Sede Vacante 1145
February 15, 1145
Kingdom of Sicily
The situation of the Norman King of Sicily was a major concern to the new Pope, Lucius II, in March of 1144. Bad as affairs were in Rome, the situation was worse with King Roger. He was the Pope's most important vassal, and yet Pope Celestine II had refused him the recognition as King of Sicily which had been granted by Anacletus II and admitted by Innocent II. But Roger had been in complete control over all church appointments in his kingdom for a decade, since he had captured Pope Innocent II in 1139, and forced from him papal investiture with the lands of the south (Treaty of Mignano). The Historia Pontificum provides some of the details of the confrontation, in which the King insisted on naming persons whom he wanted to be elected, and the Pope insisted on inhibiting them from being consecrated:
Rex enim aliorum more tirannorum ecclesiam terrae suae redegerat in servitutem, nec alicubi patiebatur electionem libere celebrari, send praenominabat quem eligi oporteret, et ita de officiis ecclesiasticis sicut de palatii sui muneribus disponebat. Ob hanc causam taliter electos inhibuit Romana ecclesia consecrari, adeo quod processerat inhibitio, ut paucae sedes propriis auderent episcopis et fere in omnibus ecclesiis residebant viri a multis annis electi. Nam consecrationis oleum defecit in terra eius, ex quo cepit Innocentium papam. Praeterea legatos ecclesiae Romanae non patiebatur intrare terram suam nisi a se vocatos, aut licentia ante impetrata destinatos, et eos tunc non ecclesiae sed ipse propriis sumptibus exhibebat aut faciebat ab ecclesiis exhiberi.
Apparently Innocent complained, but King Roger replied that it had been the custom since the time of Robert Guiscard, and he had no intention of ceasing [Chronicon Ignoti Monachi Cisterciensis S. Mariae de Ferraria p. 27 ed. Gaudenzi]:
Mcxlij et xiij anno eiusdem Innocentii idem Apostolicus misit eidem regi quod non esset iuris sui pastores eligere ecclesiarum et ab hac presumptione discederet. Cui rex ita respondit, quod a tempore Roberti Guiscardi ducis et ducis Rogerii et Guildemi ducis usque modo hec consuetudo extitit, a qua discedere nullo modo volumus, sed eam tenere firmiter volumus.
This had been an element of contention between him and Pope Celestine during his brief reign (September 26, 1143–March 8, 1144). As Romuald of Salerno puts it [MGH SS 19, 424], Hic concordiam quae inter Innocentium papam et regem Rogerium facta est, ratam habere noluit, sed eam revocavit in dubium. Roger was delighted, however, with the accession of Lucius II (Gerardus of Bologna, Cardinal Priest of S. Croce), who was a friend of his. Pope Lucius desperately needed help against the Roman Commune, and met with Roger at Ciperano, near Gaeta, at the beginning of June of 1144. An agreement might have been reached between the two, had not the Cardinals been against the idea [Archbishop Romualdus of Salerno, MGH SS 19, 424]. After the meeting, Pope Lucius, who was convalescing from a serious bout of illness, wrote to Peter the Venerable, Abbot of Cluny [Migne PL 179, 905; Watterich II, 280]:
De statu nostro te collicitum cognoscentes scire te volumus, quia omnipotens Dominus sua nos gratia visitavit, castigans castigavit, sed morti non tradidit. Per ipsius misericordiam convalescimus et pristinam sanitatem in brevi nos recepturos speramus. Ad colloquium Regis Siciliae condescendimus et quia ad honorem Dei et ecclesiae suae firmam pacem cum eo facere non potuimus, instanti tamen ipsius violentia nos cogente, treugam cum eo composuimus.
The failure to reach accord embittered King Roger, who returned to a policy of intense hostility to the Papacy and aggressiveness toward the Patrimony. On his orders, his son invaded Campania and captured and sacked Ferentum.
At the same time, the absence of an Emperor from Italy brought ever increasing disorders in Lombardy and north-central Italy. Venice was at war with Ravenna, Verona and Vicenza with Padua, Pisa and Florence with Lucca and Siena. And then, around Christmas, invasions of the Christian east by the Saracens brought slaughter nearly everywhere except Antioch and Damascus [Otto of Frising Chronica VII. 29-30; MGH SS 20, p. 264]
The Roman Commune
Immediately after his return to the City, Pope Lucius faced the wrath of the people of Rome. Against his will they made Jordanus Petri Leonis Patrician of Rome and appointed Senators again in the City [Romualdus of Salerno, MGH SS 19, 424; Muratori RIS VII, 192A]:
Non multo autem post, Populus Romanus contra voluntatem ejusdem Papae Jordanum filium Petri Leonis in Patricium promovit, et Senatores de novo in Urbe creavit.
The Roman Commune, then, was established in the wake of the disastrous later years of the reign of Innocent II, where his arrogance and treachery led to one reversal after another for the Roman Church. Innocent had returned only because of the military support of the Emperor Lothar, who was no friend of the Romans. But Lothar died in December of 1137, and Innocent in 1143. The brief interlude of Celestine II (September 26, 1143—March 8, 1144) saw some efforts to come to terms with the Romans, but in 1144, in the face of the hostility of Lucius II, a Roman Republic was proclaimed. The Roman Senate was restored or reconstituted. An Era of the Renovatio Sacri Senatus was established [F. Vitale, Storia diplomatica de' Senatori di Roma I (Roma 1791), p. 34, 40; L. Olivier, Il Senato Romano I, pp. 159-164]. The political leader of this civic advance was Jordanus Petri Leonis (Pierleoni), the brother of the late Pope Anacletus II, whose party had been friendly to the Sicilian monarchy and hostile to the Imperial party which had adopted Innocent II. Jordanus and the Roman citizens had no reason to hold in regard most of the cardinals appointed by Innocent II, many of whom were from Pisa, France, or the regular clergy (9), and who were promoting radical reforms that many of the secular clergy did not want. Lucius, however, seemed to believe that the Imperialists would be his salvation. He wrote to Conrad III [Otto of Frising Chronicon VII. 31 = MGH SS 20, p. 264 (JL 8684). See J. Strothmann, Kaiser und Senat, p. 50]:
Lucius papa... gravem a civibus persecutionem passus, humiles ad regem Conradum tam suam opporessionem continentes quam de incolumitate et prosperitate eius Deo gratias agentes ipsumque ad patrocinium Romanae ecclesiae invitantes litteras mittit, in hunc modum: Lucius episcopus .... Omne datum optimum. Populus enim Romanus, nullas insaniae suae metas ponere volens, senatoribus quos ante instituerant, patricium adiciunt, atque ad hanc dignitatem Iordanem Petri Leonis filium eligentes, omnes ei tanquam principi subiciuntur. Deinde pontificem suum adeunt, ac omnia regalia eius tam in Urbe quam extra posita, ad ius patricii sui reposcunt, eumque more antiquorum sacerdotum de decimis tantum et oblationibus sustentari oportere, dicentes, de die in diem animam iusti affligere non timuerunt.
No help, however, was forthcoming. On January 20, 1145, Pope Lucius had intended to go to the Monastery of S. Saba on the Aventine Hill for the consecration of the new Abbot. On the previous day he had signed the Bull which turned over the monastery to the Order of Cluny [JL 8707], another of those transactions of that generation which brought outside monastic orders to Rome to take possession of ancient Roman institutions (cf. the case of S. Maria Nova and S. Prisca). Lucius wrote instead to Abbot Peter the Venerable and the monks of Cluny [Migne PL 179, column 932; JL 8707] that he was unable to do so, as he said, because of disturbances in the city:
Fratres vestros debita benignitate suscepimus, eosque apud Sanctum Sabam honeste locavimus. Maxima vero urbis perturbatione praepediti, quam per dilectos filios nostros Joannem camerarium et alios fratres vestros plenius intelligere poteritis, abbatem ibi ordinare nequivimus; cum tamen ipsum cum omnibus pertinentiis suis per privilegium nostrum vobis concessimus et confirmavimus. Quam citius autem per Dei gratiam ab his expediti, magistro Mario qui hactenus eidem loco praefuerat, quem pro ipsorum novitate provisorem eis per aliquantulum temporis dimisimus, providere curabimus, et illum qui a fratribus vestris nobis designatus est, ibidem ad honorem Dei et sanctae Romanae Ecclesiae et Cluniacensis monasterii, Domino auxiliante, in abbatem ordinare curabimus.
On January 31, the Pope turned over the Circus Maximus into the custody of the Frangipane brothers, Oddo and Cincius [JL 8710; cf. Kehr, Italia Pontificia I, p. 191 no 1, where it is argued that Monte Circeo is meant; cf. Gregorovius IV. 2, p. 488, who puts the Circus Maximus property in the context of the other Frangipane fortifications in Rome; one may note that half of the Circus was the property of the Monastery of S. Paolo fuori le mure, confirmed in a grant of Gregory VII: Trifone, Archivio 31 (1908) p. 282 (March 14, 1081): Et medietatem Circi, cum omnibus criptis, ubi lutea vasa coquuntur]. A crisis was coming.
Death of Lucius II (Gerhardus of Bologna)
There are stories that the Pope had been ill during his brief tenure of less than twelve months. He had been seriously ill just after his meeting with Roger of Sicily in June of 1144 (JL 8653). In addition, Bishop Otto of Frising, the half-brother of Conrad III, King of the Romans, reports [Chronicon VII. 31]:
...de die in diem animam iusti affligere non timuerunt [Romani]. Ipse autem quotidianis cruciatibus ac taedio vitae affectus, infra anni spatium Pontificatus sui diem obiit...
The Continuator of Sigebert [MGH SS 6, 453] is somewhat more revealing, admitting that the Pope was engaged in military operations against the Senate of Rome, though misrepresenting the political reasons. The Romans were not in revolt against the Church, but against the corrupt and ineffective government of churchmen. Innocent II had sown the wind; Celestine and Lucius were reaping the whirlwind:
Lucius Papa senstores Romanorum contra ecclesiam erectos in capitolio obsidet; sed inde per Iordanem Petri Leonis perturbatus, infirmitate correptus, infra annum Pontificii sui moritur.
It is also asserted that the Pope suffered because of the active opposition to his rule of the Senators and People of Rome, led by Giordano Pierleone (Jordanus Petri Leonis), the brother of Pope Anacletus II. Pope Lucius II, Vicar on earth of the Prince of Peace, was wounded by a missile while attacking the forces of the Commune of Rome on February 15, 1145. He had brought a large force to the Capitol, where the Senators of the Roman Commune were based, intending to depose them. The Senators and the People, however, drove the papal forces and His Holiness himself from the Capitol [Gregorovius IV.2, pp. 490-491; Vitale, pp. 34-35]. Godefridus of Viterbo [Watterich II, p. 281] provides the details:
Lucius secundus itaque intendens senatum extinguere, cum ingenti militia capitolium Romae conscendit, ut sedentes ibi tunc senatores cum dedecore removeret. Senatus autem populusque Romanus ad arma conversus, Papam cum suis omnibus a Capitolio in momento repellunt. Ubi Papa, sicut tunc audivimus, lapidibus magnis percussus, usque ad obitus sui diem, qui proxime sequutus est, non sedit in sede. Cui tunc successit Eugenius Abbas Sancti Anastasii Romae, de Ordine Clarevallensium.
He was taken to the Monstery of S. Gregorio on the Clivus Scaurus, where he died shortly thereafter ["Life of Lucius II", by Cardinal Boso, in Waterich II, p. 279; Boso is twisting the facts, however, where he makes one of the Pope's last acts a successful effort to get the Senators to come down and abjure their Senate: Gregorovius IV. 2, p. 490 n. 3]. He was buried at the Lateran Basilica with the appropriate rites (cum honore).
Recent "sceptical" scholarship (see G. Milani, "Lucio Ii" Enciclopedia dei Papi), perhaps embarassed by the violence of the scenes, or the attack against a Pontiff, has pretended, without any good evidence at all, that Lucius II merely expired of his various vague undefined illnesses rather than from a cerebral concussion. But the civil war in the city and the immediate flight of Eugenius III and the cardinals after the Election speak in favor of Godefridus of Viterbo's narrative.
Onuphrio Panvinio (Epitome, pp. 114-115) provides a list of thirty-five cardinals who took part in the Election of Eugenius III. He includes: Iozelinus of S. Cecilia (who died in 1132, and whose titulus was vacant in 1145); Cardinal Lucas of SS. Giovanni e Paolo, who was dead and had been succeeded by Hubaldus); Bernardus of S. Clemente (who first subscribes on December 31, 1145); Guido of SS. Vito e Modesto (actually of SS. Cosma e Damiano); Gerard of S. Maria in Domnica (last subscribed on May 28, 1144); Guido of S. Maria in Porticu (though Cardinal Peter still subscribed until May 17, 1145). He omits: Raynaldus of Montecassino; Gregory of SS. Sergio e Baccho; Iohannes of S. Maria Nuova; and Guido di Castelfidardo (deaconry not known).
Ciaconius-Olduin (columns 1028-1029), also provide a list of cardinals who took part in the Election of 1145; it contains forty-three names.
It includes Petrus of S. Susanna (who had probably died in 1144); Adinulf of Farfa, OSB (who had died at Mainz in 1144); Gregorius S. R. E. Diaconus Cardinalis (said to be an appointee of Celestine II); Berardus (Cardinal Deacon of Unknown Title); Bernardus (Cardinal Deacon of ?); and Petrus of S. Maria in Via lata (who first subscribes on May 5, 1145).
Salvador Miranda gives a list of forty-two cardinals, but does not state whether his is a list of living cardinals on February 15, 1145, or participants in the Election. His list follows Ciaconius-Oldiun closely, omitting only Petrus of S. Susanna..
Fifteen days before the death of Pope Lucius II, a bull was signed, assigning the Church of S. Giovanni a Porta Latina to the Canons of the Lateran Basilica [JL 8711]. It contains the names of twenty-four (or twenty-five) cardinals, including Cardinal Berardus, Deacon without Deaconry.
Cardinals alive at the time of the Election of 1145:
- Conradus, a native Roman from the Suburra region. Between 1111 and 1114 Pope Paschal II promoted him to be Cardinal Priest of S. Pudenziana, and Honorius II had promoted him to the See of Sabina in 1128 [Zenker, p. 46-47]. He had been the Vicar for the city of Rome of Pope Eugenius III while the latter was in France (1147-1149) and again from the Summer of 1150 to December of 1152, when the pope was in exile due to his conflicts with the Commune of Rome. He had been a cardinal for over forty years before his election to the Papacy.
- Theodwin, Can. Reg. of Saint Augustine, Bishop Silva Candida (Santa Rufina). His latest subscription is April 14, 1150 [Migne PL 180, no. ccclxxx, columns 1411-1413; JL 9380]. Cardinal Theodwin died on March 7, 1151 [Brixius. p. 47 and p. 95, note 85; Zenker, p. 28 n. 106]. The See was vacant until the beginning of 1154. Miranda chooses to follow the Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1928, rather than Brixius and Zenker, and makes Theodwin die in 1153, though conveniently after the Election on July 8. Abbot Wibaldus, Ep. 225 in Migne's edition (Jaffé, Ep. 252, pp. 376-378), demonstrates that Theodwin returned from the East in 1150, went to Germany, and rejoined King Konrad's court. It is the Historia Pontificum sub anno 1150 that makes Cardinal Theodwin die in the East, but apparently this was during a return trip that his death came in 1151. The year 1151 is given by the Annales Palidenses, which provide a substantial biographical notice [MGH SS 16, 85]. The Historia Pontificum also remarks, "Legati vero erant a domino papa [Eugenio] missi, Tadvinus Portuensis episcopus natione Teutonicus, et Guidp presbiter cardinalis S. Grisogoni, genere Florentinus viri quidem boni sed tanto officio minus idonei. Tadwinus enim moribus et lingua dissonans Francis barbarus habetur."
- Petrus "Papareschi", Bishop of Albano [Brixius, p. 45 and 93; Zenker, p. 36]. Nothing is known about him. He subscribed JL 8742 on April 28, 1145. There is no proof that he was Innocent II's brother.
- Guarinus [Bononiensis], like Lucius II a Can. Reg. of S. Maria di Reno in Bologna, according to Ciaconius [He is also claimed as a Canon of the Lateran: AA SS Feb. I, 915B, and a Canon of S. Frediano in Lucca: AA SS p. 915F]. Bishop of Palestrina (1144-1158?). He had previously been appointed to the See of Reate [possibly after the death of Bishop Gentilis, ca. 135-137: see Ughelli Italia Sacra I, 1198], but, preferring the life of a hermit, fled into Egypt [Life by Augustinus Ticinensis, AA SS Feb. I, 915D]. Later he was elected Bishop of Pavia after the death of Bishop Peter (1139), but was very unwilling to be consecrated; he was held in custody, but escaped and hid himself until Bishop Alphonsus was elected [Ughelli, Italia Sacra I, 1091]. He is said to have been a monk for more than forty years when Lucius II selected him to be a Cardinal. His latest subscription is on May 27, 1154 [JL 9909].
Acta Sanctorum Februarii Tomus I (Antwerp 1658), pp. 914-916, prints his Vita by Augustinus Ticinensis, a Canon of the Lateran (early 16th century). Not all of Augustinus' material is worthy of belief. [G. Trombelli, Memorie istoriche cocern. le due canoniche di S. Maria di Reno e di S. Salvatore (Bologna 1752), p. 211 notes, for opinions as to Lucius II' s family connections; Ciaconius-Olduin I, columns 1023-1024; Brixius, pp. 51 and 101-102; Zenker, pp. 41-42].
- Gregorius, (died 1163). Cardinal Priest of S. Maria in Trastevere tituli Calixti (ca. 1138/1140 until after June 25, 1154). Later Bishop of Sabina. In the treaty of January, 1155, between Frederick I and Adrian IV, he is referred to: mediante domino Gregorio tunc Sancte Marie Transtiberim nunc episcopo Sabinensi [MGH Diplomata (Urkunden) Friedrich I, Part I: 1152-1158, no. 98, pp. 165-167]. The words nunc episcopo Sabinensi are an addition in 1155 to the original document of 1153 [Doeberl, Monumenta Germaniae Selecta 3-4 nr. xxvii].
- Guido "Bellagio" [Florentinus], presbiter cardinalis sancti Chrysogoni (1140-1157?) [Cardella I. 2, p. 86]. He could speak French, and had a taste for logic.. Apost. sedis Legatus in tota Langobardia, along with Cardinal Hubaldus of S. Prassede, attested in July-October, 1144 [Kehr, Italia Pontificia VI, xxviii; p. 80, etc.; Italia Pontificia VI.2, p. 18 no. 4 (Vercelli, August, 1144)]. Legate in Piacenza in 1146 with Ubaldus de Luca [Kehr, Italia Pontificia 5, p. 449 no. 36]; Legate in the Holy Land, 1147-1151 [Historia Pontificalis, MGH SS 20, 540]; and in Verona in 1157. He last subscribes on June 13, 1157 [JL 10296]. [Brixius p. 43].
- Ranierus, Cardinal Priest of SS. Prisca et Aquila. (subscribes April 3, 1140 to May 7, 1146). Previously Cardinal Deacon without Deaconry (1140) [JL 8076, 8085].
- Tommaso [Mediolanensis], Can. Reg. of S. Maria de Crescenzago, title of S. Vitale.(subscribed April 11, 1141 to October 1146). He may have been a Cardinal Deacon (from 1140) [JL 8089; JL 8130], though his Deaconry is unknown [Brixius, p. 47 no. 50, and p. 96 note 86; Zenker, p. 114].
Cardinal Deacon Thomas' subscription, JL 8130 can be found in Migne, PL 179, 536-537(erroneously dated March 3, 1130; it was Innocent II's Year XII and Indiction IV, which would have been 1141): Ego Thomas sanctae Romanae Ecclesiae diaconus cardinalis.
- Gilbertus, Cardinal Priest of S. Marco (subscribed December 23, 1143—1150). He is called Gislebertus de S. Marco in Kehr, Italia Pontificia VI. 2, p. 119 no. 6. On April 28, 1145, he suscribes as Ghilibertus indignus sacerdos sancte Romane ecclesie [Nachrichten der K. Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften zu Göttingen, phil.-hist. Klasse (1906), no. 29, p. 67]. On May 20, 1148, he subscribes as Gilibertus indignus sacerdos tit. S. Marci [Nachrichten der K. Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften zu Göttingen, phil.-hist. Klasse (1906), no. 39, p. 82; Lawrie, Early Scottish Charters (1904) p. 130 (May 14, 1144)]. The donation inscription on the tabernacle at S. Marco, ordered made by Cardinal Gilbertus for the redemption of his soul, gives him the title Magister and calls him GII PRESBYTER CARDIINALIS SANCTI MARCI [Forcella Inscrizioni delle chiese di Roma IV, no. 818]. The tabernacle was completed and dedicated in 1154, the date of the inscription.
- Guido Summanus (according to Balderic, Gesta Alberonis), wrongly called "Maricotti". He is called Wido de Summa in Kehr, Italia Pontificia VI. 2, p. 119 no. 6. Cardinal Priest of S. Lorenzo in Damaso (subscribed December 28, 1143 to May 6, 1149). In 1142, there were two Cardinal Deacons named Guido [JL 8227], one of which was possibly our Guido. Apostolic Legate in Lombardy with Cardinal Hubaldus of Lucca under Lucius II in 1144 [Kehr, Italia Pontificia VI.1, pp. xxvii-xxviii (July-October, 1144)]
- Nicolaus (Niccolò), Cardinal Priest of S. Cyriacus in Thermis Diocletiani. [Ciaconius-Olduin I, column 1003]. Nicolaus signs a bull on October 29, 1142 [JL 8242], as Nicolaus diaconus cardinalis sanctae romanae ecclesiae, immediately after Cardinal Octavianus of S. Nicolai in Carcere. He was promoted to Cardinal Priest of S. Ciriaco in December, 1143 [Brixius, p. 45]. He died on April 1, 1151 [Zenker, p. 109], as the Necrologio dei SS. Ciriaco e Nicolao records [P. Egidi, Necrologi e libri affini della Provincia romana, (Roma 1908), p. 25]
- Manfredus, Cardinal Priest of S. Sabina (1143-1157). His latest subscription is on June 28, 1157 (JL 10229].
- Ugo, Can. Reg. of S. Maria di Reno. He is called Ugo de Novaria in Kehr, Italia Pontificia VI. 2, p. 119 no. 6. Cardinal Priest of S. Lorenzo in Lucina. (December, 1143—September 21, 1150). Previously Cardinal Deacon of S. Lucia in Orphea (December, 1143-May, 1144) [Zenker, 123-125] He was Apostolicae Sedis Legatus at Nogara in 1144 [Kehr, Italia Pontificia 5, p. 344 no. 36].
- Aribertus, presbiter cardinalis tituli sanctae Anastasiae (1143-1158?), a creation of Celestine III. His latest known subscription is on January 25, 1156. [cf. Brixius, p. 97, 135; Zenker, 72-73] . On June 27, 1145 he is called "Heribertus primae sedis presb. card. et legatus" at Piacenza [Kehr, Italia Pontificia 5, p. 437 no. 4 and 522 no. 4]; by March 10, 1146 he was back in Rome [Kehr, Italia Pontificia 5, p. 464 no.20].
[His tomb in SS. Silvestro e Martino is dated 1160; but that is the date of dedication. Aribert was dead before April 16, 1158, when his successor, Cardinal Joannes Neapolitanus, was already in office at S. Anastasia (JL 10401)]
- Hubaldus "Allucingoli", O.Cist. [of Lucca], Cardinal Priest of S. Prassede, February 23, 1141 [Watterich, 333]; some consider him the same Hubaldus as was created Cardinal Deacon of S. Adriano in 1138 [RIS III. 1 p. 442 column 2]; he first subscribed on January 25, 1139 [JL 7947]. [Future Pope Lucius III, September 1, 1181–November 25, 1185] He had been legate of Innocent II in Lombardy in 1142-1143. [Cardella I. 2, pp. 27-29; Kehr, Italia Pontificia VI.1, p. 181 no. 36 (August 1, 1143)] and under Lucius II in 1144 along with Cardinal Guido de Summa [Kehr, Italia Pontificia VI.1, pp. xxvii-xxviii (July-October, 1144)] Legate in Piacenza in 1146 with Cardinal Guido de Florentia [Kehr, Italia Pontificia 5, p. 449 no. 36]
- Robert Pullen, Cardinal Priest of SS. Sylvester et Martinus tit. Equitii (NOT title of S. Eusebio, as in S. Miranda). Studied in Paris. Archdeacon of Rochester, attested in 1134 and 1143 [Le Neve, Fasti ecclesiae Anglicanae II, 579]. Chancellor of Oxford University, 1134 [Le Neve III, 463]. Chancellor of Lucius II from January, 1145. (subscribed January 4, 1145- September 2, 1146). [Brixius, 139; Zenker, 89-92]
- Iulius (Giulio) [Romanus], Cardinal Priest of S. Marcello, from 1144 until the end of 1158. Later Cardinal Bishop of Palestrina (1158-1164). Vicar of Rome for Pope Alexander III (died in 1164 or 1165) [Cardella I. 2, pp. 42-43; Watterich, pp. 387, 399]
- Hubaldus Caccianemici [Bononiensis], presbiter cardinalis tituli Sanctae Crucis in Ierusalem. (subscribed June 28, 1144–September 12, 1170) He was a relative (propinquus) of Pope Lucius II, who gave him his own titular church of S. Croce in Gerusalemme in 1144 [Cardella I. 2, p. 51; Besozzi La storia della basilica di Santa Croce in Gerusalemme (Roma 1750) p. 107; G. Trombelli, Memorie istoriche cocern. le due canoniche di S. Maria di Reno e di S. Salvatore (Bologna 1752), 220-221]. [Brixius, p. 51 nr. 5, p. 103, p. 136; zenker, p. 132]. He was not a Canon of S. Maria de Reno in Bologna, only a benefactor.
- Guido Dent [Bononiensis], presbyter cardinalis tituli Pastoris (S. Pudenziana) (1144–1157). He was juris peritus, according to Baldericus, in the Gesta Alberonis. After the election of Adrian IV in 1154, he was going to attend upon the Pope, but was set upon by some of Arnold of Brescia's supporters in an assassination attempt [ad interitum vulnerarunt]. The Pope placed Rome under interdict, which lasted until Wednesday in Holy Week, March 23, 1155 [Cardinal Boso, "Life of Adrian IV", in Watterich II, 324; cf. Baronius-Theiner sub anno 1155, no. 3, where he is called 'Gerardus']. He was not killed, however (as some modern authors report); he appears on June 1, 1155 as a member of the legation sent to Frederick Barbarossa to negotiate about the Imperial coronation and the surrender of Arnold of Brescia to the Pope [JL 10072, 10073]. Pope Hadrian, on the petition of Cardinal Guido, entrusted the Church of S. Pudenziana to the care of the Canons of S. Maria de Reno; the date of the decree is March 17, 1155 [Migne PL 188, column 1399; JL 10020; P. Kehr, Italia pontificia I, p. 59]. Latest subscription: June 15, 1157 [JL 10298; Migne, PL 188, column 1521; Brixius, pp. 51, 102, 157] According to the Necrology of S. Maria de Reno in Bologna, he died on May 29; if true, he would have survived until 1158 at least. The Necrologio Renano states that he was buried at S. Pudenziana in 1154. This is certainly wrong. Could it have been an incorrect transcription of 1159? [G. Trombelli, Memorie istoriche cocern. le due canoniche di S. Maria di Reno e di S. Salvatore (Bologna 1752), p. 221; 354]
- Villanus (Villano Gaetani) [Pisanus], Cardinal Priest of S. Stefano in Celio Monte (subscribed January 11, 1145–May, 1146). His predecessor, Cardinal Rainerius, last subscribed on October 26, 1144. Villanus resigned to become Archbishop of Pisa in 1145 [F. Ughelli, Italia Sacra III, columns 394-408]. He died on January 1, 1175 [Zenker, 134-135] or August 2 [Ughelli, 408, from the Kalendarium of S. Zeno of Pisa]..
- Gregorius Tarquinius, Cardinal Deacon of SS. Sergius and Bacchus (1123-1145). He is still subscribing on June 17, 1145 [JL 8771], and his successor, Cardinal Cinthius, begins to subscribe on September 21,1145 [Brixius, p. 34 nr. 17, p. 74 note 16; p. 143].
- Oddo Bonecase [MGH SS 8, 255; Zanker, 159], diaconus cardinalis sancti Georgii ad velum aureum (1132-1161). He was sent on a diplomatic mission to France in May, 1154-April, 1155 [Zenker, 159; E. Ernst, Archiv fur Diplomatik, Schriftgeschichte, Siegel- und Wappenkunde (1987), p. 260]. His latest subscription is JL 10684 (January 31, 1161).
- Guido da Vico [Pisanus], Cardinal Deacon of SS. Cosma e Damiano (subscribes from March 8, 1132- May 16, 1149) On July 16, 1146, a letter of Eugenius III [Migne, PL 180, cxxv, column 1151] refers to Cardinal Guido as judge in a dispute between the Canons of Verona and their bishop Tebaldus He died in 1149.
- Octavianus de' Monticelli [Sabinensis, not Tusculanus] (aged 50). Octavianum cardinalem presbyterum, qui de nobilissimo Romanorum descendit sanguine, according to Pope Adrian IV in a remark to Frederick Barbarossa [in Otto of Frising, MGH SS 20, 406]. Cardinal Deacon of S. Niccolò in Carcere (1138-1150). Later Cardinal Priest in the titulus sanctae Ceciliae (from 1151). Antipope "Victor IV" (1159-1164). Legate to King Roger of Sicily for Popes Celestine II and Lucius II (1143-1145) [Chronicon Ignoti Monachi Cisterciensis S. Mariae de Ferraria p. 27 ed. Gaudenzi].
- Petrus (Pietro), Cardinal Deacon of S. Maria in Porticu. (subscribed 1141 to May 17, 1145)
- Rodulfus, diaconus cardinalis sanctae Luciae in Saepta solis (Septisolio) (1143-1160).
- Joannes Paparo, deacon of S. Adriano.(subscribes from February 14, 1144 to March 2, 1151) [Ciaconius-Olduin I, columns 1016-1017]. He became Cardinal Priest of S. Lorenzo in Damaso (1151-1154).
- Gregory of S. Angelo in Pescheria (1137 or 1143–April 13, 1154). [Brixius, p. 49 nr. 3, and p. 97 note 101; but cf. Zenker, p. 174, who does not accept Brixius' notion that there were two successive Gregories at S. Angelo, but instead dates Cardinal Gregory between 1137 and 1154; cf. Maleczek, Papst und Kardinalskolleg, p. 242 n. 246, who prefers the two-Gregory theory]
- Iohannes (Giovanni), Can. Reg. of S. Frediano di Lucca, Cardinal Deacon of S. Maria Nuova. (subscribes January 1, 1144-January 24, 1152). Nephew of Lucius II [Wibald Stabulensis, Abbot of Corvey, former Abbot of Montecassino, Epist. 50 and 51: Migne, PL 189, columns 1163-1164 (A.D. 1148)]. By grant of Celestine II, confirmed by Lucius II and Eugenius III, the Cardinal Deacon of S. Maria Nova was chosen from the canons of S. Frediano of Lucca, if an appropriate candidate could be found [Bullarium Lateranense (1727), pp. 28-29].
- Astaldus degli Astalli, deacon of S. Eustachio. Subsequently Cardinal Priest of S. Prisca (1151-1161).
- Berardus, Cardinal Deacon without title. His earliest subscription is on September 14, 1144 (JL 8652) and his latest on May 29, 1146 [JL 8929; Pflugk-Harttung, Acta pontificum Romanorum inedita III, 77-78, nr. 76, which prints the date IIII Kl. Iun., Indictione VIIII. anno MCXLV, not 1146]. [Brixius, p. 51; cf. Zenker, p. 184, who print the date 1146 for JL 8929, which is correct].
He also subscribes to a bull of October 8, 1144, in last place after Iohannes of S. Maria Nova [Pflugk-Harttung, Acta pontificum Romanorum inedita III, 61-62, nr. 60]; and to JL 8711 (January 31, 1145); and he appears in the subscriptions of March 14, 1145 [Migne PL 180, 1016; JL 8717], after Astaldus, and before Guido, Jacinthus and Jordanus: Berardus, diac. card. sanctae Rom. Ecclesiae. His seniority seems uncertain. Nothing whatever is known about him
- Guido Sanctae Romanae Ecc. diac. card. subscribed on March 14, 1145, immediately after Cardinal Berardus [Migne PL 180, 1016; JL 8717].
- Iacinthus "Bobone" (Orsini), son of Petrus Bubo, of the Arenula district of Rome [see R. Brentano, Rome before Avignon (Berkeley 1974), p. 103, for the hostility between the Boboni and the Conti]. Cardinal Deacon of S. Maria in Cosmedin. In July of 1126 he was prior subdiaconorum sacrae basilicae [Sancti Petri] (JL 7266]. In April 1138 Iacinthus was prior subdiaconum sacri palatii [JL 7890]. He studied in Paris, and heard the lectures of Peter Abelard (ca. 1138-1140). Diaconus Cardinalis sanctae Mariae in Cosmedin (1144-1191). [Cardella I. 2, pp. 47-50]. He was Apostolicae Sedis Legatus in Spain and Portugal (1154-1155) [on Spain: P. Kehr, Nachrichten der K. Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften zu Göttingen, phil.-hist. Klasse (1902), no. 9, pp. 429-430], having left Rome after February 14, 1154, when he was still at the Curia and subscribed a papal document [Migne PL 188, p. 1037 (JL 9834)].
- Jordanus (Giordano), O.Cist. [French] was actually S.R.E. Diaconus in December, 1144 [Nachrichten der K. Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften zu Gottingen, phil.-hist. Klasse (1910) p. 46-47 nr. 20]. He signed as S.R.E. Diaconus Cardinalis on January 8, 1145; and again on December 15, 1145 [JL 8801=Migne PL 180, 1087-1089] as: Jordanus Diaconus Cardinalis Romanae Ecclesiae, after Cardinal Jacintus of S. Maria in Cosmedin and before Cardinal Cinthius of SS. Sergius & Bacchus. He was promoted Cardinal Priest of S. Susanna in December of 1145, and first subscribes on December 31, 1145 [Brixius, p. 52 and 104 note 113; Zenker, pp. 104-105]. A correspondent of Wibald Stabulensis [Epist. 49: Migne, PL 189, columns 1162 (1148)]. He died in 1154.
- Cencius (Cinthius)
signs JL 8707 on January 19, 1145 [Zenker, p. 188]. He also subscribes as Cinthius diac. card. sanctae Romanae Ecclesiae on March 14, 1145 [Migne PL 180, no. ii, columns 1016-1017 (JL 8717)]. His last subscription is on March 31, 1151 [JL 9469]. It seems as though he might have been eligible to participate in the Election of 1145.
Cardinals not attending the Election of 1145:
- Hymarus (Imarus), OSB [Gallus], Bishop of Tusculum (since 1142). Appointed Legate in England by Lucius II in 1144 and at the time of the Election of 1145 he was still there [Baronius-Theiner 18, sub anno 1144, no. 11, p. 624; Watterich, 454, 461].
- Alberic, OSB.Clun., Bishop of Ostia (1138-1148). Legate to England and Scotland for Innocent II; held a synod at Carlisle on September 26-28, 1138 (at which the Scottish Church, now that Anacletus II was dead, finally accepted Innocent II: Concilia Scotiae I, xxvi-xxviiii) , and at Westminster on December 13, 1138 [Gervase of Canterbury I (ed. Stubbs), p. 107-109; J. Le Neve, Fasti ecclesiae Anglicanae I, p. 8], and officiated at the consecration of Archbishop Theobald of Canterbury on January 8, 1139. He and the new archbishop then proceeded to Rome so that the Archbishop could receive the pallium. In 1145 he was Legate in France [Zenker, 18-19]. He accompanied Eugenius III on his trip to Germany and France in 1147 and 1148, and was present at Trier for Christmas of 1147 [Balderic, Gesta Alberonis, in MGH SS 8, 254-255].
- Hubaldus, Cardinal Priest of SS. Ioannes et Pauli tit. Pammachi (1141—1149). He was papal legate in Poland and Denmark in 1145; his name is absent from subscriptions from February 19, 1144 to October 9, 1145. On March 2, 1145 he was at Gniezno [Maleczynski, Studia nad dokumentem polskim (Wroclaw 1971) 55-76; I owe the knowledge of this reference to the generosity of Tomasz Karlikowski]
- ? Raynaldus, Abbot of Montecassino (died 1166). He is commemorated in the Necrologion Casinense [Muratori, Rerum Italicarum Scriptores VII, 943] in July: " Idibus. Obiit Ven. mem. Dominus Rainaldus presbyter cardinalis et Abbas hujus loci." [July 15].
He became Abbot in 1137, after Abbot Wibaldus, the Imperial supporter, had fled along with the Imperial party in the face of King Roger of Sicily: licet officio eidem ecclesiae administrare desierimus. Wibald wrote to congratulate him on his election [Epist. 3 and 4: Migne, PL 189, columns 1129-1130].
It is alleged that Rainaldo di Collemezzo Abbot of Montecassino [Cardella I.2, pp. 26-27] was created Cardinal Priest of Marcellino e Pietro by Innocent II in 1140; or maybe created by Anacletus II and welcomed into the faction of Innocent II, who allowed him to keep his title [rejected by Cardella, p. 27]. In fact, it would seem that, as an adherent of King Roger of Sicily and of Anacletus II, Rainaldo would have been one of those excommunicated and deposed by the Lateran Synod of 1139, and he may have been one of those pardoned along with King Roger after the Normans captured Pope Innocent on July 22, 1139; but there is no evidence for such suppositions (cf. Luigi Tosti, La storia della Badia di Monte-Cassino II , pp. 153-168). Innocent II was not uniformly forgiving to all of the supporters of Anacletus: In August he deposed Rossemanus, Archbishop of Benevento, and others, because they had favored Anacletus II (Falco, Chronicon Beneventanum: Watterich, pp. 253-255). And there is no evidence that he was Cardinal of S. Marcellino e Pietro.
In a document of December 12, 1147, however, King Roger of Sicily calls him vir
venerabilis Raynaldus S. Romanae Ecclesiae cardinalis, et sacri Cassiniensis coenobii religiosissimus
abbas, fidelis noster (Tosti II, pp. 193-194). Rainaldus is called "cardinalis
et venerabilis Montis Casini abbas" in other documents (e.g. Tosti, pp. 196-198 [March
1155]). G. A. Loud, The Latin Church in Norman Italy (Cambridge 2007), p. 241, states
that Rainaldo "seems to have been an honorary cardinal from 1141, but never an active
member of the college." It is a fact that the title 'cardinal' was used in other
churches than the Church of Rome, at Ravenna, Naples, Milan, and Compostela for example [e.g. Bulletino
dell' "Archivio paleografico italiano" num. 1 (Perugia 1908), p. 75; Ughelli, Italia
sacra II, 371: per manum Alberti, diaconi cardinalis Ravennatensis ecclesiae;
G. Trombelli, Memorie istoriche cocern. le due canoniche di S. Maria di Reno e di S. Salvatore (Bologna
1752), p. 358 (a cardinal priest, cardinal deacon and cardinal subdeacon of Ravenna (February
A. Muratori, "De
Cardinalium institutione," Antiquitates
Dissertatio 61, pp 569-616], most usually for canons or at least senior canons of the Cathedral
of the city. Pope Urban IV refers to the canons of Ravenna being called "cardinales" in
a mandate of June 11, 1264 [Guiraud, Registres d' Urbain IV III (1904), p. 274, no.
1760]. Ciaconius-Olduin (I, 1053) list him as one of the living cardinals in July,
1154, at the time of the Election of Anastasius IV.
- Guido di Castro Ficelo [not Castelfidardo], deaconry not known, over a period of seven years. He first subscribes on April 29, 1140 (JL 8092), and his latest is on December 27, 1146 (JL 8974) This latest subscription [Migne, PL 180, column 1175, reads: Guido S. R. E. indignus diaconus, but he signs first among the four Cardinal Deacons [Zenker, pp. 188-190; see also L. Spätling, "Kardinal Guido und seine Legation in Böhmen-Mähren (1142-1146)," Mittheilungen des Instituts für Oesterreichische Geschichtsforschung 66 (1958) 309 ff.]. Guido is mentioned as legate in Moravia by Innocent II in a letter of August 21, 1142 [Migne, PL 179, column 597, no. dxxxi: JL 8238; Erben p. 104,-105 no. 236 and 238].
Ciaconius-Olduin term him altaris Lateranensis minister. Apparently he is not the same Cardinal Guido as Guido Sanctae Romanae Ecc. diac. card., who subscribed on March 14, 1145, immediately after Cardinal Berardus [Migne PL 180, 1016; JL 8717]. He subscribed on January 31, 1145 [Pflugk-Harttung, Acta...inedita III, p. 64]: Ego in Romana Ecclesia Guido altaris minister indignus, suggesting that he may have been in Rome for the Election of February 15, 1145.
It is said that in JL 8151 [Migne, PL 179, column 550], Guido signed as Ego Guido diac. card. S. Apollinaris, "doch durfte dies ein Irrtum sein, da dieser Titel keine Diakonie sondern ein Presbyterium war. [Zenker, p. 188 n. 30]. Well, yes, it could well be an error, but the error would be in connecting the Deacon of S. Apollinaire with the Cardinal Deacon. S. Apollinaris had been a titulus for only a few months in 1136/1137, under Anacletus II [Brixius, p. 136]. It is hardly likely that it would have brought about confusion on the part of copyists. Its appearance must be taken seriously.
There were other deacons in the Roman Church besides cardinal deacons. For example on November 17, 1121 [P. Fedele, "Tabularium S. Mariae Novae," Archivio della r. Societa Romana di storia patria 25 (1902), no. XIV, p. 68], the Cardinal Priest of S. Prassede makes a grant: "Ego quidem Desiderius Dei gratia cardinalis tituli Sancte Praxedis virginis, una cum clericis nostre ecclesie, Iohanne scilicet diacono et ceteris aliis clericis..." In another example, on August 15, 1158 [Fedele, p. 189 note 1], a Deacon of S. Maria Nova notes the receipt of one of several payments to the Deaconry, "Ego Silvester diaconus et canonicus sancte Marie Nove accepi a te Iohanne Stephano .1. denarium pro pensione in Assumptione Sancte Marie indictione VII." Deacon Silvester is not, of course, the Cardinal Deacon; the Deaconry was vacant. Note also, no. LXXII, p. 191: "Ego quidem Iohannes Dei gratia prior et rector venerabilis canonice sancte Marie Nove, consentientibus Gregorio presbitero et Ambrosio subdiacono ceterisque fratribus ipsius ecclesie..." It seems the most likely solution is that Guido was only a deacon in the church of S. Apollinaris, and no cardinal at all. It is the attribution of the card. to Deacon Guido that is a mistake. The mistake is likely that of a copyist, who has just been repeating a list of cardinal priests and cardinal deacons, who has become used to putting card. with every name.
- ?? Gregorius Luc. This unknown S.R.E. Deacon signs as Gregorius Luc. sanctae Romanae ecclesiae indignus diac. on January 12, 1142 [Nachrichten der K. Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften zu Gottingen, phil.-hist. Klasse (1905) nr. 5, p. 28]. [See below, on Gregorio, deaconry unknown]. There is no evidence as to his whereabouts around February 15, 1145.
It is extraordinary to observe that there were at least five (and perhaps as many as seven) Cardinal Deacons among the Electors to whom a Deaconry had not been assigned, in one case (that of Guido de Castro Ficelo) for more than six years. This may be explained, at least in part, by the brevity of the reign of Celestine II and the disturbed situation in Rome during the eleven months of Lucius II.
Errata Salvatoris Mirandae
Miranda, basing his list on Ciaconius-Olduin (columns 1052-1053), states that there were thirty-nine cardinals who took part in the Election. His list includes
- Bernardus , Cardinal Deacon of unknown title. The dates of Bernardus' subscriptions begin with April 28, 1145 [JL 8742; Nachrichten der K. Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften zu Göttingen, phil.-hist. Klasse (1906), no. 29, pp. 64-67; Brixius, p. 53 no. 2; Zenker, 188]. His signature appears next-to-last, but above Odo of S. Georgio in velum aureum, who had been created a cardinal in 1132. On June 15, 1145 [Antonio López Ferreiro, Historia de la santa a. m. Iglesia de Santiago de Compostela Tomo IV (Santiago 1901), Apéndices, no. XIV, p. 40] he signs as: Bernardus diac. Card. Sce. Rom. ecclesie. Cardinal Bernardus last signs on December 20, 1152 [JL 9622, according to Kaltenbrunner's list of signatories communicated to JL]. He was still Prior of the Lateran on January 31, 1145 [JL 8711; Kehr, Italia Pontificia I, p. 27, no. 17]. There is no evidence that he was a cardinal at the time of the Election of February 15, 1145, except an inference that he would have been created Cardinal in the Consistory of December, 1144, based on the order of his subscription. Zenker (p.188), however, is probably right in making him a creation of Eugenius III. Bernardus was a genuine Cardinal, but not yet. Printed reports of his subscriptions hopelessly confuse his name with that of Cardinal Berardus.
It should also be pointed out that there are two other Cardinals from that Consistory of December, 1144, whose titles are unknown, Cencius (1144-1151) and Nicolaus (who actually became Cardinal Priest of S. Ciriaco in December, 1143). And in the Consistory of December, 1145, Miranda lists four more Cardinal Deacons whose Deaconries are unknown: Giordano "Bobone", Bercarco [Could this possibly be "Bernardo"??], Gerardo and Guido. And in 1146 two more, Bernard OSB and Gregorio. In a second Consistory in 1146, three cardinals were created, according to Miranda (his only source being the Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1928, p. 137): Nicolaus Breakspeare (who was actually created Cardinal in 1149), Bernardus OSB of Montecassino (a cardinal priest of unknown title), and Gregorio, a Cardinal deacon. Nine Cardinal Deacons within two years, all of whom have unknown Deaconries! Let us look more closely:
signs JL 8707 on January 19, 1145 [Zenker, p. 188]. He also subscribes as Cinthius diac. card. sanctae Romanae Ecclesiae on March 14, 1145 [Migne PL 180, no. ii, columns 1016-1017 (JL 8717)]. He finally received the Deaconry of SS. Sergio e Baccho after the death of Cardinal Gregorius Tarquinius, who last suscribed on June 17, 1145 [JL 8771]. Cinthius signed until December of 1146. It was another Cencius (who eventually received S. Maria in Aquiro) who subscribed on March 31, 1151 [JL 9469]. He was a genuine cardinal and a possible Elector in 1145.
A Nicolaus signs a bull on October 29, 1142 [JL 8242], as Nicolaus diaconus cardinalis sanctae romanae ecclesiae, last and immediately after Cardinal Octavianus of S. Nicolai in Carcere. He was not created Cardinal Deacon in a consistory of December, 1144. He was promoted to Cardinal Priest of S. Ciriaco in December, 1143 [Brixius, p. 45; Zenker, 109]. Miranda engages in dittography. Cardinal Nicolaus was eligible to participate in the Election of 1145 as a Cardinal Priest. He died on April 1, 1151.
For the Consistory of December, 1145:
Jordanus (Giordano), O.Cist. [French, not a Roman of the Bobone family; cf. Brixius, 104 note 113, "ohne Beleg"]; and he was actually S.R.E. Diaconus in 1144 [Nachrichten der K. Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften zu Gottingen, phil.-hist. Klasse (1910) p. 46-47 nr. 20]. He signed as S.R.E. Diaconus Cardinalis on January 8, 1145; and again on December 15, 1145 [JL 8801; Migne PL 180, 1087-1089] as: Jordanus Diaconus Cardinalis Romanae Ecclesiae, after Cardinal Jacintus of S. Maria in Cosmedin and before Cardinal Cinthius of SS. Sergius & Bacchus, and still signed on December 15, 1145 [JL 8801=Migne PL 180, 1087-1089] as: Jordanus Diaconus Cardinalis Romanae Ecclesiae, after Cardinal Jacintus of S. Maria in Cosmedin and before Cardinal Cinthius of SS. Sergius & Bacchus. He was promoted Cardinal Priest of S. Susanna in December of 1145, and first subscribes on December 31, 1145 [Brixius, p. 52; Zenker, pp. 104-105]. He was alive and eligible to participate in the Election of February 15, 1145.
Brixius [p. 54 and p. 107 n. 123] believes that the Gerardus of 1145 is Gerhard of Naumur, who appears as Gerardus diaconus cardinalis sancte Romane (Ecclesie) on March 17, 1145 [Pflugk-Harttung, Acta pontificum Romanorum inedita I, pp. 173-174, nr. 195], where he subscribes between Johannes of S. Maria Nova and Jacintus of S. Maria in Cosmedin. He was not created in a consistory in December of 1145. He continues to suscribe as S.R.E. Diaconus Cardinalis until 1152, when he becomes Cardinal Deacon of S. Maria in Via lata (subscribes December, 1152 to July 1155) [Zenker, p. 179].
Cardinal Guido is listed in the Consistory of December, 1145, but there is already a Guido Sanctae Romanae Ecc(lesiae) diac(onus) card(inalis) among the subscriptions of March 14, 1145, one month after the Election of Eugenius III [Migne PL 180, 1016; JL 8717]. Guido must have been a creation of Lucius II.
- Gregorio, deaconry unknown. There are a number of subscriptions of a deacon or deacons called Gregory in the mid-1140's. The temptation of scholars has been to simplify and make one Cardinal Gregory out of all of the data. Experience with the Guidos, however, ought to be a warning. And one should also note the confusion as to which Cardinal named Gregory became Bishop of Sabina in 1154.
There are subscribed bulls on January 12, 1142 [Brixius, p. 42 no. 17; Wiederhold, "Papsturkunden in Frankreich, II," Nachrichten der K. Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften zu Gottingen, phil.-hist. Klasse (1906), Beiheft II, p. 26 nr. 5 ], as sanctae Romane aecclesiae indignus diaconus [Brixius, at p. 42 nr. 17, misrepresents the text, adding the word cardinalis]; on March 15, 1144, March 21, 1144 [JL 8535], and April 15, 1144 as indignus (serviens) S.R.E. diaconus.. [cf. Brixius, p. 99 no. 5]. His position in the subscription lists is not consistent. He is credited by Miranda with participating in the papal Elections of 1144 and 1145.
On January 12, 1142, Gregory of SS. Sergius & Bacchus also signs Nachrichten (1906) no. 5 along with our Unknown Gregory. Therefore the Gregory of unknown diaconate cannot be Gregory of SS. Sergius and Bacchus. He is not Gregory of S. Angelo either, since Gregory of S. Angelo did not become a cardinal deacon until December of 1143 [Brixius, p. 49 nr. 3, and p. 97 note 101; but cf. Zenker, p. 174, who does not accept Brixius' notion that there were two successive Gregories at S. Angelo, but instead dates Cardinal Gregory between 1137 and 1154], and who, in a document of January 1, 1144, subscribes (apparently for the first time) as G(re)G(orius) diaconus cardinalis sancti Angeli [Julius v. Pflugk-Harttung, Acta pontificum Romanorum inedita III (Stuttgart 1886), no. 48, pp. 43-44 (JL II, 8474)], implying that he had just been raised to the Cardinalate in December of 1143. The old tradition, exemplified by Ciaconius and Cardella, is that Gregory of S. Angelo was a relative of Innocent II, and thus a Papareschi from Rome. The unknown S.R.E. Deacon signs as Gregorius Luc. sanctae Romanae ecclesiae indignus diac. on January 12, 1142 [Nachrichten (1905) nr. 5, p. 28]. What is the significance of the Gregorius Luc.? Is this a Gregory from Lucca? Or a Gregory from Lucera (Lucerinus)? Or Luceria (Lucerinus/Nucerinus)? Surely not Lucanus (of Lucania)! I omit Luçon in France (Lucionensis), Lucensis (Lugo) in Spain, and Luceoriensis (Luck) in Russia, and no doubt others.
One of the documents from 1144, though without a date, is printed by L. A. Muratori, Antiquitates Italiae Tomus Duodecimus (Arretii 1778), column 590-591 [from F. Ughelli, Italia Sacra V, appendix]. The printed text refers to Ubandus titulo Sanctae Praxedis; Rodulphus diaconus cardinalis Sanctae Luciae in Serabuli; and Hugo Romanae Ecclesiae diaconus in Sancta Licia in Hersia. The orthography does not inspire confidence. Just above Cardinal Hugo's name is Gregorius sanctae Romanae Ecclesiae diaconus subscripsi. On March 21, 1144 [JL 8535], he is Gregorius s. Romanae Ecclesiae indignus diac. No Deaconry is named and the subscriber does not use the title Cardinal. This is no evidence at all for a Cardinal Deacon named Gregory.
On April 15, 1144, another bull was issued. It is printed by P. Kehr, "Papsturkunden in Nonantola, Modena und Verona," Nachrichten der K. Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften zu Gottingen, phil.-hist. Klasse (1896), 300. After the subscription of Rudulfus diaconus cardinalis sancte Lucie in Septasolis, the document is signed by Guido in Romana ecclesia altaris minister indignus, and then finally by Gregorius sanctae Romane ecclesie indignus diaconus. . Again this Gregory does not mention that he was a Cardinal, and does not name his Deaconry. There was a Cardinal Gregory who was a Cardinal Deacon (1123-1145), but he signs himself Gregorius diaconus cardinalis sanctorum Sergii et Bachi in the same document, and so cannot be the unworthy deacon. It is unlikely that he is Gregory of S. Angelo, who regularly signs himself as Gregorius, diaconus cardinalis Sancti Angeli [e.g. JL 8717 (March 14, 1145); JL 8733 (April 9, 1145); JL 8813 (December 31, 1145); (JL 8859 (February 15, 1146); Gabotto, Cartulario della Abbazia di Stafforda, vi, pp. 19-20 (September 22, 1146); Martène et Durand, Thesaurus novus anectotorum I (Paris 1717), p. 404 (June 24, 1147); JL 9127 (August 30, 1147), and others].
Another bull of December 27, 1146 [JL 8974], names Ego Gr sce Rom eccle. indign(us) diac. ss. Again this Gregory does not mention that he was a Cardinal, and does not name his Deaconry. The context, in which we again see Guido in Romana ecclesia altaris minister indignus, should make us conclude that Miranda's Gregory was just what he said, an unworthy deacon of the Holy Roman Church. This is poor material out of which to cobble together an additional Cardinal.
- Miranda forgets to put in his list of Cardinals of February 15, 1145, a Cardinal Gezo of S. Susanna. He does, however, provide a biography of the eminent cleric, which has him participating in the Election of 1145. "Cardinal Gezo" had a Consistory all to himself, in March of 1144, less than a month after another Consistory in which four cardinals were created.. This was necessary since Gezo's predecessor, Cardinal Petrus, was still signing bulls on February 27, 1154. But it is also highly suspicious. Apparently Gezo died quickly, since his successor, Cardinal Jordanus, was subscribing on December 31, 1145. Gezo subscribed only one bull, on March 15, 1144 [Migne PL 179, column 825, from Ughelli Italia Sacra IV, 977; JL II, p. 7]. It is a privilegium for Abbot Oglierus of S. Columbanus at Bobbio. The document is both a confirmation of various properties belonging to the Abbey, but also a regulation concerning abbatial-episcopal elections and a prohibition against the abbot and monks being interfered with by any secular persons. Other documents were signed on the same day, but not by Gezo. Some have thought that Gezo of S. Susanna is really Goizo of S. Cecilia [e.g. Zenker, 65 and 266], though Goizo probably died in 1144. Paul Kehr examined the original [Italia Pontificia VI. 2, p. 253 no. 24; Brixius, p. 82], and the true reading is Goizo presbiter card. tt. s. Caeciliae. One may therefore delete Goizo of S. Susanna and also the alleged third Creation of cardinals by Celestine II. But Goizo of S. Cecilia was still dead by the time of the Election of 1145.
- Pietro, deacon of S. Maria in Via Lata is listed by Miranda as living at the time of, and/or participating in the events of, the Election of February 15, 1145. Petrus' subscriptions run from May 5, 1145 to January 3, 1147 [according to Brixius, p. 143], but cf. Kehr IP 9, p. xxxvi, and p. 41 no. 101, which lists a subscription of September, 1147, and indicates that he was Rector of Beneventum in December of 1148. Zenker (p. 178-179) makes him a creation of Eugenius III, perhaps during the Ember Days of March, 1145. The citation of his first subscription depends on JL 8749, which reports Pflugk-Harttung, Iter Italicum, p. 239 no. 417, which is a ms. in the archives at Modena. Pflugk-Harttung does not report the subscriptions, and I cannot say where JL got its information.
- Goizzone (Goizo) , title of S. Cecilia (subscribes from March 12, 1140 to April 15, 1144) [Zenker, pp. 65-66 nr. 2], formerly Cardinal Deacon from the end of 1139 (Zenker, p. 188 nr. 6). Miranda states in Goizo's biography under the Consistory of 1139 that he participated in the Election of Eugenius III in 1145. He was probably deceased by that time.
The Election took place, in apparent violation of the decree enacted in the seventh century (A.D. 607), under Pope Bonifatius III, in a synod at St. Peter's attended by 72 bishops, 33 Roman priests, deacons, and the entire clergy (Liber Pontificalis, MGH SS 5, p. 164 ed. Mommsen):
Hic fecit constitutum in ecclesia beati Petri, in quo sederunt episcopi LXXII, presbiteri Romani XXXIII, diaconi et clerus omnis, sub anathemate, ut nullus pontificem viventem aut episcopum civitatis suae praesumat loqui aut partes sibi facere nisi tertio die depositionis eius adunato clero et filiis ecclesiae, tunc electio fiat, et quis quem voluerit habebit licentiam eligendi sibi sacerdotem.
There were extenuating circumstances though. The "Life of Pope Eugenius" by Cardinal Boso states that the Election took place at the monasterium Sancti Caesarii, where all the cardinals had gathered together in fear of the Senator and People of Rome. In a letter of March 2, to the Prior of S. Frediano in Lucca [Migne PL 180, 1013-1016 (JL 8714)] Pope Eugenius himself writes:
Praedecessore siquidem nostro felicis memoriae PP. Lucio, XV Kal. Martii viam universae carnis ingresso in ecclesia Lateranensi honorifice tumulato, fratres nostri presbyteri et diaconi cardinales una cum episcopis et subdiaconibus sanctae Romanae Ecclesiae in Beati Caesarii ecclesia convenerunt, meque invitum et renitentem, et nihil tale omnino suspicantem, nescimus quo Dei judicio, unanimi voto et pari consensu in Romanum pontificem elegerunt.
Which S. Cesareo was this? There was a monastery of SS. Cesareo e Stephano at S. Paolo fuori le mure [Kehr Italia Pontificia I, p. 170], but it is surely not this place which was being referred to. There was a church and monastery at S. Cesareo on the Via Latina, beyond S. Nereo and Achilleo and the Baths of Caracalla (S. Caesarius in turrim)—which is a very out-of-the-way site for the events of that day. And there was a S. Cesareo with a monastery in what was once the chapel of the Imperial Palace on the Palatine Hill. [It is listed first among the abbeys in the list of John the Deacon, in Mabillon, Museum Italicum II, 574]. The latter would have had the protection of the Frangipani, whose fortifications were on the eastern side of the hill. It was of easy access for those cardinals who had attended upon the dying pope at S. Gregorio, had they chosen not to attend the funeral of the Pope at S. Giovanni Laterano; and it had been on the Palatine, at the monastery called the Palladium, where Pope Celestine II had died on March 8, 1144. The old palace of the Emperors had become the Palatium of the popes, where they resided from time to time in the XI and XII centuries. It was there that there was a tower called the Cartularia juxta Palladium, where the papal archives were kept. (Pitra, 146). The assent of the clergy and people followed. Immediately after the Election, and then, deductus ad Lateranum patriarchium, in Apostolica Sede secundum morem ecclesiae positus fuit ["Vita Eugenii III," Watterich, p. 282].
Cardinal Boso, in speaking of the flight of Pope Alexander III from the Lateran in 1168, provides some useful details [Watterich, II, p. 406]:
Haec igitur et alia imminentia mala cum beatus Pontifex consideratione solicita praevideret, post illud excidium populi, quod exigentibus peccatis acciderat, dimisso Lateranensi palatio cum fratribus suis et eorum familiis ad tutas domos Frangapanum descendit et apud sanctam Mariam novam et Cartulariam atque Colosseum se cum eis in tuto recepit. Ibique pro incumbente malitia imperatoris quotidianus episcoporum et cardinalium fiebat conventus, tractabantur causae et responsa dabantur.
It should be kept in mind that at this time the old regulations on papal elections, promulgated by Nicholas II at the Lateran Synod of 1059 in his bull In Nomine Domini, still applied. There it was legislated that it was the Cardinal Bishops who chose the name of the Candidate and then presented it for a majority vote of the Cardinals and then the approval of the Clergy, Nobility and People of Rome: inprimis cardinales episcopi diligentissima simul consideratione tractantes, mox sibi clericos cardinales adhibeant, sicque reliquus clerus et populus ad consensum novae electionis accedant. Pope Eugenius speaks of his own election in a letter of March 2 to the Prior of S. Frediano at Lucca: fratres nostri presbyteri et diaconi cardinales una cum episcopis et subdiaconibus sanctae Romanae Ecclesiae in Beati Caesarii ecclesia convenerunt, meque invitum et renitentem, et nihil tale omnino suspicantem, nescimus quo Dei judicio, unanimi voto et pari consensu in Romanum pontificem elegerunt. Almost exactly the same language had been used by Celestine II of his own election on September 26, 1143 (in a letter to Peter the Venerable, Abbot of Cluny), though Celestine's election had taken place canonically on the third day after the death of Innocent II: cardinales presbyteri et diaconi una cum fratribus nostris episcopis et subdiaconis, clero ac populo romano acclamante pariter et expetente, tertia die in ipsa ecclesia unanimi voto et pari consensu me.... elegerunt. Clearly the Papal Chancery had a formula.
The truly remarkable fact is that the electoral meeting composed not only the Cardinal Bishops and Cardinal Priests and Cardinal Deacons, but also the Subdeacons S.R.E. as well. How many of each is another question, which the sources do not address. Were all of the Cardinals in Rome that day? Certainly not.
None of the Cardinals, it seems, was eager to wear the papal tiara. They apparently turned their attention unanimously to Bernard of Pisa, the Abbot of SS. Vincenzo ed Anastasio (not the titular church of S. Anastasia, which was occupied by Cardinal Aribertus from December of 1143 until 1156). The anonymous Cistercian chronicler known as the "Ignotus Monachus de S. Maria de Ferraria" states that Bernard of Pisa had been the first Cistercian abbot of Sancti Anastasii martiris de Aqua Salvia Urbis Romae [Chronicon Ignoti Monachi Cisterciensis S. Mariae de Ferraria p. 28 ed. Gaudenzi] It is alleged, nonetheless, that Bernard, a former monk of Clairvaux, was a Cardinal [Archbishop Romuald of Salerno, Annales, in MGH SS 19, p. 424; the Magdeburg Annals, MGH SS 16, p. 187; the Erfurt Annals, MGH SS 11, p. 19], but this is denied by some modern authoriities, mostly on the grounds of negative evidence and by impugning the sources. Bernard of Clairvaux (Ep. 237; Watterich II, p. 287), for example, wrote to the Cardinals shortly after the Election of 1145 about his former pupil Bernard of Pisa, complaining about their cruelty in dragging a man out of his monastery (hominem sepultum) and throwing him among robbers (latrones). Bernardus had chosen a lowly position, but the Cardinals had elected him to be lord of all: qui elegerat abjectus esse in domo Dei sui, ipsum vos in dominum omnium elegistis. This does not sound like the description of a Cardinal of the Holy Roman Church. Then, going beyond the bounds of propriety and Christian charity, as he often does, Bernard of Clairvaux implies that Bernard of Pisa had not been a good administrator (vicedominus) of his diocese: Num idcirco Pisam deseruit, ut reciperet Romam? Num qui in una ecclesia non sustinuit vicedominatum, dominatum in omni ecclesia requirebat? He calls him a homo rusticus. It was not an act of wisdom and experience, he complains, to raise Bernard of Pisa to the Papacy: Sic non erat inter vos sapiens et exercitatus, cui potius ista convenirent? Ridiculum profecto videtur, pannosum homuncionem assumi ad praesidendum Principibus, ad imperandum Episcopis, ad regna et imperia disponenda. Having said all that, Bernard of Clairvaux then claims it was not stupidity on the part of the Cardinals, but a miracle. Bernard proceeds from tastelessness to blasphemy. Bernard of Pisa had been the first Abbot of the Cistercian congregation at SS. Vincenzo ed Anastasio, which had been given them by Innocent II circa 1140 [Kehr, Italia Pontificia I, p. 170, 173].
It is Otto of Freising, Chronicon Liber VII. 31 [MGH SS 20, 264] who states that Abbot Bernard was communi voto cleri et populi electum. Given the circumstances of Pope Lucius' death and the hasty Election on the same day as the pope died and was buried, the phrase seems an exaggeration, if not a downright lie. Eugenius and the Cardinals had to flee the city immediately after the election. The election itself, conducted in the midst of a civil war, during a siege (in capitolio obsidet, says the continuator of Sigebert [MGH SS 6, 453]), in which Pope Lucius himself was killed, was undoubtedly held in the midst of metus and violentia, and was perhaps canonically invalid. But it was never challenged.
Or was it? There is a peculiar notice in the Chronica of Alb(e)ricus, a monk of the Abbey of Trois-Fontaines in France (diocese of Chalons) [MGH SS 23, p. 838]:
Bernardus qui et Eugenius ei successit. Iste fuit monachus Clarevaallis sub beato Bernardo abbate et fuit primus abbas Sancti Anastasii Rome. Cum vero cardinales primam eius electionem vellent irritari et adnichilari, dixit coram omnibus: "Ego excommunico omnes illos qui tractaturi sunt de electione pape me vivente."
It seems that the Cardinals may have had second thoughts, and were discussing the annulment of the Election of February 15, perhaps after their panic had receded after their flight from Rome, perhaps during the eight months of exile following the flight. They certainly had canonical grounds to do so. But this never seems to have gone beyond some grumbling and a rebuke.
The Lateran Basilica, where Lucius II had been buried, was in the hands of papal supporters, but the Republic held the Capitol and barred the new Pope's way to St. Peter's. One might therefore have expected Eugenius to have been consecrated and crowned at the Lateran. But instead, on the third night after his Election (February 17, 1145), Pope Eugenius, the cardinals, and the bishops fled from the city of Rome. The situation seems to have been too critical even for such an important event as a papal coronation. He was given shelter at the castle of Monticelli ["Vita Eugenii" Watterich II, p. 282], where those who had dispersed during the exodus assembled again and moved on to the fortified abbey of Farfa. The Abbot of Farfa, Cardinal Adenulfus, had died the previous year, and the seat was still vacant [Mabillon, Annales Ordinis S. Benedicti VI, p. 355]. Eugenius was finally consecrated at the Abbey of Farfa, on February 18, 1145 [Anonymous Cassinensis; MGH SS 19, 313; Watterich II, 283-284]:
tertio die suae electionis nocte cum omnibus cardinalibus et episcopis Roma egressus fugit, et apud Farvensem abbatiam Pontifex consecratur et apud Bitervum [Viterbo] pascha celebrans ibique per octo menses remoratus demum cum Romanis paciscens Romam reversus est.
Otto of Frising's Chronica states that it was on the Sunday after his election that he was consecrated. Eugenius then proceeded to Viterbo, where he spent Easter and resided for the next eight months, until the fourth week of November of 1145. He was finally back in Rome for Christmas. He was driven out of Rome again in mid-March of 1146, and he resided at Sutri and then at Viterbo. At the end of 1146 he left Viterbo and headed for France; he was at Lucca on February 8, 1147; at Vercelli on March 2; and at Lyon on March 22. He returned to Italy in May of 1149. He held a council at Cremona on July 7. On July 15, 1149, he wrote to the Roman people (JL 9281), warning them against the errors of Arnold of Brescia.
Signature of Eugenius III
In 1149 Eugenius III entered into a truce with King Roger of Sicily for a quadrennium [Kehr, Italia Pontificia 8, p. 44, no. 170].
"Lucii II vita, a Bosone cardinali conscripta," Watterich II, 278-279. 'Eugenii III vita, a Bosone cardinali conscripta," Watterich II, 281-283. O. Engels, "Kardinal Boso als Geschichtsschreiber," in his Stauferstudien (Sigmaringen 1988).
Ludovico Antonio Muratori (editor), Rerum Italicarum Scriptores Tomus Sextus (Mediolani 1725): "Caffari, eiusque Continuatorum Alles Genuenses," 241-608; "Ottonis Frisingensis Episcopi, ejusque Continuatoris Radevici Libri de gestis Friderici I Imperatoris," 629-860; "Ottonis de Sancto Blasio Chronicon," 861-912; "Sire Raul, sive Radulphi Mediolanensis auctoris Synchroni de rebus gestis Friderici I in Italia Commentarius," 1167-1195. [Bishop Otto of Frising was the half-brother of Conrad III and the uncle of Frederick Barbarossa.]
Philippus Jaffé (editor), Bibliotheca Rerum Germanicarum, I: Monumenta Corbeiensia (Berolini 1864), "Wibaldi Epistolae," pp. 76-616.
Monumenta Germaniae Historica Scriptorum Tomus 20 (Hannoveriae 1868). "Ottonis Episcopi Frisingensis opera", pp. 83-301. [Bishop Otto of Frising was the half-brother of Conrad III and the uncle of Frederick Barbarossa].
Oswaldus Holder-Egger (editor), Gesta Frederici Imperatoris in Lombardia auct(ore) cive Mediolanensi (Hannover 1892). [Annales Mediolanenses Maiores].
Alphonsus Ciaconius [Alfonso Chacon], Vitae et Res Gestae Pontificum Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalium ... ab Augustino Oldoino Societatis Iesu recognitae Tomus Primus (Romae: sumptibus Philippi et Antonii de Rubeis 1677) [Volume I of the 4 volume edition; the Jesuit Olduin does what he can to eliminate the multitude of errors from earlier editions; many still remain]. Lorenzo Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa Tomo primo (Roma: Pagliarini 1793).
Caesaris S. R. E. Cardinalis Baronii, Od. Raynaldi et Jac. Laderchii Annales Ecclesiastici denuo excusi et ad nostra usque tempora perducti ab Augusto Theiner Tomus Decimusnonus 1094-1146 (Barri-Ducis: Ludovicus Guerin 1869). [Baronius-Theiner]
J.-B. Pitra, Analecta novissima Spicilegii Solesmensis altera continuatio Tom. I: De epistolis et registribus Romanorum Pontificum (Typis Tusculanis 1885) Philippus Jaffé (editor) Regesta Pontificum Romanorum (editionem secundam correctam et auctam auspiciis Guilelmi Wattenbach; curaverunt S. Loewenfeld, F. Kaltenbrunner, P. Ewald) Tomus secundus (Lipsiae: Veit et comp. 1888) [JL].
Giuseppe de Novaes, Elementi della storia de' sommi Pontefici Terza edizione Tomo Terzo (Roma 1821). [a mine of misinformation; many of his attributions are refuted by the Subscriptiones to papal documents]
Johann M. Watterich, (editor), Pontificum Romanorum qui fuerunt inde ab exeunte saeculo IX usque ad finem saeculi XIII vitae ab aequalibus conscriptae Tomus II (Lipsiae 1862). [Watterich]
M. Doeberl (editor), Monumenta Germaniae Selecta 4 (München 1890). [MGS]
Richard Zöpffel Die Papstwahlen und die mit ihnen im nächsten Zusammenhange stehenden Ceremonien (Göttingen 1871). Karl Holder, Die Designation der Nachfolger durch die Päpste (Freiburg: Weith 1892), pp. 65-66. F. Gregorovius, History of Rome in the Middle Ages, Volume IV. 2 second edition, revised (London: George Bell, 1896) [Book VIII chapter 5], pp. 524-571. T. A. Tout, The Empire and The Papacy, 918-1273, Period II (New York: Macmillan 1899). Edmund Curtis, Roger of Sicily and the Normans in Lower Italy (New York 1912). Horace K. Mann, Lives of the Popes in the Middle Ages Vol. IX 1130-1159 (London 1914). 221-231.
Beorges Guibal, Arnaud de Brescia et les Hohenstaufen (Paris 1868). Giovanni di Castro, Arnoldo di Brescia e la rivoluzione romana (Livorno 1875). Adolf Hausrath, Arnold von Brescia (Leipzig 1895). Alfred H. Tarlton, Nicholas Breakspear (Adrian IV.): Englishman and Pope (London 1896). Hermann Reuter, Geschichte Alexanders des Dritten 2nd edition Erster Band (Leipzig 1850). G. B. Siragusa, Il regno di Guglielmo I in Sicilia Parte prima (Palermo 1885).
P. Classen, "Zur Geschichte Papst Anastasius IV," Quellen und Forschungen aus Italianischen Archiven und Bibliotheken 48 (Roma 1968), 36-63. Johannes Leineweber, Studien zur Geschichte Papst Cölestins III (Jena 1905). J. M. Brixius, Die Mitglieder des Kardinalkollegiums von 1130-1181 (Berlin 1912). Johannes Bachmann, Die papstlichen Legaten in Deutschland und Skandinavien (1125-1159) (Berlin 1913) [Historische Studien E. Ebering, Band 115]. Carl Erdmann, "Papsturkunden in Portugal," Abhandlungen der Gesellschaft der Wissenschaft zu Göttingen. phil.-hist. Klasse. Neue Folge 20, 3. (Berlin 1927). Klaus Ganzer. Die Entwicklung des auswärtigen Kardinalats im hohen Mittelalter (Tübingen 1963). Barbara Zenker, Die Mitglieder des Kardinalkollegiums von 1130 bis 1159 (Würzburg 1964). H. Gleber, Papst Eugen III. (1145-1153), unter besonderer Berücksichtigung seiner politischen Tätigkeiten (Jena 1936). G. Spinabella, Un grande pontefice riformatore: Eugenio III, pisano (Pisa 1964). M. Horn, Studien zur Geschichte Papst Eugens III., 1145-1153 (Frankfurt am Main 1992). Harald Zimmermann, "Eugenio Iii," Enciclopedia dei Papi I (Roma 2000).
Luigi Pompili Olivieri, Il Senato Romano nelle sette epoche di svariato governo da Romolo fino a noi 2 v. (Roma 1886). Anon., "Le sénat romain au douzième siècle," Analecta Iuris Pontificii 12 (Rome 1873), columns 614-618. Jürgen Strothmann, Kaiser und Senat. Der Herrschaftsanspruch der Stadt Rom zur Zeit der Staufer (Köln-Weimar-Wien 1998) [Archiv für Kulturgeschichte. Beiheft 47.].
On Cardinal Guido Cremensis' career: Studia Gratiana XI (Bologna 1976) pp. 103, 107.
[My special thanks to Mr. Tomasz Karlikowski, Esq., who was kind enough to provide me with materials for this page, and to share with me his notes on the various cardinals who were living at the time of the death of Adrian IV. He also indulged me with additional correspondence on various topics relevant to this page. His interventions saved me from a number of mistakes and improved the final product.]