 621, citing Carolus Sigonius and Onuphrio Panvinio, sixteenth century authors, but no contemporary source]. That would have been March 10 (or March 11). Cardinal Gerardus of S. Croce in Gerusalemme, who had been Pope Innocent's Chancellor, and who was now the head of the Papareschi faction of "reformers", was elected.


Lucius II was consecrated and crowned on March 12, 1144  [Jaffé, Regesta pontificum, p. 7]. The date is inferred from the notice that he had ruled for eleven months and four days, and that he is known to have died on February 15, 1145.

Peter the Venerable had been in Rome at the time of the Election of Lucius II [Mabillon, Annales Ordinis S. Benedicti VI, p. 344], and had participated in a judicial meeting in the presence of the Pope on May 15, 1144 [Migne, PL 179, columns 875-877]. Immediately after his return to Cluny, Peter wrote to Lucius [Epistolarum Lib. IV. xix; Migne, PL 189, columns 345-346], and in passing referred to what was no doubt uppermost in both their minds, peace with King Roger of Sicily:

Postquam a carissima mihi vestra paternitate recessi, quae injuncta a Patre fuerant, quae mandata filiis et servis vestris Cluniacensibus, quaeque alia a vobis mihi praecepta, non indevotus filius sollicite, ut decebat, ac studiose cuncta implevi.... Misi praesentium latorem cum litteris istis, ut et nota facerem reverentiae vestrae quae dixi, et de statu sublimitatis vestrae, maxime de pace regis Siculi, litteris vestris certificari mererer. Nam, non parum mihi credite, pro pace vestra, ut multum eam exoptans sollicitor. De pace enim vestra, omnium nostrum pax pendet....

King Roger of Sicily was delighted with the accession of Lucius II (Gerardus of Bologna, Cardinal Priest of S. Croce), who was a friend of his. Pope Lucius desperately needed help against the Roman Commune, and met with Roger at Ciperano, near Gaeta, at the beginning of June of 1144. An agreement might have been reached between the two, had not the Cardinals been against the idea [Archbishop Romualdus of Salerno, MGH SS 19, 424]. A great opportunity for the papacy was squandered.



"Celestini II vita, a Bosone cardinali conscripta" Watterich II, 276; "Lucii II vita, a Bosone cardinali conscripta," Watterich II, 278-279. 'Eugenii III vita, a Bosone cardinali conscripta," Watterich II, 281-283.

Ludovico Antonio Muratori (editor), Rerum Italicarum Scriptores Tomus Sextus (Mediolani 1725): "Caffari, eiusque Continuatorum Alles Genuenses," 241-608; "Ottonis Frisingensis Episcopi, ejusque Continuatoris Radevici Libri de gestis Friderici I Imperatoris," 629-860; "Ottonis de Sancto Blasio Chronicon," 861-912 [Bishop Otto of Frising was the half-brother of Conrad III and the uncle of Frederick Barbarossa.]

Philippus Jaffé (editor), Bibliotheca Rerum Germanicarum, I: Monumenta Corbeiensia (Berolini 1864), "Wibaldi Epistolae," pp. 76-616.

Monumenta Germaniae Historica Scriptorum Tomus 20 (Hannoveriae 1868). "Ottonis Episcopi Frisingensis opera", pp. 83-301. [Bishop Otto of Frising was the half-brother of Conrad III and the uncle of Frederick Barbarossa].

Oswaldus Holder-Egger (editor), Gesta Frederici Imperatoris in Lombardia auct(ore) cive Mediolanensi (Hannover 1892). [Annales Mediolanenses Maiores].

Alphonsus Ciaconius [Alfonso Chacon], Vitae et Res Gestae Pontificum Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalium ... ab Augustino Oldoino Societatis Iesu recognitae Tomus Primus (Romae: sumptibus Philippi et Antonii de Rubeis 1677) [Volume I of the 4 volume edition; the Jesuit Olduin does what he can to eliminate the multitude of errors from earlier editions; many still remain].   Lorenzo Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa Tomo primo (Roma: Pagliarini 1793).  

Caesaris S. R. E. Cardinalis Baronii, Od. Raynaldi et Jac. Laderchii Annales Ecclesiastici denuo excusi et ad nostra usque tempora perducti ab Augusto Theiner Tomus Decimusnonus 1094-1146 (Barri-Ducis: Ludovicus Guerin 1869). [Baronius-Theiner]

J.-B. Pitra, Analecta novissima Spicilegii Solesmensis altera continuatio Tom. I: De epistolis et registribus Romanorum Pontificum (Typis Tusculanis 1885).   Philippus Jaffé (editor) Regesta Pontificum Romanorum (editionem secundam correctam et auctam auspiciis Guilelmi Wattenbach; curaverunt S. Loewenfeld, F. Kaltenbrunner, P. Ewald) Tomus secundus (Lipsiae: Veit et comp. 1888) [JL].  

Giuseppe de Novaes, Elementi della storia de' sommi Pontefici Terza edizione Tomo Terzo (Roma 1821). [a mine of misinformation; many of his attributions are refuted by the Subscriptiones to papal documents]

Johann M. Watterich, (editor), Pontificum Romanorum qui fuerunt inde ab exeunte saeculo IX usque ad finem saeculi XIII vitae ab aequalibus conscriptae Tomus II (Lipsiae 1862). [Watterich]

M. Doeberl (editor), Monumenta Germaniae Selecta 4 (München 1890). [MGS]

Richard Zöpffel Die Papstwahlen und die mit ihnen im nächsten Zusammenhange stehenden Ceremonien (Göttingen 1871). Karl Holder, Die Designation der Nachfolger durch die Päpste (Freiburg: Weith 1892), pp. 64-65. F. Gregorovius, History of Rome in the Middle Ages, Volume IV. 2 second edition, revised (London: George Bell, 1896) [Book VIII chapter 5], pp. 524-571. T. A. Tout, The Empire and The Papacy, 918-1273, Period II (New York: Macmillan 1899). Edmund Curtis, Roger of Sicily and the Normans in Lower Italy (New York 1912). Horace K. Mann, Lives of the Popes in the Middle Ages Vol. IX 1130-1159 (London 1914). 221-231.

Beorges Guibal, Arnaud de Brescia et les Hohenstaufen (Paris 1868). Giovanni di Castro, Arnoldo di Brescia e la rivoluzione romana (Livorno 1875).   Adolf Hausrath, Arnold von Brescia (Leipzig 1895). A. Frugoni, Arnaldo da Brescia nelle fonti del secolo XII (Torino 1989). Alfred H. Tarlton, Nicholas Breakspear (Adrian IV.): Englishman and Pope (London 1896).   Hermann Reuter, Geschichte Alexanders des Dritten   2nd edition Erster Band (Leipzig 1850). G. B. Siragusa, Il regno di Guglielmo I in Sicilia Parte prima (Palermo 1885).

P. Classen, "Zur Geschichte Papst Anastasius IV," Quellen und Forschungen aus Italianischen Archiven und Bibliotheken 48 (Roma 1968), 36-63. Johannes Leineweber, Studien zur Geschichte Papst Cölestins III (Jena 1905).   J. M. Brixius, Die Mitglieder des Kardinalkollegiums von 1130-1181 (Berlin 1912). Johannes Bachmann, Die papstlichen Legaten in Deutschland und Skandinavien (1125-1159) (Berlin 1913) [Historische Studien E. Ebering, Band 115]. Carl Erdmann, "Papsturkunden in Portugal," Abhandlungen der Gesellschaft der Wissenschaft zu Göttingen. phil.-hist. Klasse. Neue Folge 20, 3. (Berlin 1927).    Klaus Ganzer. Die Entwicklung des auswärtigen Kardinalats im hohen Mittelalter (Tübingen 1963).   Barbara Zenker, Die Mitglieder des Kardinalkollegiums von 1130 bis 1159 (Würzburg 1964). W. Malaczek, "Das Kardinalskollegium unter Innocenz II. und Anaklet II," Archivum Historiae Pontificiae 19 (1981) 27-78.

Luigi Pompili Olivieri, Il Senato Romano nelle sette epoche di svariato governo da Romolo fino a noi 2 v. (Roma 1886).   Anon., "Le sénat romain au douzième siècle," Analecta Iuris Pontificii 12 (Rome 1873), columns 614-618.

On Cardinal Guido Cremensis' career: Studia Gratiana XI (Bologna 1976) pp. 103, 107.


[My special thanks to Mr. Tomasz Karlikowski, Esq., who was kind enough to provide me with materials for this page, and to share with me his notes on the various cardinals who were living at the time of the death of Adrian IV. He also indulged me with additional correspondence on various topics relevant to this page. His interventions saved me from a number of mistakes and improved the final product.]


November 14, 2013 6:05 PM

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