The Monastery of Cluny and its village, in the time of Abbot Hugh I
Site of the Election of 1119
On March 1, 1118 Pope Gelasius II (Giovanni Caetani) was driven out of Rome by the approach of the Emperor Henry V, and forced to flee to his native Gaeta, where the formalities of ordination, consecration and coronation were finally carried out (March 9-10). On March 8, the Emperor ordered the installation of a new pope, Archbishop Mauritius of Braga (who was given the name Gregory VIII). When the Emperor withdrew to the north again, Gelasius was able to return to the City, but was unable to establish himself there permanently, due to the continued presence of the Antipope Gregory VIII and the violence of the Frangipani. In August 1118, harassed by the troops of Stephen Normannus, he authorized several cardinals to conduct business in his name and in his absence [Muratori, Rerum Italicarum Scriptores III.1, p. 398 n., citing a letter of several cardinals; on the significance of the letter, S. Borgia, Memorie istoriche di Benevento Parte terza, Volume I (Roma 1769), 48-55]:
Nos Dei gratia Episcopi et Cardinales, Centius Sabinensis, Petrus Portuensis, Vitalis Albanensis, Johannes Cardinalis tit. S. Caeciliae, Rainerius tit. SS. Marcellini et Petri, Desiderius tit. S. Praxedis, dilecto fratri Bernardo Venerabili Abbati Monasterii S. Sophiae ac ejus venerandae Congregationi salutem. Audivimus quod Anso quaerat vendere.... In qua causa postulasti licentiam praeberi tibi a Romana Curia. Sed quia Dominus Papa absens est, communicato omnium nostrum consilio praesentibus literis, invice Domini Papae, damus et concedimus tibi auctoritatem illa emendi et perpetualiter habendi et omnia inde agendi ad utilitatem monasterii tui, quae volueris sine aliqua inquietudine. Et, ut haec nostra concessio robur perpetuum habeat, sigillo Domni Petri Portuensis Episcopi, qui vice Domni Papae Gelasii fungitur, eam signari fecimus.
Ego Hugo Cardinalis tit. Apostolorum Provisor Beneventanae Curiae consensi et subscripsi.
Ego Stephanus Diaconus Beneventanus Rector, assensum praebui et subscripsi.
On October 1, 1118, Gelasius II granted several privileges to the City of Pisa, where he was staying at the time. The signatories to the document included (Muratori, p. 404 column 2): Lambert of Ostia, Guido Cardinal Priest of S. Balbina, Chrysogonus Cardinal Deacon of S. Nicolas in Carcere, and Petrus Petri Leonis Cardinal Deacon of SS. Cosma e Damiano
On October 10, 1118, Pope Gelasius dedicated the new Cathedral of SS. Laurentius et Syrus in Genoa (Muratori, RIS III. 1, 413, column 1; Baronius-Thenier, sub anno 1118 no. 12, p. 299). By October 23, 1118, the papal retinue had crossed to VIlla St. Aegidius, the Cluniac monastery at Nîmes ( a bull of October 26: Muratori, 411 n. 31. See Baronius-Theiner, 18 p. 300); Montpellier (Mons Pessulanus); and then Marseille. He was at Avignon on the 16th of November, and at Orange on the 20th. In early January he was at Vienne, where he conducted a synod (See Mansi, Sacrorum Conciliorum 21, 187-188), and on January 14, 1119, he was received at Lyon. Pope Gelasius II had arrived at Matiscon (Mâcon) when he was stricken with a serious illness (identified as pleurisy) and carried at his order to the monastery at Cluny (Chronicon Cluniacense, in Muratori RIS III.1, pp. 415-416):
Anno Dominicae Nativitatis 1119, pontificatus sui anno primo et die quinto, cum apud Matisconem proxima Quadragesima Concilium Regis celebrandum adornaret, ibidem correptus gravi morbo decubuit, se Cluniacum lectica citius perferri jussit, accitis ad se Cardinalibus, orationem habuit, et omnibus Ecclesiae Sacramentis susceptis, juxta normam monasticam, strato terrae corpore, IV. Kalend. sanctissime quievit, rebus iis quarum causa venerat plane infectis. Visitur monumentum eius inter Crucem et altare, quod est post Chorum magnae Basilicae Cluni, marmoreum quidem illud, sed ex lapide opere tusco constructum. Vacavit tum sedes biduo.
It is natural that Gelasius, who had been a monk of Montecassino, would want to end his days in a monastery as a monk. He had planned to visit Cluny anyway, but the circumstances of his coming were unexpected. There he died on January 29, 1119, having reigned one year and five days, nearly half of it as an exile from Rome (Muratori, RIS VII, 939; "Life" by Cardinal of Aragon; Jaffé, p. 526).
Pandulphus Pisanus was present at the deathbed (Muratori, RIS III.1, p. 412 column 2):
Cum iam quasi ad portum fore se deductum congaudent, solita passione correptus, quam a costa Graeci pleuritim appellari jusserunt, suis et multis fratribus undique convocatis, facta confessione, ac Corpore cum Sanguine Redemptoris acceptis, et juxta normam monasticam, strato terrae corpusculo, sancta illa anima carne soluta est: hinc ad coelum Petro duce conscendens, corpus honorabiliter intra limen Cluniacensis Coenobii requiescit in pace. Amen. Quem Romani qui aderant et qui Romae remanserant, Clerus omnis et populus defleverunt, et quasi patrem justitiae, nolentes consolari, deflebant.
The several church councils which Gelasius held in France during his last few months all had as one of their purposes the uniting of opposition against the anti-pope of King Henry V and against Henry himself, the tyrant of the Germans. Tensions were very high. The few cardinals who were with the Papal Curia at Cluny knew that a new pope must be provided immediately, lest Henry use the time to expand his power in Rome and over the Church. Tradition expected that the Election would be held in the place where the Pope had died, in other words at Cluny. But most of the Cardinals were in Rome or elsewhere in Italy, and it might take weeks to summon them. The cardinals at Cluny faced a crisis.
There is an incomplete and not entirely accurate list of participants in the Election of January 24, 1118, provided by Pandulphus of Pisa, nephew of Cardinal Hugh of XII Apostolorum [Muratori, RIS III.1, 381; 389], who had been an eyewitness of most of the events of Pope Gelasius' reign (1118-1119). He names four Cardinal Bishops, twenty-one Cardinal Priests, and nine Cardinal Deacons. There were also, according to Pandulphus, six more (unnamed) Cardinal Priests and eight more (unnamed) Cardinal Deacons (a total of forty-eight cardinals). Various subscriptiones on bulls of the reigns of Popes Paschal II, Gelasius II and first years of Calixtus II help to fill in the blanks. There was, for example, an absent Cardinal Bishop, Conon (Kono), who was papal legate in Germany.
A very tentative list of living cardinals in 1119 can be constructed using the various subscriptiones on bulls of the reign of Pope Gelasius II and first years of Calixtus II. One must be aware, however, that not all cardinals signed papal bulls. See Jaffé, Regesta Pontificum pp. 526-527.
• Chrysogonus, S.R.E. Diaconus cardinalis ac bibliothecarius [He succeeded Cardinal Joannes Caetani, who became Gelasius II. He last acts as Datary on June 26, 1122; Bulliare du Pape Calixte II, no. 305. The Subdiaconus cardinalis S.R.E. Ugo signs as Datary from September 15, 1122:Bullaire du Pape Calixte II, no. 311, until April 26, 1123. He is followed by Cardinal Aimeric as Chancellor, from April 28, 1123: Bulliare du Pape Calixte II, no.402.]. On Subdiaconi cardinales, see Muratori, RIS III.1, p. 387.
Most of these cardinals, however, were NOT at Cluny when Gelasius died on January 29, 1119. A partial list of those NOT present can be compiled from the correspondence between France and Rome just after the Election of February 2, 1119. The following Cardinals were in Rome:
Crescentius, episcopus Sabinensis
Petrus, episcopus Portuensis
Vitalis Albanensis episcopus
Bonefacius presbyter cardinalis tituli S. Marci laudo et confirmo.
Johannes presbyter cardinalis tituli sanctae Ceciliae
Anastasius presbyter cardinalis S. Clementis,
Benedictus presbyter cardinalis S. Petri ad vinculas tituli Eudoxiae,
Diviso presbyter cardinalis tituli sancti Equitii
Tibaldus presbyter cardinalis SS. Iohannes et Pauli tituli Pammachii
Reinerius presbyter cardinalis tituli SS. Marcellini et Petri,
Desiderius presbyter cardinalis tituli S. Praxedis
Gregorius presbyter cardinalis S. [Laurentii in] Lucinae tituli,
Hugo presbyter cardinalis tituli XII apostolorum
Comes diaconus cardinalis S. Mariae in Aquiro
? Roscemannus, Cardinal Deacon of S. Giorgio in Velabro [see below]
Two schismatic cardinals offered their submission to Pope Calixtus on hearing of his election [Migne PL 163, 1337-1338],
Robertus tit. S. Eusebii cardinalis
Gregorius presbyter cardinalis tit. SS. Apostolorum
Also in schism, and not repentant, was Cardinal Romanus of the titulus of S. Marcello (letter of Pope Gelasius to Cardinal Conon: Jaffé, Bibliotheca no. 186, p. 323. Annales Romani in MGH V, p. 477 line 33.)
Petrus della Gherardesca dei Conti di Donoratico [Petrus Pisanus], Cardinal Priest in the titulus S. Susannae, was Legate in Corsica, October-December, 1118—April, 1119 [Kehr, Italia Pontificia 10, p. 413 no. 594; pp. 472-473], and was not present at the Election of February 2, 1119.
Ordericus Vitalis, in his Historia Ecclesiastica (XII. 9; pp. 334-335 le Prevost) states:
Anno ab Incarnatione Domini Mo Co XIXa, indictione XIIa, Gelasius secundus Papa IVo kalendas februarii apud Cluniacum mortuus et sepultus est, et Guido, Viennensis archiepiscopus, in Callixtum Papam IVo nonas februarii electus est. Ibi Lambertus Ostiensis et Boso Portuensis, Cono Praenestinus et Johannes Cremensis, aliique plures de Romano senatu clerici affuere, quibus specialis praerogativa concessa est Papam eligere et consecrare. Intronisatus est itaque Guido ....
He signals the presence of three Cardinal Bishops, and he is certainly correct about Lambert and Conon. The name Boso, however, presents a problem. There was indeed a Cardinal Bishop of Porto at the time, but his name was Petrus, and he was presiding in Rome as Papal Vicar. Muratori noticed this [RIS III. 1, 406 column 1], and corrects Orderic's statement, claiming that Boso was Cardinal Priest of SS. IV Coronati. The name of a Cardinal named Boso appears in a subscription of a bull of Pope Calixtus II issued at Toulouse on July 15, 1119, some five months from his election (Bullarium Romanum II (Turin 1865), p. 298), but this Cardinal Boso is named tituli Sanctae Anastasiae presbyter cardinalis. But Pandulphus Pisanus states that in 1118 the Cardinal of S. Anastasia was Theobaldus Buccapecus, who became pope for a day in December, 1124, and bulls from the reign of Calixtus II indicate that Theobaldus was Cardinal of S. Anastasia. Cardinal Boso, however, signed a document during the IV Lateran Council in 1116 as Cardinal Priest of S. Anastasia (Mansi, Sacrorum Concilium 21, column 150), and he was already Legate a latere to Spain and Portugal while Gelasius was alive (He witnessed the consecration of the first bishop of Toledo: Baronius-Theiner, sub anno 1118, §17-20, pp.292-293; and was again Spain in 1121: Hist. Compost. II. 20 & 32, columns 1058 & 1069; Jaffé, Regesta Pontificum nos. 5062, 5064). The documentary evidence is clear that it was Cardinal Boso who was actually Cardinal Priest of S. Anastasia from before March 1116 until at least 1121. Pandulphus' list must therefore be in error as to Cardinal Theobaldus, who was Cardinal Boso's successor in the titulus in 1123. Perhaps Theobaldus is the same person as the Cardinal Deacon of S. Maria Nova, and he received a promotion to the Order of Cardinal Priests, just as Cardinal Petrus Pierleone had (from Deacon of SS. Cosmae et Damiani to S. Mariae trans Tiberim tit. S. Callisti) [Pandulphus Pisanus, "Vita Callixti": Watterich II, p. 116]. What should be done, finally, with Orderic Vitalis' list of four? Emend it, or set it aside?
Panvinio (Epitome, p. 91; followed, of course, by Ciaconius I, col. 940—who knew however that Lambert of Ostia was with the Pope) states that the cardinals who took part in the creation of Calixtus II were:
This list is obviously based on the list of Cardinals and other persons who travelled with Gelasius after he left Benevento and headed for Pisa, a list provided by Pandulphus Pisanus (Watterich II, 102), who was a member of the papal suite. When he left Pisa, again by ship, Gelasius was accompanied cum suis omnibus toward the villa of St. Aegidius. Does this phrase, "with all his retinue", require us to believe that all six cardinals named by Pandulphus were still with him at S. Aegidius and none others? Subscriptiones of several documents issued by Gelasius at Pisa, before he boarded ship for France, indicate that there were other cardinals with him besides those named by Pandulphus: Deusdedit Card. Presbyter tit. S. Laurentii in Damaso, Petrus Card. tit .S. Susannae, Petrus Diaconus Card. S. Adriani, and Lambertus, Ostiensis Episcopus. Should these other cardinals be included on the passenger list for the trip to France, even though they do not appear on Pandulphus' list?
In the case of Lambertus of Ostia, yes, certainly! He crowned Calixtus II at Vienne. Cardella (I.1, p. 222-223) allows Deusdedit to take the trip and participate in the Election. It is quite likely that Deusdedit took part in the journey to France. But he was assigned by Pope Gelasius as legate to Spain in November, 1118, to invite the Spanish bishops to participate in a council which was being prepared by Gelasius to be held at Claremont on March 1, 1119. Deusdedit was returning to France from Compostela with Archbishop Didacus Gelmirez when they were impeded by the King of Aragon from free passage through his lands; they were still in Spain when news reached them of the death of the pope (Historia Compostelana II. 7-8, columns 1041-1042). He was, therefore, NOT an elector. What of the others?
Cardinal Roscemannus, a monk of Montecassino like Pope Gelasius II, was certainly with the entourage of Gelasius II as he fled from Rome and sought refuge in Pisa [Watterich II, p.102]. However, he does not appear to have subscribed documents in Pisa. The notion that he was present at Cluny at the Election of 1119 depends entirely on a single notice, in the Chronicon Casinense (IV. 64) by Petrus Diaconus [MGH SS 7, 793; Migne PL 173, 886]:
Idem praeterea pontifex per aliquantum temporis ibidem remorans, Roscemannumque cardinalem et hujus coenobii monachum <Romam dirigens et per eum> ex parte Italorum, catholicae duntaxat parti faventium, de sua ordinatione consensum unanimem per litteras excipiens, una cum episcopis et cardinalibus ad monasterium Beati Mauri in Glannafolio situm, et huic Casinensi coenobio subditum pervenit, rogatusque a monachis Casinensibus, qui secum venerant, nec non a Gyranrdo, jam dicti loci abbate, ejusdem confessoris Christi Mauri ecclesiam sollemniter dedicavit, in qua etiam corpora sanctorum Antonii et Constantiniani, qui de hoc Casinensi coenobio ad Gallias cum beato Mauro perrexerant, cum maxima reverentia posuit. Sicque Romam veniens, a clero, senatu, populoque Romano honorifice satis exceptus est.
The text states—at least according to the editorial supplement in the lacuna—that Cardinal Roscemannus came to Rome and obtained the unanimous consent of the catholic (non-schismatic) party to the Election of Calixtus II. It is presumed—and it is only a presumption—that he came from Cluny. He might have come from Pisa or from Monte Cassino. The notion that he organized the Roman response to the news of the Election at Cluny is at odds with the Act of Confirmation—to which Roscemannus and many other cardinals were not signatory. The signatures of three Cardinal Bishops head the list. The news of the Election was carried by letter (acceptis siquidem literis, quas misistis), and on the very next day an assembly was held in the church of S. Giovanni de insula [Armellini, Le chiese di Roma, pp. 274-275]. The gathering included the Cardinal Bishops, priests, deacons and subdeacons, the clergy, nobility and laity of Rome (in altero die apud ecclesiam sancti Iohannis de insula congregati sumus, episcopi, cardinales, presbyteri, diaconi et subdiaconi ac reliqui clerici, iudices quoque et scriniarii ac ceteri palatii ordines et plures Romani nobiles). There is nothing about Cardinal Roscemannus. Unfortunately, the reference to Glannafolio in the story of Roscemannus' participation involves the entire passage in the issue of forgery. Peter the Deacon, the author of the text, was responsible for both interpolations (in Odo's Translatio S. Mauri) and outright forgeries of documents (e.g. JL 6644, a document of Gelasius II in favor of Montecassino) with reference to the events of the Schism of 1130 and with reference to the Monasteries of Glanfeuil and Montecassino [E. Caspar, Petrus Diaconus und die Montecassinenser Fälschungen, pp. 177-184; H. Bloch, Monte Cassino in the Middle Ages II, pp. 969-1006]. Roscemannus does not appear again until he is Rector of Benevento on September 20, 1120 [Kehr, IP VI. 2, p. 324 no. 10; JL 7056]. The passage in the Chronicon Casinense involving Cardinal Roscemannus is obviously intended to shower some glory on the men of Montecassino. It does so, according to the modern editorial conjecture, by having one of their number carry the happy news and organize the joyous response of the Romans. One would be well advised to be cautious about this information and the whereabouts of this cardinal.
Cardinal Boso was with Pope Gelasius in December of 1118 [Bruel, Recueil des chartes de l'Abbaye de Cluny 5, no. 3934, p. 288], and probably was present at the Election of February 2, 1119. Lambertus Ostiensis, Joannes de Crema of S. Crisogono and Conradus of S. Pudenziana are mentioned in the same document, and they are equally likely to have been present. The two cardinals, Lambertus and Joannes de Crema, are also mentioned as being part of Pope Calixtus' retinue at the consecration of the church in the Abbey of S. Antonio (S. Antoine de Viennois) on March 20, 1119 [Hauréau, Gallia Christiana 16 (Paris 1865) column 187, and instrumenta, col. 30 no. xl: Hostiensis episcopus [Lambertus], Joannes Cremensis, nostrique cardinales interfuere.].
Cardinal Gregory of S. Angelo in Pescheria and Cardinal Johannes of S. Crisogono were certainly in France in time for the Council of Reims (October, 1119) [Jaffé, Bibliotheca, pp. 355, 359]. Gregory, in fact, appears to subscribe for Calixtus II for the first time on June 18, 1119, at St. Gilles [JL 6699]; he could have been at the Election, or he could have been freshly arrived from Italy (He had been at Pisa with Pope Gelasius).
Cardinal Guido of S. Balbina was with the Pope Gelasius at Pisa in September and the first days of October of 1118. He subscribed bulls on September 13 [JL 6651], September 26 [JL 6652], and September 29 [Kehr IP VIII, p. 164 no. 184]. He is not heard of subsequently. He died on a January 7 [Hüls, p. 154 n. 10]. If that date was January 7, 1119, then he most certainly did not participate in the Election of February 2, 1119. His successor, Odaldus, subscribed a bull on December 1, 1120 [JL 6869], which leaves open the possibility that Cardinal Guido did not die until January 7, 1120. But on that very day Pope Calixtus II and his suite left Cluny to begin their journey to Italy; the events of Calixtus' visit to Cluny in that first week of 1120 are related by Hugh, the monk of Cluny [M.-J.-J. Brial (editor), Recueil des historiens des Gaules et de la France XIV (Paris 1806) , pp. 196-197; Migne PL 166, 845], and it would be strange if he did not mention the death of a cardinal at the moment of their departure. It seems altogether better to consider Cardinal Guido as a non-participant in the Election of 1119.
Muratori (RIS III. 1, 412-413) provides a better list than Panvinio's, but one which he admits is based on the subscriptiones of Pisa (and which does not include the name of Cardinal Boso):
The inclusion on the list of Muratori of the name of Petrus Rufus of S. Adriano is unfortunate. He was indeed with Pope Gelasius at Pisa in September of 1118 [JL 6651 and 6652], but there is no evidence concerning his activities for the succeeding sixteen months. He does not reappear as a subscriber to papal documents until February 27, 1120; by then he was in France, at Valence, according to the Historia Compostelana [JL 6823]. The fact is that his whereabouts at the time of the Election is unknown.
We must certainly admit, however, that the list of Pandulphus (and Panvinio, and Ciaconius), even with Muratori's rectifications, is a defective indicator of Gelasius' travelling companions in Italy, and no indicator at all of who was present at Cluny four months later.
As a list of papal electors, too, Pandulphus' list is quite erroneous. Falco of Beneventum appears to indicate that Cardinal Conon, the Bishop of Palestrina, was present. This is certainly true, as Conon's own letter, cited below, shows.
Falco's narrative runs (Watterich II, 111):
Sed antequam terminus statutus synodum celebrandi advenisset, apud monasterium sancti Petri, quod vocatur Clunia, ubi diligenter morabatur, aegritudinis mole detentus est. Confestim se infirmitatis validae dissolutione teneri persentiens, Palestrinum acciri iussit episcopum, et imponere illi tanti honoris culmen Romanae sedis satagebat. Praevidebat enim, se, ut fragilitatis est, corpore dissolvi. Audiens itaque episcopus ipse huiusmodi verba Pontificem proferentem: "Absit," inquit, "omnino absit, ut tanti honoris ponderisque cacumen indignus ego et infelix suscipiam, praecipue cum auxilio Dei et saecularium virtute divitiarum Romana sedes temporibus nostris sub persecutionis flagello dedita defendi oporteat et muniri. Si vero meis acquiescere velitis consiliis, Viennensem archiepiscopum, virum utique religiosum prudentisque animi et saecularibus ornatum virtutibus ad tale tantumque patrocinium eligamus. Dei namque consilio et beati Petri meritis et viri huius solatio Romanam sedem, sub tantae persecutionis periculo diutissime oppressam credimus ad serenitatem triumphumque sublevari." Quid multa? Et Gelasio pontifici infirmanti et ceteris cardinalibus aliisque omnibus episcopis sermo complacuit. Nec mora, archiepiscopum illum accersiri iubent, ut dicta factis compleant, et perseverent. Qui vero vocatus viribus totis renuit seseque tanti officii culmine indignum clamitabat. Tamen coelesti clementia ordinante, ad Pontificalem infulam, Gelasio aegrotante et volente, permovetur. Die vero altera advienente Gelasius Pontifex, IV videlicet Kalendas Februarii, apud praedictum monasterium feliciter ex huius mundi ergastulo migravit ad Dominum.
This little narrative of Falco in fact states that Gelasius II twice moved to designate his own successor on January 28. In the first instance, Cardinal Conon refused, recommending the Archbishop Guy of Vienne instead. In the second, Archbishop Guy was summoned, and though he tried heroically to refuse, he was eventually prevailed upon and made to don the papal vestment—all of this while Gelasius was still alive. Next day, January 29, he died.
This story would have more credibility if it were not immediately preceded by the remark that Gelasius had had a meeting and conversation with the King of England—a meeting which never took place (His successor, Calixtus II, met with Henry I in connection with the Council of Rheims in October, 1119: Baronius-Theiner, p. 318). Moreover, Pandulphus Pisanus, the nephew of Cardinal Hugo of XII Apostolorum, who was a member of the papal suite and who was present at the deathbed of the Pope, says nothing about this very significant alleged event. Niether does Falco's story explain why Guy de Bourgogne was not elected until February 2, the fifth day after the death of Gelasius, if all had been arranged before his death. The answer to all these puzzles comes, unfortunately for Falco's reputation, from the same Archbishop Guy whose appointment as pope had allegedly been arranged by Gelasius in his own presence. As Pope Calixtus II, Guy wrote a letter to Archbishop Adelbert of Mainz (Ekkehard, Chronicon: Patrologiae Latinae 154, columns 1039-1040; MGH SS 6, 254; Watterich II, p. 121), in which he related that as Gelasius was departing from Vienne, he ordered Guy to come to him as soon as he arrived at Cluny. After some days, as Guy was on the road intending to carry out the Pope's command, news reached him that the Pope was dead (Quod cum post dies aliquot implere satagerem, in itinere de eius obitu michi nuntiatum est.) The whole story of the deathbed of Gelasius is another fantasy retailed by Falco! (Muratori, RIS III. 1, p. 412, column 2). Nonetheless, there is some truth to be seen in it. Cardinal Conon and Archbishop Guy were two of the staunchest supporters of Gelasius II. Each had excommunicated King/Emperor Henry more than once. Each could be counted on to maintain the interests of the Church in the Investiture Controversy. It might not be possible to say the same about Abbot Pontius of Cluny. It is perhaps significant that at the time of the Council of Reims (October 19-21. 1119), Calixtus sent as his legates to the German King Henry V (Henry IV had died on August 7, 1106) the Bishop of Chalons, Guillaume, and Ponce of Cluny [Robert, Histoire du pape Calixte II, p. 63; Ordericus VItalis, vol. 4, p. 372, ed. Le Prevost; Hesso Scholasticus, "Narratio de Concilio Remensi", in MGH SS 12, 423-424].
There is a story, somewhat similar to the Beneventan chronicle's narrative, in the Historia Compostelana, (II. 9; Watterich II, 124), but here the chosen one is Pontius of Cluny:
Defuncto enim Papa Gelasio et eius corpore in Cluniacum delato, comprovinciales episcopi ad exhibendum obsequium eius exequiis illo convenerunt. Cumque Romanae ecclesiae cardinales qui aderant una cum episcopis Romanae curiae Ostiensi et Portuensi et cum compluribus Romani populi, quem sibi in Romanum Pontificem eligerent, plenius pertractarent, advenit praedictus Viennensis ecclesiae archiepiscopus et hunc aut Pontium Cluniacensem abbatem, filium Merguliensis comitissae in Romanum Pontificem eligi Papa Gelasius adhuc vivens, iam tamen in confinio mortis positus, clero ac populo Romano praedixerat.
This chronicle also has it that the Bishop of Porto was present at Cluny at the death of Gelasius. This is quite incorrect. Petrus Pisanus, Bishop of Porto, was in Rome, and like two other Cardinal Bishops (Crescentius of Sabina and Vitalis of Albano) and two other cardinals (Bonifacius of S. Marco and Comes of S. Maria in Aquiro) signed the Act of Confirmation of the Election of Calixtus II. Like Falco's Beneventan chronicle, the Compostelan chronicle also states that Gelasius made recommendations as to his successor. The Spanish chronicle, however, does not name Cardinal Conon and Archbishop Guido of Vienne, but instead Archbishop Guido and Abbot Pontius of Cluny ( Pons of Melgueil). The two men were already adversaries of one another, and Pontius behaved badly toward Guido after the latter became Pope Calixtus [Historia Compostellana II. 14]; he was deposed (or made to resign) as abbot of Cluny in 1122. Pons was a friend of Archbishop Didacus Gelmirez of Compostella. He had been one of the prime movers in the grant of metropolitan status over Merida to the Archbishop of Compostella by Calixtus II on February 26, 1120, supplicante nepote nostro Illefonso Hispaniarum rege, et fratribus nostris H(ugone) Portugalensi episcopo ac P. Cluniacensi abbate, necnon et Laurentio ecclesiae vestrae canonico [JL 6823; Migne, PL 163, 1169]. And Pontius is known to have visited Compostela while the Historia Compostelana was being put together. One may wonder at the substitution of his name as one of Gelasius' nominees. In any case, the other sources know nothing of it, and indeed contradict it. The Compostella chronicle is no more reliable than the Beneventan Chronicle of Falco (See Holder, 58-61; cf. M. Stroll, Calixtus II, pp. 58-65, who accepts the authenticity of the Compostellan narrative). It is hard to believe that Pope Gelasius would have preferred Abbot Pontius to Cardinal Conon.
The letter written by Cardinal Guido (Pope Calixtus) (Ekkehard, Chronicon: Patrologiae Latinae 154, columns 1039-1040; MGH SS 6, 254; Watterich II, p. 121) goes on to say that, on the day after he arrived at Cluny, the Cardinal Bishops and a hundred Roman clergy and laity unanimously elected him as Roman Pontiff (Congregati namque in unum, die altero post adventum meum, episcopi cardinales et centum clerici et laici Romanorum invitum me ac penitus renitentem in Romanae ecclesiae Pontificem Calistum unanimiter assumpserunt.) The following cardinals were certainly present at Cluny when Pope Gelasius died, and chose his successor:
Guy (Guido, Wido) de Burgogne, Archbishop of Vienne, the fifth and youngest son of Count Guillaume of Burgundy (son of Renaud I of Burgundy and Alix, daughter of Richard II, Duke of Normandy) and of Étiennette of the house of Vienne. [U. Robert, Histoire du Pape Calixte, pp. 2-3]. His eldest brother was Count Raymond, Duke of Burgundy (who died during the First Crusade); his second brother was Étienne, Comte de Varsac et de Mâcon (who also died during the First Crusade); his third brother had been Hughes, bishop of Besançon (1088-1101), who also died crusading in the Holy Land; his fourth brother was Raymond, Count d' Amous, who had married Urraca, the daughter of King Alfonso VI of Castile. His eldest sister was the wife of Eudes I Borel, Duke of Burgundy. Another one of his sisters was Countess of Savoy (her son was Amadeus III, Count of Savoy) and then Marquise de Monserrat, another was the wife of Robert II, Count of Flanders and then of Geoffrey, Duke of Brabant; the youngest was the wife of Thierry Count of Bar.
In March or April of 1088, the newly elected Urban II authorized the suffragan bishops of the Province of Vienne to oversee the election of a new Archbishop, since the post had been vacant for at least five years [Migne PL 151, 226]. The clergy and people of Vienne chose Guy of Burgundy. He went to Rome to receive his pallium, and was kept there by Pope Urban for some time. He returned to Vienne at the end of 1089 with a glowing recommendation from the Pope [Migne, PL 151, 316]. In Vienne he was a vigorous defender of the rights of the Church and particularly his church. He spent more than a dozen years in acrimonious controversy with "Saint" Hughes of Grenoble over the pagus Salmoriensis, which required multiple interventions on the part of Pope Paschal to finally settle the matter [See Hughes of Grenoble, "De Controversia pro Salmoriacensi pagp inter Viennensem et Gratianopolitanam Ecclesias", in M. Brial (editor), Recueil des historiens des Gaules et de la France 14 (Paris 1806), pp. 757-762]. Regrettably, the Archbishop has been charged with forging, or causing to be forged, some of the documents which demonstrated his case, and which proved the metropolitan status of his diocese of Vienne [Robert, Histoire du Pape Calixte II, pp. 203-204].
In 1100, Pope Paschal II attempted to send Archbishop Guy as his Apostolic Legate to England, to deal with the ecclesiastical vacancies brought about by King William Rufus (Guy's grand-uncle), who had recently died; William had been appropriating the revenues of bishoprics and abbeys during vacancies of the incumbents, and prolonging the vacancies to increase his income. In attempting to carry out his mission, Guy ran afoul of both the new King Henry (Guy's grand-uncle) and Archbishop Anselm of Canterbury, who maintained that no papal legate could be admitted to England without license of the King. Guy and the Pope drew back.
In January of 1107, Pope Paschal personally consecrated the new cathedral in Vienne. It is said that Archbishop Guy was made a cardinal by Pope Paschal II ["Series Episcoporum Viennensium", in MGH SS 24, 815], and given the titulus of S. Grisogono [Robert, Histoire du Pape Calixte, pp. 25-26]. The names of the Cardinal Priests of S. Crisogono under Paschal II are rather well documented, however, and there is no space for Guy de Bourgogne among them [Hüls, pp. 170-177]; at the time of his election as pope, the incumbent was Cardinal Johannes de Crema. This is yet another example of the abuse of the title of cardinal in French sources for the 12th century. What might possibly have been referred to was the grant of the title and functions of Apostolic Legate to Archbishop Guy. Some legates, but by no means all, were in fact Cardinals; but the title was not intrinsic to the legatine function.
In 1109, Archbishop Guy's nephew Alfonso, son of his brother Raymond, became heir and then king of Castile, and the Archbishop became one of the tutors who managed the affairs of the child monarch (along with Bishop Didacus Gelmirez of Compostela). He travelled to Castile to attend the Cortes of Leon, Castile and Asturias, and witnessed the reception of their obeisance to his nephew through the hands of Bishop Didacus. Back in France, he organized a council which took place at Vienne in September, 1112, which voided the agreement between Henry V and Paschal II (the privilegium of 1111) and excommunicated Henry V [Mansi, Sacrorum Conciliorum nova et amplissima collectio Tomus XXI, 73-76]. Paschal II confirmed their decisions in a letter of October 20, 1112 [JL 6330]. At the command of Pope Paschal [JL 6456 (April 22, 1115)] he also convoked a council at Tournus to settle a number of canonical disputes concerning Besançon, though the final decision, rejecting the decision of the Council, was actually made by Paschal himself [JL 6517 (March 24, 1116)]. In 1117, Archbishop Guy presided over a council at Dijon, and excommunicated Henry, Archdeacon of WInchester, who was escorting Princess Mathilda, the eight-year-old daughter of Henry I, to Germany to marry Henry V. The Archdeacon had accepted the Bishopric of Verdun as his reward for his services to the excommunicated King [MGH SS 10, 504-505; Mansi, Sacrorum Conciliorum nova et amplissima collectio Tomus XXI, 159-162]. On August 15, 1118, Archbishop Guy consecrated the Altar of the Virgin Mary at the Abbey of Cluny [Robert, Histoire du Pape Calixte II, p. 41 n. 3].
Archbishop Guy was elected pope at the Abbey of Cluny on February 2, 1119, the Feast of the Purification (Baronius-Theiner, sub anno 1119, no. 1, p. 308). He took the name Calixtus II.
He was consecrated and crowned on February 9 at Vienne, according to Cardinal Conon (who was present), writing in a letter to the Bishop of Nevers (Migne, Patrologiae Latinae 163, column 1438):
Quae postquam a nobis discessistis, apud nos gesta sunt, dilectioni vestrae innotescere volumus. Die ipsa qua ib invicem discessimus cum electo nostro duce misericordia Dei ad partes Lugdunensium properavimus. Antequam autem Lugdunum perveniremus, domnus Lugdun. archiepiscopus electioni nostrae assensit, et Lugduni subscripsit. Ibi facta processione solemni, dominum papam Calixtum et nos honorifice suscepit. Nam et Engolismensis episcopus antequam a nobis discederet, subscripserat, et domino papae humiliter se subdiderat. Inde venimus Viennam, ubi in Dominica Quinquagesimae dominus papa coronatus est.
Pandulphus Pisanus relates, at the beginning of his "Vita Calisti papae II", the events in Rome upon receipt of the news of the election of Calixtus (March 1: Muratori, 418; Watterich II, p. 115):
Hic [Calixtus] a Cardinalibus, qui cum Papa Gelasio jam Cluniaco sepulto ab Urbe in Franciam venerant, dum esset Archiepiscopus Viennensis in Papam Calistum electus est, qui se indignum iterato reclamans, idcirco modis omnibus resistebat, quia incertum habebatur a multis, utrum Romae ratum factum hujuscemodi teneretur, propter quod vix cappa rubea amiciri sustinuit, donec Nuncii redeuntes a Roman per Domnum Petrum [Portuensis] tunc Episcopum Vicarium, per Cardinales omnes, et per Domnum Petrum Leonis, nam iste nimium laboravit in verbo, propter Diaconum filium suum Petrum Petri Leonis, qui potissimum Franciae peregerat causam per Praefectum et Consules, per Clerum atque populum viva voce, ac literis electionem ipsam canonice jureque confirmarent. Facto igitur hoc omnium subscriptionibus optime roborato, tunc Papa solemniter a Lamberto Ostiensi Episcopo et aliis quamplurimis in Dei nomine consecratus, simul cum suis omnibus Romam iter incoepit.
A meeting was summoned immediately upon receipt of letters from Cluny, in the church of S. Giovanni on the Tiber Island [Armellini, Le chiese di Roma, pp. 274-275], by the Vicar of the City, Cardinal Petrus, Bishop of Porto. The choice of the Cardinals and Romans at Cluny was immediately confirmed by the Cardinals, clergy and laity in the City of Rome. A complete text of the Act of Confirmation of Pope Calixtus by the Cardinals, Clergy, nobility and people of Rome survives. (Watterich II, pp. 122-124).
As far as winning over the Roman people, the Annales Romani (Watterich II, 113) confirm the important role played by Petrus Leonis (Pierleone), the father of the Cardinal of SS. Cosmae et Damiani:
Altero die fuit octava festivitatis apostolorum Petri et Pauli (July 5, 1119), perrexitque ad basilicam beati Pauli, et ibi [Calixtus II] messa celebravit. Alter vero pontifex, videlicet Gregorius, qui Romani nominant Burdinum (Antipope Gregory VIII), celebravit missa in basilica beati Petri. Non multo post dictus Gregorius secessit ad civitatem Sutrinam, et basilicam sancti Petri suis reliquit fidelibus custodiendam. Illi vero non fideles, sed infideles eius et imperatoris, non diu perseveraverunt in sacramenta fidelitatis et securitatis dicte basilice beati Petri, quod eis fecerunt, set accepta pecunia tradiderunt eam Petro Leonis, qui fidelis erat Calixti Papae, cum omnibus eius munitionibus. Postea vero Calixtus Pontifex data pecunia in hac civitate, plures equites hac pedites ei fidelitatem fecerunt.
After spending the entire year 1119 in France holding assemblies and consolidating his support, in the Spring of 1120 Pope Calixtus set off for Italy. On November 20, 1119, while he was still in France and was spending a few days at Beauvais, he heard a complaint from Guillaume the Bishop of Châlons [Gallia Christiana 10, instrumenta, columns 162-164]. The papal suite on that day included the following cardinals:
On January 7, 1120, the final decree in the case was issued at Cluny, and subscribed by Lambertus, Petrus Pierleoni, Gregory Papareschi, Romanus and Chrysogonus the Chancellor.
On the same day Pope Calixtus set out on his journey toward Rome. In mid-April the Pope had left France and was at Piacenza; he reached Pisa by mid-May. He dedicated the new Cathedral at Volaterra on May 20, 1120. On June 3, he arrived at Rome ("Life of Calixtus II," by Cardinal Boso; Watterich II, 119-120).
Interea de iucundo et nimium desiderato ipsius Papae adventu communis fama et frequens rumor aures Romanorum pulsavit. Et cum ad eius receptionem tota civitas anhelaret et vehementi desiderio ferveret, schismatici, qui tunc eidem Urbi per imperatoris violentiam incubabant, valde sunt territi et in se ipsis omnino confusi. Quodcirca languidum eorum caput, Burdinus haeresiarcha [Gregory VIII] in desperationis lubrico positus, sperans ab ipso imperatore tueri, apud Sutrium confugium fecit. Quo audito, domnus Papa Calixtus versus Urbem iter festinanter arripuit [the author places material at this point that belongs in the next year].... Gaudente itaque in Domino et exultante universo populo Romano, idem beatissimus Papa secundum antiquam sanctorum Pontificum Romanorum consuetudinem celebriter est receptus et in beati Petri cathedra solemniter positus atque ad Lateranense palatium per mediam civitatem, praeparatis arcubus de more in ipsa via sacra cum gaudio magno deductus.
On the 11th of June, Pope Calixtus himself wrote a letter (JL 5008) to his Chamberlain, Stephen of Vesontio (Hist. Compost. II. 16, column 1056), informing him that the journey through Lombardy and Tuscany had been successfully completed, and that he had reached Rome and was received with honor on June 3. He went to the Lateran Palace, and there met with Petrus Leonis, Leo Frangipane and their whole following, and Stephen Normannus and Peter Colonna and all the other members of the Roman nobility.
Also in 1120, Pope Calixtus' nephew (ex sorore nepos), Stephen, son of Hermintrude of Burgundy and Thierry, Comte de Bar, was made Bishop of Metz [Chronicon Episcoporum Metensium, in Bouquet-Delisle, Recueil des historiens des Gaules et de France 13 (Paris 1869), p. 642]. Stephen had two brothers, Rainaldus and Fridericus [Genealogia B. Arnaldi, Metensis Episcopi, in Bouquet-Delisle, Recueil des historiens des Gaules et de la France 13 (Paris 1869), p. 647]. One of Rainaldus' three sons, Theodericus, also became Bishop of Metz. Calixtus also had a nephew named Petrus, who was a member of the papal court [U. Robert, Étude sur les actes du pape Calixte II, p. xxiv. no. 43 (September 7, 1119)].
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"Leonis Marsicani et Petri Diaconi, Chronicon Casinense," in: J.P. Migne (editor), Patrologiae Latinae Cursus Completus Tomus 173 (Paris 1854), columns 410-978.
Falco of Benevento: "Falconis Beneventani Chronicon," in: J. P. Migne (editor) Patrologiae Latinae Cursus Completus 173 (Paris 1854), columns 1145-1262.
Petrus Diaconus Cassiniensis, Chronicon in: J. P. Migne (editor) Patrologiae Latinae Cursus Completus 173, columns 907-908.
Orderici Vitalis Historiae Ecclesiasticae libri tredecim (Augustus le Prevost, editor) Tomus Quartus (Paris 1852), pp. 334-335.
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J. P. Migne (editor), Patrologiae Latinae Tomus CLXIII: Paschalis II, Gelasii II, Calixti II ... Epistolae et Privilegia ... (Paris 1854) "Gelasius II Pontifex Romanus," columns 473-514 [includes "Life" by Pandulphus Pisanus].
Ludovico Antonio Muratori, Annali d' Italia Tomo 16 (Firenze: Marchini 1827).
Caesaris S. R. E. Cardinalis Baronii, Od. Raynaldi et Jac. Laderchii Annales Ecclesiastici denuo excusi et ad nostra usque tempora perducti ab Augusto Theiner Tomus Octavusdecimus 1094-1146 (Barri-Ducis: Ludovicus Guerin 1869), pp 415-452. [Baronius-Theiner]
Johannes C. L. Gieseler, A Compendium of Ecclesiastical History 4th edition revised Volume III (Edinburgh 1853). [Lehrbuch der Kirchengeschichte]
Johann M. Watterich, (editor), Pontificum Romanorum qui fuerunt inde ab exeunte saeculo IX usque ad finem saeculi XIII vitae ab aequalibus conscriptae Tomus II (Lipsiae 1862).
Philippus Jaffé (editor), Bibliotheca rerum Germanicarum Tomus Quintus: Monumenta Bambergensia (Berlin: Weidmann 1869).
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© John Paul Adams, CSUN