Sede Vacante 1118



(January 21 — January 24, 1118)

medieval Lateran palace, Lippi (Minerva)
The medieval Lateran Palace, as one approaches from S. Clemente (Filippo Lippi),
before the removal of the equestrian statue of Marcus Aurelius to the Capitol in 1538

 

Background

At the Council of Ceperano, on October 15-19, 1114, Pope Paschal II granted to Duke William the title of Duke of Apulia, Calabria and Sicily [Falco of Benevento, Chronicon, in Migne PL 173, column 1162]. This political move only served to enflame the Emperor Henry V against the Papacy. The Emperor Henry V was excommunicated at the Council of Cologne in 1115 [Baronius-Theiner 18, sub anno 1115, no. 9, p. 255. ]. Paschal returned to the south of Italy in 1115, and held a council at Troia on August 24, at which he received the feudal submission of a number of barons of Apulia. On August 15, he had written to the bishops of Spain of his intention to hold a general church council to deal with the problem of episcopal investiture and schism [JL 6462]. The Lateran Council took place from March 6 to March 11, 1116.

In the Lateran Council of March, 1116, Pope Paschal II was forced by the unanimous demand of his own bishops to retract and cancel the deal which he had entered into with King Henry V. The arrangement would have settled the Investiture Controversy by granting the Emperor the "privilegium" of investing, but this was to the disadvantage of basic ecclesiastical principles (Baronius-Theiner 18, sub anno 1116, nos. 1-6, pp. 259-261). Paschal thereby added to the extreme distaste against him in the minds of the enthusiastic Gregorian reformers, and incurred the further wrath of the German king who saw the retraction as an act of treachery rather than weakness. The King's view was strengthened when the Pope and Council again excommunicated him.   In the same year, the Prefect of Rome, Petrus Leonis, died [Baronius-Theiner, no. 6, p. 266]. The Romans elected, as he wished, his own son as his successor, but Pope Paschal would not ratify the election. The result was a general civil war, which spread to the barons and castelli of the Roman Campagna. The pope was forced to flee the Lateran on April 5. He maintained himself in the city, either at the Castel S. Angelo or in the fortified Transtiberim, but by the next February he had departed completely [Falco of Benevento, in Migne PL 173, columns 1167-1168]. Clearly, in his last months, Paschal was losing his grip on the realities of ecclesiastical, Roman, and Italian politics.

Henry descended on central Italy in 1117 and Paschal quickly withdrew (February), eventually to Montecassino (in May [Petrus Diaconus IV. 57]), and then Beneventum. At the Easter Mass at St. Peter's on March 25, Henry had himself crowned Emperor by the Archbishop of Braga, Maurice Burdinus, who was perfectly aware of the Pope's injunction not to crown Henry and who defied the anathemas of several prelates who saw what he was going to do. Paschal retorted by summoning a synod at Beneventum in April, and deposing and excommunicating Archbishop Maurice (Mansi, Sacrorum Conciliorum 21, columns 161-162 and 167; Baluzius, "Vita Mauritii Burdini", pp. 486-488). The Pope began to feel ill in the autumn of 1117, and his age and infirmities began to catch up with him by the time he reached Anagni [Baronius-Theiner 18, sub anno 1117, no. 5, p. 273]. He spent Chritmastide in Palestrina (Petrus Pisanus, Watterich II, p. 15), but on January 14, 1118, he made his return to the neighborhood of Rome and took up residence in the Castel S. Angelo. There Pope Paschal II died, on January 21, 1118, according to the Annales Romani. He was buried in the Lateran Basilica [Baronius-Theiner 18, sub anno 1117, no. 3, p. 297]

The Cardinals

There is an incomplete and defective list of participants in the Election of January 24, 1118, provided by Pandulphus of Pisa, nephew of Cardinal Hugh of XII Apostolorum [Muratori, RIS III.1, 381; 389; Baronius-Theiner 18, p. 286], who had been an eyewitness of most of the events of Pope Gelasius' reign (1118-1119). He names four Cardinal Bishops, twenty-one Cardinal Priests, and nine Cardinal Deacons. There were also, according to Pandulphus, six more (unnamed) Cardinal Priests and eight more (unnamed) Cardinal Deacons (a total of forty-eight cardinals). Various subscriptiones on bulls of the reigns of Popes Paschal II, Gelasius II and first years of Calixtus II help to fill in the blanks. There was, for example, an absent Cardinal Bishop, Conon (Kono), who was papal legate in Germany. One must be aware, however, that not all cardinals signed papal bulls. See Jaffé-Loewenfeld, Regesta Pontificum I, pp. 702-703.

Names marked with an asterisk ( * ) appear in the list of Pandulphus Pisanus (Baronius-Theiner sub anno 1118, no. 4, p. 286; Muratori RIS III.1, 389; Watterich II, 94-95).

  1. * Petrus, Suburbicarian Bishop of Porto (1102-1133) [Cardella I.1, p. 212-213]. He had been Rector of Beneventum, 1102, 1106-1108 [Kehr, Italia Pontificia 9, pp. xxxi, 26, 27, 75, 88], and 1114 [Falco of Benevento: Muratori, Rerum Italicarum Scriptores V, p. 85]. He subscribes a bull on July 29, 1103 [JL 5948]. He was present at the Lateran Synod of March 18-23, 1112 [MGH Leges 4 Constitutiones 1, p. 572 and 573]. He was present at the consecration of Gelasius II at Gaeta on March 10, 1118 {Pandulphus Pisanus, "Vita Gelasii II", in Muratori RIS III.1, 389]. His latest known subscription is on April 24, 1130 [JL 8375]. He supported Pope Anacletus II against Innocent II, and was still active in 1133. See B. Zenker, Die Mitglieder des Kardinalcollegiums von 1130 bis 1159 (Würzburg 1964), pp. 25-26 no. 7.
  2. * Crescentius (Cencius), Suburbicarian Bishop of Sabina [Cardella I.1, 212]. Pandulphus Pisanus states he was a creation of Pope Paschal II ["Vita Gelasii papae", Watterich II, p. 93]. He was present at the Lateran Synod of March 18-23, 1112 [MGH Leges 4 Constitutiones 1, p. 572 and 573]. He subscribed on December 21, 1116 [Migne PL 163, 414; JL 6533] and as late as July 21, 1126 [Migne PL 166, 1261; JL 7266]. His successor was Konrad, formerly Cardinal Priest of S. Pudenziana, who subscribed on May 7, 1128 [JL 7311; Zenker, p. 46]
  3. * Lambertus Scannabecchi di Fagnano [Bolognese], a Canon Regular of S. Maria de Reno in Bologna, Suburbicarian Bishop of Ostia. Former Cardinal Priest of S. Prassede [Cardella, 209-210]. Appointed in 1105 by Paschal II [G. Trombelli, Memorie istoriche cocern. le due canoniche di S. Maria di Reno e di S. Salvatore (Bologna 1752), p. 207]. He was the principal consecrator, assisted by Petrus of Porto and Vitalis of Albano, at the consecration of Gelasius II at Gaeta on March 10, 1118 {Pandulphus Pisanus, "Vita Gelasii II", in Muratori RIS III.1, 389]. He was at Pisa with Gelasius in September, 1118 [Kehr, IP 3, 419 no. 28; JL 6652], and he crossed with him to France [JL 6671]. He presided at the enthronement of Pope Calixtus II at Cluny [Pandulphus Pisanus, "Vita Calixti II", in Watterich II, 115]. He subscribed on May 25, 1122 [Pflugk-Harttung, no. 276, p. 233]; on April 24, 1124 [Pflugk-Harttung, no. 289, p. 245]; on May 26, 1124 [Pflugk-Harttung, no. 290, p. 246]. His latest known subscription is on June 1, 1124 [Pflugk-Harttung, no. 291, p. 249 (page misnumbered as a second 246); JL 7157]. He was succeeded by Cardinal Johannes, OSBCamuld.
  4. Cono (Conon, Kono) [German], son of Egenon Graf von Urach (Schoene, 1-3). Suburbicarian Bishop of Praeneste, ca. 1107/1109. Before 1090 he was Chaplain of King William of England. From 1190 to 1106 he worked for the Bishops of Arras.  Paschal II met him in Troyes in 1107, and made him Suburbicarrian Bishop of Palestrina.   In 1111 he was in Jerusalem, Greece and Hungary. He was present at the Lateran Synod of March 18-23, 1112 [MGH Leges 4 Constitutiones 1, p. 572 and 573]. He was Legatus a latere in France and Germany in 1115-1118. He excommunicated the Emperor Henry V at the Council of Cologne in 1115 [Baronius-Theiner 18, sub anno 1115, no. 9, p. 255]; he also held a synod at Chalons, on July 12, 1115, and issued more excommunications against the party of the Emperor. His letters; Migne, Patrologiae Latinae 163, 1431-1444. Muratori, RIS III.1, p. 412]. The Lateran Synod of 1116, on the fourth day, specially ratified his acta [Baronius-Theiner, sub anno. 1116, nos. 4-5, p. 260; Jaffe, Regesta, p. 762]. He was with Paschal II at Benevento on April 20, 1117 [Pflugk-Harttung, Acta pontificum Romanorum inedita 2, no. 260, p. 216]. He was absent from the Election of 1118: see below.  He died on August 9, 1122.
  5. * Vitalis, Suburbicarian Bishop of Albano [Muratori, RIS 3.1, p. 389; Ulysse Robert (editor), Bullaire du Pape Calixte II (Paris 1891), no. 500, p.329; Bullarium Romanum II (Turin 1865), p. 353], previously Cardinal Priest of S. Balbina (ca. 1112-1116) [Hüls, 153], in which capacity he was present at the Lateran Synod of March 18-23, 1112 [MGH Leges 4 Constitutiones 1, p. 572 and 573]. His predecessor was Cardinal Richardus, whose latest subscription is on February 25, 1114 [JL 6371]. Vitalis subscribed on December 21, 1116 [Migne PL 163, 414; JL 6533], on June 4, 1124 [Robert, Etude sur les actes du Pape Calixte II (Paris 1874), p. cxxx, no. 348], and as late as March 28, 1126 [Migne PL 166, 1256]. He was present at the consecration of Gelasius II at Gaeta on March 10, 1118 {Pandulphus Pisanus, "Vita Gelasii II", in Muratori RIS III.1, 389]. He was one of the Cardinals who administered Rome in the absence of Pope Gelasius [Muratori, Rerum Italicarum Scriptores 3. 1, p. 398, note 29].
          A bull signed for Paschal II   [T. Von Sickel, Studi e documenti di storia e diritto 7 (Roma 1886), pp. 105-109] in his regnal year XVII (August 14, 1115/1116), on the 8th day before the Kalends of some month, while Paschal was in residence at the Lateran, contains the subscription of Cardinal Vitalis as Bishop of Albano. The bull is spurious [Kehr IP II, p. 43]
  6. Iohannes, Suburbicarian Bishop of Tusculum (died October, 1119). He first appears as Bishop of Tusculum at the Synod of Melfi, on October 15, 1100. He was present at the Lateran Council of 1112 [MGH Legum, Constitutiones et acta publica I (Hannoverae 1893), no. 399, pp. 570-573], but his irregular attendance, and that of Bishop Bruno of Segni, was noted. He was present at the Synod of Beneventum on March 10, 1119, along with Cardinal Hugo of XX Apostolorum [Kehr, Italia Pontificia 9, p. 65 no. 52 (March 10, 1119); Freund, "Giovanni di Tusculo (Giovanni Marsicano)," Dizionario biografico degli Italiani 56 (2001)—who errs in attributing to him the consecration of an altar in 1113].. His successor was Cardinal Aegidius, by December 28, 1121 [JL 6940; Zenker, p. 43].

  7. * Bonifacius, Cardinal Priest of S. Marco, Archpriest of the S. R. E. [Cardella, 191-192]. He appears as early as April 11, 1111, as one of those who took the oath with the Emperor Henry, on behalf of Paschal II [Jaffé, Bibliotheca Rerum Germanicarum, V: Monumenta Bambergensia (1869), p. 275]. He was one of the cardinals who did not flee with Pope Gelasius to France in 1118. His latest subscription is on May 7, 1128 [Pflugk-Harttung, Acta pontificum Romanorum inedita 2, 261; JL 7312]; The election of Pope Anacletus II, of whom he was a supporter, was held in his titulus. He supported Anacletus in the schism of 1130-1138.
  8. * Benedictus, Cardinal Priest of S. Pietro ad Vincula tit. Eudoxiae. [Nachrichten Göttingen (1900) p. 157 (May 11, 1112); Cardella, 247] According to Hüls (p. 195), "Seine Kreation ist spatestens 1102 erfolgt", but this is a calculation based on his "Ancienitätprinzip". His predecessor, Cardinal Albericus, subscribed as late as November 20, 1100 [JL 5849]. He is first documented as being present at the Lateran Synod of March 18-23, 1112 [MGH Leges 4 Constitutiones 1, p. 572 and 573], making it an entire decade from his alleged creation in 1102 at the latest. He witnessed the settlement of a legal case in (perhaps) 1116 [Kehr IP II, p. 197 no. 5]. In February/March 1119, he was one of the cardinals in Rome who consented to the election of Calixtus II at Cluny. His latest appearance is in connection with a legal case, on February 19, 1127.
  9. * Ioannes, Cardinal Priest in the titulus S. Caeciliae [Muratori, RIS III.1, p. 398, n. 29; Cardella, 214-215]. Subscribed on March 23, 1112 to the canons of the Lateran Synod [MGH Constitutiones I, p. 170; MGH Leges 4 Constitutiones 1, p. 572 and 573]. One of the papal representatives in Rome for Pope Gelasius. He was one of the Cardinals who consented to the election of Calixtus II by correspondence in February 1119. He subscribed on January 3, 1121 [JL 6887]; he subscribed on April 1, 1124 [JL 7147]. He subscribed on May 7, 1128 [Kehr IP I, p. 35 no. 2; JL 7312]. His successor, Cardinal Goselinus, subscribed on March 24, 1129.
  10. * Conradus [Romanus, from the Suburra] [Nephew of Honorius II, according to Cardella (I, pp. 279-280), who makes him a creation of Honorius II in his second creation, in 1126—in complete contradiction to the evidence. Honorius II was from Bologna, and Cardinal Conradus was subscribing long before 1126] Conradus was Cardinal Priest in the titulus Pastoris [S. Pudenziana] [Cardella, 221]. He had been Abbot of S. Rufus in Avignon [Brixius, 36 no. 26]. Conradus, however, had been appointed Cardinal Priest by Paschal II, somewhere between 1111 and 1114 [Hüls, p. 201]. His earliest subscription is on February 25, 1114 [Ughelli, Italia Sacra 1, column 893; JL 6371. Miranda makes the date February 23]. He subscribed a bull on April 1, 1124 [Pflugk-Harttung, Acta pontificum Romanorum inedita 2, no. 289, p. 244-245; JL 7147]. His latest subscription as Cardinal Priest is on July 21, 1126 [JL 7266]. He was promoted Cardinal Bishop of Sabina, before May 7, 1128 [Pflugk-Harttung, Acta pontificum Romanorum inedita II, no. 300, p. 260-261; Hüls, p.128]. [ In general see Brixius, p. 36 no. 26, and pp. 78-79; Ganzer, pp. 66-67; Hüls, p. 201]. During the expulsion of Innocent II (1130-1133), he held the office of Papal Vicar in Rome. He was elected Pope Anastasius IV on July 8, 1153, and died on December 3, 1154. Salvador Miranda knows nothing of him after the Election of 1124, and has him die ca. 1130!
          He was sent on a legation along with Cardinal Comes of S. Maria in Aquiro by Paschal II; they were in Ventimiglia, allegedly in 1110 [Kehr, IP VI. 2, p. 364 no. *1; Ganzer, p. 66; the text is known only from an 18th century collection made by order of the local bishop], on their way to France [Cappelletti, Le chiese d' Italia XIII, p. 582, who does not give the date]. One must be suspicious of the early date. Hüls (p. 231) remarks that Cardinal Comes was "zu einem nicht genau bestimmbaren Zeitpunkt päpstlicher legat in Ventimiglia". Comes' earliest subscription is on December 21, 1116 [JL 6533].
  11. * Desiderius, Cardinal Priest of S. Praxedis {Muratori, RIS III.1, p. 397 and 398 n. 29; Cardella, 221-222] Subscribes for Paschal II on November 23, 1116 [JL 6531]. Subscribes on December 22, 1116 [[JL 6534]. One of the papal representatives in Rome for Pope Gelasius. He had not fled to France with Gelasius in October of 1118. {Brixius, p. 33 no. 10], but he was one of the Cardinals who consented to the election of Calixtus II by correspondence. He subscribes for Calixtus II on September 24, 1120 [JL 6861].
  12. * Deusdedit, Cardinal Priest of S. Lorenzo tit. Damaso [Muratori, RIS III.1, p. 406 column 1 (bull of September 27, 1118); Cardella, 222-223]. On May 11, 1112, he was still a subdeacon [Kehr, IP 1, 159 no. 2]. His earliest notice was on January 2, 1116 [Hüls, p. 197]. He subscribed for Pope Gelasius on September 26, 1118, at Pisa [Migne, PL 163, 499 no. xvi; JL 6652]. He was in France, at Tours, with Pope Calixtus on September 24, 1119, during Calixtus' visit to Majoris Monasterii [JL 6743]. He subscribes a bull at Pisa on May 14, 1120 [Pflugk-Harttung, Acta pontificum Romanorum inedita 2, 223; JL 6848]. His latest subscription is on April 19, 1129 [JL 7371].
  13. * Gregorius Albergati de Cicano [Romanus], Cardinal Priest in the title of S. Lorenzo in Lucina. Pandulphus Pisanus states he was a creation of Pope Paschal II ["Vita Gelasii papae"Watterich II, p. 93]. He subscribed under Paschal II on November 23, 1116 [JL 6531]. He subscribed under Calixtus II on March 11, 1120 [JL 6831, with some doubt]; on December 28, 1121 [Migne PL 163, 1229; JL 6940]; and on April 15, 1123 [JL 7064]. [Cardella, 268]. He was one of the cardinals who did not flee to France with Pope Gelasius in 1118. He was one of the Cardinals who consented to the election of Calixtus II by correspondence in February 1119. He subscribes on April 15, 1123 [Migne PL 163, 1293; JL 7064] and for Honorius II on November 28, 1125 [JL 7221].
  14. Johannes, Cardinal Priest of S. Eusebio.     Robertus, Cardinal Priest in the tit. S. Eusebii from 1100 [Cardella, 267; Bullarium Romanum II, pp. 335-336; cf. J.P. Migne (editor), Patrologiae Latinae Cursus Completus Tomus 163 (Paris 1854) column 47 (October 15, 1100)], was in schism during both conclaves in 1118 and 1119, explaining his long absence from the subscriptiones. He had been replaced at S. Eusebio by Cardinal Johannes, by May 24, 1116 [Kehr, Nachrichten von der k. Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften zu Göttingen . Phil.-hist. Klasse (1898), no. 5, pp. 379-380:]. Cardinal Johannes also subscribes on November 23, 1116; and January 3, 1121 [JL 6886]. Cardinal Johannes subscribes until January 7, 1121. In 1120 he was instrumental in settling the controversy between the Monastery of Montecassino and the Abbess of S. Maria in Capua [Petrus Diaconus Chronicon IV70-72; Baronius-Theiner 18, sub anno 1120, no. 10, p. 323].
  15. * Saxo (Sasso) dei Conti di Segni [born in Anagni], Cardinal Priest in the titulus S. Stephani in Monte Celio. Pandulphus Pisanus states he was a creation of Pope Paschal II ["Vita Gelasii papae"Watterich II, p. 93]. Supported Pope Anacletus II in the schism of 1130-1138, as did the majority of the cardinals, and became his Chancellor (1130-1133) [Cardella, 225-226] He died ca. 1133 [Brixius, p. 39 no. 41, and p. 83 n. 39; Hüls, p. 214, notes his latest signature as Chancellor on September 14, 1131]. He supported Pope Anacletus II in the schism of 1130, and signed his Electoral Decree.
  16. * Petrus della Gherardesca dei Conti di Donoratico [Pisanus], Cardinal Priest in the titulus S. Susannae {Muratori, RIS III.1, p. 391 n. (April 18, 1118; Cardella, 227-228]. Previously Cardinal Deacon of S. Adriano [Hüls, p. 210 and p. 219]. Legate in Corsica, October-December, 1118—April, 1119 [Kehr, Italia Pontificia 10, p. 413 no. 594; pp. 472-473]. He subscribes a bull at Pisa on May 14, 1120 [Pflugk-Harttung, Acta pontificum Romanorum inedita 2, 223; JL 6848]. He supported Pope Anacletus II in the schism of 1130, and signed his Electoral Decree.
  17. * Joannes de Crema (Cremensis) [Lombard], Cardinal Priest in the titulus S. Crisogono (before 1116-died 1138) [Pandulphus, in Muratori, RIS III.1, p. 398, col. 2; Cardella, 229-231; Hüls, 176-178]. His predecessor was Cardinal Gregorius [Nachrichten Göttingen (1900) p. 157 (May 11, 1112)]. Zenker indicates that he was a cardinal by 1116 [Zenker, p. 59] and he followed Pope Gelasius into exile to Pisa. His earliest subscription is on June 18, 1119 [JL 6699]. He was in France, at Tours, with Pope Calixtus on September 24, 1119, during Calixtus' visit to Majoris Monasterii just outside Tours [JL 6743]. He subscribes a bull at Pisa, on the way back to Rome, on May 14, 1120 [Pflugk-Harttung, Acta pontificum Romanorum inedita 2, 223; JL 6848]. Subscribes a bull on June 16, 1121 [Pflugk-Harttung, Iter Italicum p. 457 no. 48]. Subscribes on December 28, 1121 [Migne PL 163, 1229; JL 6940]. He supported Innocent II in the schism of 1130-1138, and died before January 21, 1137, when his successor Cardinal Bernardus is in office
  18. * Sigito (Sigizo), Cardinal Priest in the titulus S. Sisto [Cardella, 226, 267 (Sigirone); Turin edition Bullarium Romanum II, 360]. Subscribed a bull on January 3, 1121 [JL 6886], December 28, 1121 [Migne PL 163, 1229; JL 6940]. and on numerous other occasions. He supported Pope Anacletus II in the schism of 1130-1138. His latest known subscription was on April 24, 1130 [JL 8375; Hüls, p. 206]. That he was a cardinal in 1118 is denied by C. G. Furst, 69-80, followed by Pellegrini, "Cardinali e curia," p. 547. Furst was not the first to suggest this: R. Zopffel, Die Papstwahlen (1892) p. 385 n. 368. His argument is refuted by H. Bloch, Monte Cassino II, 950 n. 3.
  19. * Amicus, OSB, Cardinal Priest in the title of SS. Nerei et Achillei [Julius von Pflugk-Harttung (editor), Acta pontificum Romanorum inedita II, no. 260, p. 216 (April 20, 1117); and Pandulphus of Pisa, in the Election of 1118]. He had been a monk of Montecassino. He received a grant for his monastery of S. Vincenzo at the Volturno in Capua in 1128 [Kehr Italia Pontificia 8, p. 253 no. 23; Ganzer, p. 69]. He cannot have died "ca. 1122", as Salvador Miranda announces. He is not the same as Amicus, the Subdiaconus Cardinalis et Abbas S. Laurentii foris muros, who subscribed for Gelasius II at Pisa on September 26, 1118 [Bullarium Romanum II (Torino 1865) no. vi., p. 289]. In the schism of 1130 Cardinal Amicus of SS. Nereus and Achilles took the side of Pope Anacletus II [Watterich II, 185-186].
  20. * Theobaldus, Cardinal Priest of SS. Ioannis et Pauli tit. Pammachi [Nachrichten Göttingen (1900) p. 157 (May 11, 1112); J.P. Migne (editor), Patrologiae Latinae Cursus Completus Tomus 163 (Paris 1854) columns 446-448 (December 28. 1116); Martène et Durandus, Veterum Scriptorum et monumentorum amplissima collectio Tomus I (Parisiis 1724), column 645; Cardella I. 1, 216-217]. He subscribes as late as April 6, 1123 [JL 6894].
          He was present at the Lateran Synod of March 18-23, 1112 [MGH Leges 4 Constitutiones 1, p. 572 and 573]. In 1115, a Cardinal Priest, designated in the ms. only with the initial T, and identified by Jaffe, Mansi and Migne as 'Theodoricus", was sent as Apostolic Legate to Saxony [Migne, PL 163, 389; JL 6469 (October 10, 1115)]; curiously, the only Theodericus on Jaffe's list of signatories [p. 702], does not refer to this document. The Chronicon Urspurgense refers to this person as Dietericus [Baronius-Theiner 18, sub anno 1115, no. 7, p. 253, and no. 9, p. 255]. Salvador Miranda identifies the Cardinal priest 'T' as 'Theodorus', and assigns him to S. Crisogono between 1113 and 1117.  Jaffe, p. 702 [and JL 6391= Pflugk-Harttung Acta inedita II, 207], reports a subscription of Teodericus cardinalis diaconus Sancti Grisogoni, on June 8, 1114, and thus Jaffe and Miranda put Theodericus or Theodorus at S. Crisogono; but S. Crisogono was not a deaconry, and the writer of the document, who signs one line below, was a notary named Grisogonus; the actual surviving document is an 18th century copy, according to Pflugk-Hartung, and it is obvious that a mistake on the part of an amanuensis has taken place. 'S. Grisogono' is dittography. There was no Theodericus who was a cardinal deacon during the time period, only a Theobaldus, a Cardinal Deacon at S. Maria Nova. The name may actually have been expanded from an abbreviation [THEOB and THEOD, with a bar of abbreviation, look much the same] at some point in the transmission. There is actually no evidence at all for a 'Theodericus'. Likewise, for Miranda's 'Theodorus'.
          Erdmann, Papsturkunden in Portugal (1927), p. 167, reports the subscription of "Albertus sanctorum Iohannis et Pauli presb. card." on April 11, 1115. The text is a forgery.
  21. Boso, Cardinal Priest in the tit. S. Anastasiae [Bullarium Romanum II (Turin 1865), p. 298 (July 15, 1119)].
          The signature of Boso of S. Anastasia appears on the "Acta Consecrationis Ecclesiae Villae Bertrandi" which is dated November 11, 1100 [A. Merino & J. de la Canal, España Sagrada 43: Gerona (Madrid 1819), Apendices, no. xxxv, pp. 446-450]. But Cardinal Johannes was Cardinal Priest of S. Anastasia at the time, not Cardinal Boso. The signature is a forgery. In the same document, immediately following, is the signature of former cardinal Richardus sanctae Narbonensis Ecclesiae Archiepiscopus. Richard did not receive that Archbishopric until 1106. Another forgery.
          In 1113, he was Apostolicae Sedis Diaconus in the suite of Pope Paschal during his stay in Benevento, from December 2, 1112 to the second half of March, 1113 [Pflugk-Harttung, Acta pontificum Romanorum inedita 2, p. 204 (January 2, 1113) JL 6336]. In 1114 he accompanied the fleet of Pisa against Mallorca. He was present as Cardinal of S. Anastasia at the Lateran Synod of March 6-11, 1116 [Mansi Sacrorum Conciliorum 21, 150]. On May 23, 1116 [Migne, PL 163, 406; JL 6523], Pope Paschal announced that he was sending Cardinal Boso to Spain as Legatus Apostolicus. On May 24, still in Rome, Boso subscribed a bull [P. Kehr, Nachrichten von der k. Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften zu Göttingen . Phil.-hist. Klasse (1898), no. 5, pp. 379-380].
          But Cardinal Boso was in Spain at the time the Election of 1118 took place in Rome. By November, 1118, however, he had travelled to France and joined the fugitive curia of Pope Gelasius. Pope Gelasius, around the same time, had sent Cardinal Deusdedit to the Iberian Peninsula to invite its bishops to a council which was planned for Clermont in March of 1119. Deusdedit was returning to France from Compostela with Archbishop Didacus Gelmirez when they were impeded by the King of Aragon from free passage through his lands; they were still in Spain when news reached them of the death of the pope (Historia Compostelana II. 7-8, columns 1041-1042). Cardinal Boso is alleged to have subscribed a bull on December 20, 1118 at Orange, along with Lambert of Ostia and Petrus of S. Nicolas in carcere [Migne PL 163, 512]; the signature of Petrus, however, creates a major problem, since the actual Cardinal Deacon of S. Nicolas in carcere was the Chancellor, Cardinal Crisogonus [Hüls, p. 240]. Cardinal Boso, however, is certainly found at Sanctus Valerius with Pope Gelasius in December, in the company of Lambert of Ostia, Johannes de Crema, and Conradus of S. Pudenziana [Bruel, Recueil des chartes de l'Abbaye de Cluny 5, no. 3934, p. 288], and he probably took part in the Election of February 2, 1119 at Cluny.
          Cardinal Boso was in France, at Tours, with Pope Calixtus on September 24, 1119, during Calixtus' visit to Majoris Monasterii [JL 6743].   In 1122, he became Bishop of Turin [F. Savio, Gli antichi vescovi d'Italia,Il Piemonte, Torino 1899, p. 356].   Z. Zafarana allows that he was still alive as late as December, 1125 [L. A. Muratori, Antiquitates Italicae, V, Mediolani 1741, column 1028]. Cardinal Boso's successor, Theobaldus Buccapecus, was still Cardinal Deacon of S. Maria Nova on April 17, 1121; he did not enter into the titulus until 1122 or later; his earliest surviving subscription is on April, 1123 [Cardella, 215-216; Pandulphus is in error].
  22. * Divizzo (Diviso, 'Domnizo'), Cardinal Priest of SS. Silvestri et Martini in the tit. Equitii [Nachrichten Göttingen (1900) p. 157 (May 11, 1112); Annales Romani, in Watterich II, p. 65 (April 11, 1111); Cardella, 220-221]. He was present at the Lateran Synod of March 18, 1112 [Monumenta Germaniae Historica Legum, Constitutiones et acta publica I (Hannoverae 1893), no. 399, pp. 570-573]. Subscribed a bull on November 5, 1114 [Pflugk-Harttung, Iter Italicum, p. 455, no. 47]. Subscribed a bull on March 24, 1116 [Mansi, Sacrorum Conciliorum nova et amplissima collectio 21, columns 150-151]. He did not follow Pope Gelasius into exile in France in 1118, but he was one of the Cardinals who consented to the election of Calixtus II by correspondence. He subscribed a bull at the Lateran on January 14, 1121 [ JL 6890]. He was promoted Bishop of Tusculum before March 4, 1121 [Hüls, p. 142 and 192]. His successor was Cardinal Petrus Rufus, formerly Cardinal Deacon of S. Adriano, who supported Innocent II in the schism of 1130-1138.
  1. * Gerardus, Cardinal Priest in the tit. SS. Aquilae et Priscae. [Cardella, 267]   Pandulphus Pisanus states that Gerardus was present at the Election of 1118. This is denied by Hüls (p. 199), in a striking revisionist hypothesis, in which demonstrates, entirely through the use of subscriptions, that Pandulphus is incorrect, and that Cardinal Gerardus did not become Cardinal Priest of S. Prisca until 1123. He inserts instead a Cardinal Gregory, who apparently signed five documents between January 3 and April 17, 1121 [JL 6886 (January 3), 6889, 6890, 6894, 6901]. Hüls theorizes that Gregory was created at latest in 1115, based on his own Anciennitätprinzip (pp. 84-87).
          But it is hard to believe that this Gregory—known only from these few subscriptions of early 1121— was a cardinal for seven years until he apparently signs only five documents in a fifteen-week period, and then disappears. He has no history and he has no activities. Hüls provides no explalnation for Gerardus/Gregory's position in Pandulphus' list. (This is testimony, however, that Pandulphus believes he is speaking of Cardinal Gerardus; Gregory's name would be in a far different position in his list)   Likewise, Hüls provides no comment on the fact that Pandulphus (Watterich II, pp. 116-117) does not name Gerardus as one of the creations of Calixtus II—which is what the Hüls theory requires. Gerardus was certainly a cardinal under Calixtus II, as subscriptions attest [Hüls, p. 199], and yet apparently not created by Calixtus. This would have to make him a creation of Paschal II. It may also be noticed that, even if Pandulphus is wrong about Gerardus' participation in the Election of 1118, that does not mean that Gregory participated. Actual evidence for Gregory does not seem to begin until January 3, 1121, after Calixtus II's appearance in Rome. Neither Gerardus nor Gregorius is recorded as participating in the events around the flight of Pope Gelasius to Gaeta, to Pisa, or to France. Neither cardinal is mentioned in reference to the Act of Confirmation of the Election of Calixtus II. It is almost easier to believe that the Titulus S. Priscae was actually vacant at the time of the Election of 1118. Only the Anciennitätprinzip stands in the way.

  2. * Guido, Cardinal Priest in the tit. S. Balbinae. [Pandulphus, in Muratori, RIS III.1, p. 398, col. 2; Muratori, 413 column 1; Cardella, 231 makes him a monk of Piacenza]. He subscribed for Gelasius II on September 13, 1118 [Muratori, RIS III.1, p. 405 column 2; Cardella, 238-239; cf. Panvinio, p. 89; JL 6651] and on September 26, 1118 [Migne, PL 163, 499 no. xvi; JL 6652]. He died in 1119 or 1120, on January 7 [Hüls, p. 153]
          His predecessor was Cardinal Vitalis, who subscribed as late as May 24, 1116 [Kehr, Nachrichten von der k. Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften zu Göttingen . Phil.-hist. Klasse (1898), no. 5, pp. 379-380], and who was promoted to the See of Albano in that year; he first subscribes as Bishop of Albano on December 21, 1116 [JL 6533]. There is, however, a reference to Vitalis Sanctae Sabinae in the oath to Emperor Henry V taken by the Cardinals in the name of Paschal II [Baronius-Theiner 18, sub anno 1111, no. 11, p. 211]. The Annales Romani [in J. M. Watterich, Pontificum Romanorum Vitae II (Lipsiae 1862), p. 65], however, give his name as Vitalis cardinalis sanctae Balbinae.
  3. * Rainerius, Cardinal Priest in the titulus SS. Marcellini et Petri [Annales Romani, in Watterich II, p. 65 (April 11, 1111); Nachrichten Göttingen (1900) p. 157 (May 11, 1112); Muratori, RIS III.1, p. 398, n. 29]. Pflugk-Harttung, Iter Italicum, p. 213, no. 260 (November 17, 1115). He was one of the cardinals who did not flee to France with Pope Gelasius in 1118, but he was one of the Cardinals who consented to the election of Calixtus II by correspondence. He subscribes as late as April 17, 1121 [JL 6901]. He was succeeded by Cardinal Crescentius by 1122.
  4. * Anastasius, Cardinal Priest in the titulus S. Clementis [Annales Romani, in Watterich II, p. 65 (April 11, 1111); Cardella, 221]. Successor of Cardinal Rainerius, who became Paschal II in 1099. His earliest surviving subscription is on March 4, 1102 [JL 5894], his latest on May 6, 1125 [JL 7233]. His successor was Cardinal Hubertus, Cardinal Deacon of S. Maria in Via Lata, by March 28, 1126.[JL 7251]. Salvador Miranda, on the authority of Ciaconius-Olduin and Cardella, lists a "Cardinal Ascanio" at S. Clemente, created in 1105 and dead ca. 1112; this is an old mistake.
  5. * Amicus, Cardinal Priest in the titulus S. Crucis in Gerusalemme. Subscribed January 3, 1121 [JL 6686]. He subscribed as late as April 17, 1121 [JL 6901]. His successor was Cardinal Gerardus, by July 8, 1123 [Hüls, p. 164], who became Pope Lucius II. [Hüls (p. 163) seems to believe that there cannot be two persons with the same name at the papal court at the same time. Hence, Amicus the Subdeacon and Amicus the Cardinal Priest are conflated.].
  6. Hugo di Alatri [Visconti] [Pisanus], Cardinal Priest in tit. Basilicae SS. XII Apostolorum [Muratori, RIS III.1, p. 391 n., p. 398 n. 29; J.P. Migne (editor), Patrologiae Latinae Cursus Completus Tomus 163 (Paris 1854) column 494 (April 18, 1118)]. He was the uncle of Pandulphus Pisanus [Muratori, RIS III.1, p. 398] [Cardella, 223-225]. Pandulphus Pisanus states he was a creation of Pope Paschal II ["Vita Gelasii papae"Watterich II, p. 93]. He was created cardinal at the latest in 1116 [Hüls, p. 85, 151]. He was certainly not present at the Election of 1118, according to Pandulphus Pisanus in his "Life of Pope Gelasius"; he was holding the citadel of Circea for Paschal II. He returned shortly after the Election [Watterich II, p. 95]. He was one of the cardinals who did not flee to France with Pope Gelasius in 1118, but was one of the Cardinals who consented to the election of Calixtus II by correspondence in February 1119. He subscribes as late as November 10, 1121 [JL 6935].
          [Cardinal Gregory, who was in schism against Pope Paschal II, was replaced in the titulus by Hugo d' Alatri: Martène-Durand I, 649]. Cardinal Gregory witnessed the settlement of a dispute in (perhaps) 1116, along with Johannes of Tusculum, Benedictus of S. Pietro in Vincoli, Theobaldus of SS. Sergius and Bacchus and Gregorius of S. Lucia [Kehr IP II, p. 197 no. 5]. On Hugo's death, Gregory, who had been reconciled, was restored to the title. Gregory followed Pope Anacletus II during the schism of 1130-1138].
  7. Johannes, Cardinal Priest of S. Eusebio.     Robertus, Cardinal Priest in the tit. S. Eusebii. Cardinal Robertus was in schism during both conclaves in 1118 and 1119, explaining his long absence from the subscriptiones, but was reconciled with Calixtus II. [Cardella, 267; Bullarium Romanum II, pp. 335-336; cf. J.P. Migne (editor), Patrologiae Latinae Cursus Completus Tomus 163 (Paris 1854) column 47 (October 15, 1100); Hüls, p. 165]. He had been replaced at S. Eusebio by Cardinal Johannes, by May 24, 1116 [Kehr, Nachrichten von der k. Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften zu Göttingen . Phil.-hist. Klasse (1898), no. 5, pp. 379-380:]. He also subscribes on November 23, 1116. Cardinal Johannes is not listed as one of the electors of Gelasius II in 1118; he does not appear among the cardinals at Pisa; nor is he one of the cardinals who ratified the election of Calixtus II by letter in February/March, 1119. In 1120 he was instrumental in settling the controversy between the Monastery of Montecassino and the Abbess of S. Maria in Capua [Petrus Diaconus Chronicon IV. 70-72; Baronius-Theiner 18, sub anno 1120, no. 10, p. 323]. This suggests that he might have been one of the cardinals who went south toward Benevento with Gelasius after he was driven from Rome, and that he remained in the Kingdom of Naples. He reappears in subscriptions on September 24, 1120 at Benevento [JL 6861; Kehr IP VIII, p. 284 no. 16, who notes that the authenticity of the bull has been challenged]. and between January 3, 1121 [JL 6886] and January 7, 1121 at the Lateran. He was succeeded by Cardinal Robertus by December 28, 1121, who subscribes on April 6, 1123 [Bullarium Romanum II, pp. 335-336; Migne PL 163, 1289; JL 7056]. However, Pandulphus Pisanus states that Cardinal Robertus, who had been in schism since at least 1116, was made cardinal of S. Clemente by Calixtus II [Pandulphus Pisanus, "Vita Calixti II", in Watterich II, p. 116].
  8. Guido, cardinalis tituli sancte Balbine. Guido's predecessor, Cardinal Vitalis, had been promoted in 1116 to the See of Sabina. He subscribed a bull of Paschal II of December 21, 1116 [JL 6533]. He was with Pope Gelasius in his flight from Rome. He was with the Pope at Pisa, where his latest known subscription is on September 29, 1118. If he fled no farther with Pope Gelasius, it is understandable that his subscriptions cease. No conclusions can be drawn about his date of death, whether in 1118, 1119, or 1120. His successor was Cardinal Odaldus, who first subscribed on December 1, 1120 [JL 6869].

  9. Giovanni Gaetani, OSB Cassin., Cardinal Deacon of S. Maria in Cosmedin (Schola Graeca) Chancellor of the Holy Roman Church. In 1088 he was Subdeacon and Prosignator of Pope Urban II [JL 5365]. On September 23, 1088 he became a Deacon. By July 1, 1089 he was Papal Chancellor. [JL 5401]. In 1118, he was on a visit to Montecassino when Pope Paschal died. He was specially summoned to the Election by the Cardinals, led by Petrus of Porto, who waited for his arrival. He was elected pope on January 24, and chose the name Gelasius II.. [Hüls, 232]
  10. * Gregorius Papareschi [Romanus, of Trastevere], Cardinal Deacon of S. Angeli in Pescheria [Cardella, 199-200]. Ssubscribes on November 23, 1116 [Migne PL 163, p. 411; JL 6531].
  11. * Gregorius, OSB, Cardinal Deacon S. Eustachii and prior of the Monastery of SS. Andrew and Gregory in Clivo Scauri [Cardella, 237-238; Hüls, 226-227] Said to have attended the Council of Guastalla in 1106, though the list of attendees contains the name of the Cardinal Priest R. tituli S. Eustachii (possibly a mistake for the notorious Robertus tituli S. Eusebii). Seven Cardinal Deacons are mentioned in Pandulphus' list, and neither Gregory nor S. Eustachio appears. His subscriptions, however, do not begin until 1121. He died in 1134. See also J. Brixius, Mitglieder des Kardinalkollegiums (1912), p. 34 no. 16, and 74 n. 15.   Hüls (p. 227) makes him a cardinal as early as 1110, based on his Anciennitätprinzip, but there is no evidence of Gregorius for the eight years before the Election of 1118. One has one's doubts, both as to the fact and as to the Prinzip (Theorie) on which it is entirely dependent.
  12. * Oderisius, OSB, Cardinal Deacon sanctae Agathae, qui postea abbas Cassinensis (January, 1123 to May, 1126) effectus est. He is also said to have been Cardinal Priest of S. Ciriaco in Thermis, though when he received the promotion is not recorded; there is, in fact, no evidence for the supposition. There was a Beraldus abbas sanctae Agathes, not a cardinal, who subscribed a bull of Paschal II on May 11, 1112. Pandulphus Pisanus calls him Oderisius Sangretanus sanctae Agathae [in his life of "Gelasius II", in Watterich II, p. 95]. Petrus Diaconus explains, "Hic ex Sangrorum comitum prosapia suae originis lineam ducens" [Petrus Diaconus IV. 77, Migne, 903; MGH SS 7, 804]. Oderisius was made a cardinal in A.D. 1111, at the same time as Cardinal Roscemannus [Petrus Diaconus Chronicon IV. 42, in Migne PL 173, 871]. His predecessor as abbot died on January 17, 1123 [Petrus Diaconus IV. 77, Migne, 903; MGH SS 7, 804]. He was deposed as abbot in 1125 [Cardella , 239-240]. Salvador Miranda gives the date of his death as August 28, 1126; the Necrologion Casinense [Muratori, Rerum Italicarum Scriptores VII, 944] says: "3 Kal. Sept. Obiit D. Oderisius Card. diac. et Abb. hujus loci." [August 30]. Paulus Diaconus says he ruled Montecassino as abbot for 3 years, 4 months, and 15 days.
  13. * Roscemanus [Rossemagnus] Sanseverino, OSB, Cardinal Deacon of S. Georgii ad Velum Aureum [Pandulphus, in Muratori, RIS III.1, p. 398, col. 2; Cardella, 238]. He was made a cardinal in A.D. 1111, at the same time as Cardinal Oderisius of Montecassino [Petrus Diaconus Chronicon IV. 42, in Migne PL 173, 871]. He was present at the Lateran Synod of March, 1112 [Baronius-Theiner 18, sub anno 1112, no. 9, p. 227]. He subscribes on December 21 and 22, 1116 [Migne PL 163, 414 and 415; JL 6533 and 6534]. He subscribes for Pope Gelasius on April 9, 1118 [JL 6639] and on April 12, 1118 [JL 6641]. He signs for Calixtus II on April 6, 1123 [Migne PL 163, 1289; JL 7056]. He subscribes for Honorius II on September 4, 1128 in Benevento [JL 7318].
  14. † * Henricus [Siculus] †, Cardinal Deacon of S. Teodoro [This identification is endorsed by Ciacconius, but disputed by Cardella, 240-241]. But Cardinal Gualterus is attested at S. Teodoro on January 3, 1121 [Bullarium Romanum II, 311], and Henricus is his successor, by December 28, 1121 [Migne PL 163, 1229; JL 6940]. Pandulphus has made a mistake. Whether the incumbent on January 24, 1118, was actually Cardinal Gualterus, or some other Cardinal, or nobody, cannot be determined on the present evidence.
  15. * Comes (Cosmas), Cardinal Deacon of S. Maria in Aquiro. [Panvinio, 95; Watterich II, p. 123; J. Brixius, Mitglieder des Kardinalkollegiums (1912), p. 32 no. 8; and p. 72 n. 8; Hüls, 231] Subscribes XII.21.1116 to II.6.1126., after which he was promoted to S. Sabina, subscribing V.7.1128. He was one of the cardinals who did not flee to France with Pope Gelasius in 1118. He supported Pope Anacletus II in the schism of 1130-1138.
  16. Romualdus, Cardinal Deacon of S. Maria in Via Lata is attested already in 1110, according to Kehr [Italia Pontificia 8, p. 357 no. 41 n.; Hüls, 238]. He subscribed for Paschalis II on April 20, 1117 [Pflugk-Harttung, Acta pontificum Romanorum inedita II, no. 260, p. 216]. He subscribed a privilegium for Calixtus II on September 24, 1120 [JL 6861]; he was consecrated Archbishop of Salerno on September 15, 1121 [Falco of Beneventum Muratori RIS V, 97; Ughelli-Coleti 7, column 396; Kehr, IP 8, p. 357 no. 41] His predecessor was Hugo [Hubertus] da Alatri, Cardinal Deacon of S. Maria in Via Lata, who became Cardinal Priest of the Basilica of XII Apostolorum [Cardella, 224-225; 267-268]
  17. * Petrus Petri Leonis (Pierleone) [Romanus], Cardinal Deacon SS. Cosmae et Damiani [Pandulphus, in Muratori, RIS III.1, p. 398, col. 2; Cardella, 255-256; Hüls, 225-226]. He subscribed a bull for Pope Gelasius II on September 26, 1118 in Pisa [Migne, PL 163, 499 no. xvi; JL 6652]. He participated in the Election of 1119 at Cluny. He subscribes a bull at Pisa on May 14, 1120 [Pflugk-Harttung, Acta pontificum Romanorum inedita 2, 223; JL 6848]. He had been sent as Apostolic Legate in England in 1121 (not 1116), but his presence as Legate was resisted by King Henry I, on the principle that only invited Legates could come to England, and his mission ended unsuccessfully [Stroll, The Jewish Pope, pp. 106-107]. He was later Cardinal Priest of S. Maria transtiberim tit. Calixti. He became Pope Anacletus II on February 14, 1130.
  18. * Stephanus Stornatus [Venetus], Cardinal Deacon of S. Lucia in Selci (Silice) or Orfea [Panvinio, 95; Cardella, 244; Hüls, 228-229] He is only attested in subscriptions from April 2, 1125 to May 7, 1128 [Brixius, p. 39 no. 43]. Pope Anacletus II promoted him to Cardinal Priest of S. Lorenzo in Damaso, but when he went over to Innocent II, he had to resume his old deaconate (1132-1137) [Zenker, 182; cf. Hüls, 228-229]. Considering the eight years between the Election of 1118 and Stephanus' earliest subscription, might Pandulphus Pisanus have misremembered and mistaken him for Cardinal Joannes (immediately below)?
  19. Joannes, Cardinal Deacon of S. Lucia, subscribed on March 24, 1116 [Migne PL 163, 404; JL 6517]; subscribed on May 24, 1116 [P. Kehr, Nachrichten von der k. Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften zu Göttingen. Phil.-hist. Klasse (1898), no. 5, pp. 379-380]. He subscribes on December 21 and 22, 1116 [Migne PL 163, 414 and 415; JL 6533 and 6534]. His may be one of the names of Cardinal Deacons forgotten by Pandulphus Pisanus. Hüls, 230.
  20. Theobaldus Buccapeccus, Cardinal Deacon of S. Maria Nova. He subscribed for Paschal II on July 29, 1103 [Pflugk-Harttung, Acta pontificum Romanorum inedita 2, p. 181; JL 5948]. Subscribed on January 10, 1112, July 23, 1116, and March 3, 1119 [P. Fedele, Archivio della R. Societa Romana di storia patria 24 (1901), p. 163 (January 10, 1110), p. 165 (July 23, 1116), p. 168 (March 3, 1119)]. Subscribed for Calixtus II on May 25, 1122 [Pflugk-Harttung, Acta pontificum Romanorum inedita II, no. 276, p. 233; JL 6907 lists the bull under 1121]. He was promoted to the titulus of S. Anastasia before April 6, 1123 [JL 7056]. His successor, Haimericus (Aymeric), Apostolicae Sedis Cancellarius (died May 28, 1141) does not appear in subscriptiones until April 28, 1123.
  21. * Aldo (Abbo [Abbas?]) da Ferentino, Cardinal Deacon of SS. Sergii et Bacchi [Annales Romani, in Watterich II, p. 65 (April 11, 1111); Nachrichten Göttingen (1900) p. 157 (May 11, 1112); Hüls, 241-242]. Pandulphus Pisanus states he was a creation of Pope Paschal II ["Vita Gelasii papae"Watterich II, p. 93]. Another document with a list of witnesses, dated around 1116, offers the name Theobaldus aecclesiae Sanctorum . Sergi et Bachi [ "Documenti per la storia ecclesiastica e civile di Roma," Studi e documenti di storia e diritto 7 (1886), xxii, pp. 210-212; Kehr IP 2, p. 197 no. 5]. Might "Aldo" actually be "Teobaldo"?. Aldo subscribes as late as June 15 of 1121 [JL 6910].
  22. Petrus [Pisanus], Cardinal Deacon of S. Adriano. He subscribed a bull on May 24, 1116 [P. Kehr, Nachrichten von der k. Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften zu Göttingen. Phil.-hist. Klasse (1898), no. 5, pp. 379-380]; another for Pope Gelasius II on September 13, 1118 [Muratori, RIS III.1, p. 405 column 2; Cardella, 238-239; cf. Panvinio, p. 89; JL 6651] and one on September 26, 1118 [Migne, PL 163, 499 no. xvi; JL 6652]. Present according to Cardella. He subscribes a bull at Pisa on May 14, 1120 [Pflugk-Harttung, Acta pontificum Romanorum inedita 2, 223; JL 6848].
          He is not, of course, Petrus 'the Deacon', Monk of Monte Cassino, author of Book IV of the Chronicon Casiniense, as Cardella proposed. Peter the Deacon was born about 1107, and was offered by his parents to the Abbey of Monte Cassino ca. 1115: Migne, PL 163, 461-466]
  23. * Chrysogonus [Pisanus], Cardinal Deacon. S.R.E. Bibliothecarius [Pandulphus, in Muratori, RIS III.1, p. 389 and p. 398, col. 2; Muratori, 413; Cardella, 269]. Pandulphus Pisanus states he was a creation of Pope Paschal II ["Vita Gelasii papae", in Watterich II, p. 93]. He is probably the Chrysogonus who was a papal notary in December, 1112, and acted as datary on behalf of Cardinal Iohannes Gaetani, the Bibliothecarius [JL 6391 (June 8, 1114) and 6393 (June 10, 1114)]; he was an Apostolic Subdeacon in 1116 [JL 6504 (January 29, 1116) and 6622]. On April 20, 1117, already a Cardinal Deacon, he dated a bull on behalf of Cardinal Johannes the Chancellor, sining himself agentis vices domni Johannis cancellarii [Migne PL 163, column 424, no. 499]. The appointment of Chrysogonus to S. Nicolai in carcere Tulliano (mentioned by Muratori, 413, derived probably from Panvinio, Epitome, p. 91) is accepted by Salvador Miranda, on the authority of the Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1928, p. 119, no. 90. [However, he also allows Pope Gelasius to create a Cardinal Pietro of S. Nicolai in Carcere Tulliano in 1118; this is based on Migne, PL 163, columns 512-514, no. xxviii; and Miranda also has a second Chrysogonus who is Cardinal Priest of S. Ciriaco alle Terme di Diocleziano, 1117-1122]. cf. Brixius, p. 81, n. 34. Fortunately, Muratori was correct: a bull of April 20, 1117 shows that Chrysogonus was indeed the Cardinal Deacon of S. Nicolai in carcere Tulliano [Kehr, IP 8, 252 no. 23; see Hüls, p. 240 note 14.]
          Francesco Cristofori, Cronotasi dei cardinali di Santa Romana Chiesa, p. 246, says that he opted for the order of cardinal priests and the title of S. Pudenziana tit. Pastoris, but the Cardinal of S. Pudenziana from 1114 to 1126 was Cardinal Konrad (Brixius, p. 36 no. 26) and Chrysogonus is unattested after 1122..

• Chrysogonus, S.R.E. Diaconus cardinalis ac bibliothecarius. He succeeded the Chancellor Giovanni Caetani (Gelasius II), signing bulls at least from March 21, 1118 [the one bull in which he signs himself as chancellor, however, is suspect: Ulysse Robert, Etudes sur les actes du Pape Calixte II, p. 36]; his last acts as Datary on June 26, 1122; Bulliare du Pape Calixte II, no. 305. The Subdiaconus cardinalis S.R.E. Ugo signs as Datary from September 15, 1122: Bullaire du Pape Calixte II, no. 311, until April 26, 1123. He is followed by Cardinal Aimeric as Chancellor, from April 28, 1123: Bulliare du Pape Calixte II, no.402.]. On Subdiaconi cardinales, see Muratori, RIS III.1, p. 387.


In addition to Cardinal Robertus of S. Eusebio and Cardinal Gregory of XII Apostolorum (who had been replaced), Cardinal Romanus of the titulus of S. Marcello and Centius of S. Crisogono were in schism as supporters of the anti-Pope Clement III (letter of Pope Gelasius to Cardinal Conon: Jaffé, Bibliotheca no. 186, p. 323. Annales Romani in MGH V, p. 477 line 33. Migne PL 163, 493):

Sed Wibertini quidam, Romanus de Sancto Marcello, Centius qui dicebatur Sancti Grysogoni, et Teuto qui tanto per Italiam tempore debacchatus est, tam infamam gloriam celebrarunt.

Others

The Election

Before the electoral process even began, there was an informational meeting held at the Vatican Basilica, summoned by several lawyers, during which a trained reader ascended the pulpit and spoke at some length about the various decrees regulating the election of a pope [Alibrandi, Studi e documenti di storia e diritto 8 (Roma 1887), 208]:

Magister Guarnerius de Bononia et plures legis periti populum romanum ad eligendum Papam convenit, et quidam expeditus lector in pulpito s. Petri per prolixam orationem decreta Pontificum de substituendo Papa explicavit.

It had, after all, been nineteen years since the last papal election in 1099, and it was an excellent idea to refresh everyone's recollection of procedures and principles.

The following narrative of the actual electoral proceedings is provided by Pandulphus Pisanus, who witnessed the events [Baronius-Theiner, sub anno 1118, no. 4, p. 286; Watterich II, pp. 94-95]:

Interim autem, Paschali papa defuncto, venerabilis pater dominus Petrus Portuensis episcopus, qui primatum post papam per longa jam diutius tempora detinuerat, cumque eo omnes presbyteri ac diaconi cardinales de eligendo Pontifice, et in commune communiter, et singulariter singuli pertractare coeperunt pro domino cancellario in monasterio Cassinensi commanente. His sic gestis, modis omnibus, ipso inscio, nuntius derepente comparuit, qui cancellarium ipsum juxta quod acceperat in mandatis, ad cardinales Romam cum omni faceret celeritate redire. Quid moror? Tristis frater Joannes morte tanti patris sui protectoris, ac moerens, prout obedientiae filius, poscit mulam, ascendit, maturoque itinere Urbem intravit, fratres ac filios adunavit, commonuit. In crastinum vero, secundum quod dondixerant, honorabilis pater praenominatus dominus Portuensis, [here follow the names and titles of the four Cardinal Bishops, twenty-one Cardinal Priests, and nine Cardinal Deacons], itemque Nicolaus primicerius scholae cantorum, et subdiaconi palatii, et alii minoris ordinis clerici multi Romani de senatoribus et consulibus aliqui praeter familiam nostram.

Hi omnes vitantes scandalum quod in hujusmodi solet electionibus pro peccatis nostris accidere, non secus ac postea rei probavit eventus, ad locum tutissimum, veluti qui curiae cedit, in monasterio quodam, quod Palladium dicitur, infra domos Leonis et Cencii Frangipanis pariter convenerunt, ut juxta scita canonum de electione tractarent.

In quo loco videlicet post disceptationem diutinam, ac voluntates diversas, nunc haec, nunc illa petentes, tandem aliquando, communicato consilio, illo etiam mediante qui facit utraque unum, pari voto ac desiderio in hoc unum unanimiter concordarunt, ut dominum Joannem cancellarium in papam eligerent et haberent. Nec mora, raptus ab omnibus, laudatur ab omnibus, approbatur ab omnibus, necnon etiam ab episcopis quorum nulla est prorsus alia in electione praesulis Romani potestis nisi approbandi, vel contra, et ad communem omnium cardinalium primum, et aliorum petitionem, electo manus solummodo imponendi. Sicque invitus ac rentiens dominus Joannes Cajetanus, qui hodie est Gelasius, in papam, Spiritus sancti gratia mediante, electus est, et ab omnibus communiter in summa Sede locatus, cunctis Dei magnalia collaudantibus.

Once Pope Paschal had died, the mantle of leadership fell on Cardinal Peter, Bishop of Porto, who was the senior Cardinal BIshop, having been created by Paschal II in 1102. He summoned a meeting of the cardinals, who began discussions toward the election of a new pope. The Chancellor of the Church, Cardinal Giovanni Caetani, was not present, however, since he was at the Monastery of Monte Cassino. He had been a monk there before being called into the papal service by Urban II and promoted to the Cardinalate by Paschal II and made Chancellor (by February 14, 1100). A messenger was sent immediately to Monte Cassino, requesting Cardinal Giovanni's immediate presence in Rome. The Chancellor was stricken with grief at hearing that his friend and protector was dead, but he immediately demanded a mule and set out for Rome. He arrived on January 22.

Next morning, he joined the other cardinals, the leaders of the Roman Clergy, and some of the senators and magistrates of the Roman People, at the monastery of the Palladium (Santa Maria in Pallara, near the Arch of Titus and the Arch of Constantine, below the homes of Leo and Cencius Frangipani, which were on the east side of the Palatine Hill) to conduct the canonical election of a pope. In retrospect, the choice of a meeting place was a mistake. When the meeting began, the discussion was lively and apparently there were several candidates. The wrangling went on for some time (diutinam), but finally, they reached a consensus. The Chancellor Joannes Gaetani was elected on the Vigil of the Conversion of St. Paul the Apostle, January 24 (Annales Romani: MGH SS 5, p. 478). He took the name Gelasius II.



Area of Arch of Titus
Monastery of the Palladium, now called S. Sebastiano al Palatino, site of Election of 1118

Attack on the New Pope

But, as the formalities were being completed, suddenly the Frangipani (who were Imperialists), led by Cencio Frangipane, rushed down from their fortress on the Palatine and broke down the main doors of the Church in which the election was being held, and entered the assemby in a fury. Cencio grabbed the Pope by the throat, dragged him along, striking him with fists and feet, and carried him off to his home where he chained up the Pope and imprisoned him. The entire assembly, in fact, were assaulted by the followers of the Frangipani. They were dragged off their horses and mules, robbed and wounded.

When news of the attack got around Rome, immediately a crowd of Romans rose up in arms, including Petrus the Prefect of Rome, Petrus Leonis, Stephanus Normannus, Stephanus de Petro, Stephanus de Tebaldo, Stephanus de Berizone, Stephanus Quatrale, Buccapecorini, Bovesci, Berizisi, the twelve regions of the city, the Transtiburtines and the people of the Isola Tiberina, all rushing madly to the Capitol. They sent messengers to the Frangipani to demand the Pope's immediate release. Leo Frangipane brought the Pope to the Romans, pretending to piety and kissing the Pope's feet while begging for mercy. And so he was let go. The Pope, mounted on a white horse and crowned, was escorted to the Lateran in a grand procession.

It has been alleged, without convincing proof, that Pandulphus is misrepresenting or exaggerating the role of the Frangipani in the events of the Sede Vacante of 1118. It is alleged that he did so because of his support of Pope Anacletus II in 1130, against the Frangipani and their pope, Innocent II. The supporters of Innocent are, of course, eager to bolster their cause, which requires the refutation of the eyewitness evidence of Pandulphus, both in 1118 and 1130. Pandulphus' description of the events of 1118 is, however, in no way inconsistent with the factional violence of the Roman nobility in the eleventh and twelfth century papal elections.

An Imperial Antipope

When King Henry (Emperor Henry V) heard of the election, he was even less pleased than the Frangipani. He had wanted a definitive solution to the lnvestiture Controversy from Paschal II, and a regularization of his own personal condition as a Catholic, and Paschal's Chancellor was probably the last person in the Church to indulge the Emperor. As Henry reached the neighborhood of Rome, Pope Gelasius and the cardinals fled south to his native town of Gaeta (March 1-March 5: Annales Romani, in MGH SS 5, p. 478: mansit in patriarchio Lateranensi usque in diem Veneris ante quadragesimam). As Pandulphus Pisanus puts it, fugimus. When Henry demanded concessions, the Pope refused. Henry immediately, on March 8, 1118, named a pope of his own, the Archbishop of Braga, Maurice Burdinus ("Gregory VIII"). Maurice had crowned Henry as Emperor on March 25, 1117, despite papal prohibition and anathemas from several prelates (Petrus Diaconus, Chronicon Casiniense:, Liber IV, caput 64: Rerum Italicarum Scriptores 4, pp. 530-531; Baluzius, "Vita Mauritii Burdini," pp. 486-488).

It was in fact at Gaeta that Gelasius was finally ordained a priest (March 9: Annales Romani, MGH SS 5, p. 478: presbyter ordinatur die sabbati quatuor temporum Martii ) and consecrated Bishop and crowned Pope (March 10, 1118). His consecration was carried out by Lambertus Bishop of Ostia, Petrus Bishop of Porto and Vitalis of Albano [Baronius-Theiner 18, sub anno 1118, no. 11, p. 289]. Pandulphus provides a list of those who attended in his "Life of Pope Gelasius". The list is, however, defective [See Kehr, Italia Pontificia VIII, ix, on p. 30 no. 105]. Falco of Beneventum also records the event in his Chronicle, but places the ceremonies at Calenum rather than Gaeta [Muratori, Rerum Italicarum Scriptores V, p. 91], and Cardinal Boso, in his "Life of Gelasius II" places the event at Capua. While still at Gaeta, Gelasius invested William of Sicily as Duke of Apulia [Romuald of Salerno, Chronicon, in Muratori, Rerum Italicarum Scriptores VII, 182 (1st ed.), 209 (2nd ed); MGH SS 19, 416].

On the day of his coronation he created one Cardinal, Petrus Rufus, who was assigned the Deaconry of S. Maria in Cosmedin [according to Pandulphus Pisanus, Vita Gelasii II", in Watterich II, p. 99; Ciaconius-Olduin I, 937]. But S. Maria in Cosmedin was in the possession of Cardinal Stephanus by September 24, 1120 [JL 6861], indicating perhaps that Petrus died soon after his appointment. Pope Gelasius also ordained Pandulphus Pisanus as a lector and exorcist in the minor orders on the same day.

Excommunications

On Palm Sunday, April 8, 1118, Pope Gelasius excommunicated both the Emperor and his anti-Pope (Mansi, Sacrorum Conciliorum 21, columns 175-176). On April 13, 1118, Gelasius wrote a letter to Cardinal Conon in Germany about Archbishop Martinus and Emperor Henry (Mansi, Sacrorum Conciliorum 21, 173):

Gelasius episcopus servus servorum Dei venerabili fratri C. Praenestino episcopo apostolicae sedis legato salutem et apostolicam benedictionem.

Iamdudum nostras tibi literas misimus, sed utrum ad te pervenerint, ignoramus. Quae ita se habent. Post electionem nostram diaconus imperatoris furtive et inopinata velocitate Romam veniens, nos egredi compulit. Pacem postera minis et territionibus postulavit, dicens se facturum quae posset, nisi nos ei juramento pacis certitudinem faceremus. Nos ei fratrum nostrorum consilio pacem obtulimus. Ille statim, die videlicet post electionem nostram quarta, Baracensem episcopum, qui Burdinus a Normannis dicitur, anno praeterito, sicut nosti a domino praedecessore nostro Paschali papa in concilio Beneventi excommunicatum, in matris ecclesiae invasionem ingessit. De quo etiam tibi notum est, quod cum per nostras olim manus pallium accepisset, praedicto domino nostro et ejus catholicis successoribus, quorum primus ego sum, fidelitatem juraverit. In hoc autem tanto facinore nullum de Romano clero imperator, Deo gratias, socium habuit. Sed Wibertini quidam, Romanus de sancto Marcello, Centius qui dicebatur sancti Crysogoni, et Teuto qui tanto per Italiam tempore debacchatus est, tam infamem gloriam celebrarunt. Sane nos cum fratribus nostris et episcoporum collegio in praeterito palmarum die Capuae regem ipsum cum idolo suo excommunicavimus. Tuae igitur experientiae praecipimus, ut omnia haec commissae tibi legationis partes fratribus constitutis vota facere sutdeas, et ad matris ecclesiae ultionem, sicut oportere cognoscis, praestante Deo, accingeris.

Data Capuae Idibus April.

Cardinal Conon, who was in Germany and had not attended the Election, immediately held a church Council at Cologne [Mansi, Sacrorum Conciliorum nova et amplissima collectio 21 (Venetiis 1776), 175-178], and once again promulgated the excommunication of the Emperor Henry V.



 

Bibliography

Pandulphus Pisanus,"Vita Gelasii II" [with an extensive and extremely discursive commentary by Muratori], Ludovico Antonio Muratori (editor), Rerum Italicarum Scriptores III. 1 (Milan 1723), pp. 367-417. Cardinal of Aragon, "Vita Gelasii II", Ludovico Antonio Muratori (editor), Rerum Italicarum Scriptores III. 1 (Milan 1723), pp. 418-422. Costantino Gaetani, OSB, Vita del Pontefice Gelasio II. monaco del Monte Casino de' Duchi Gaetani, Principe di Gaeta, scritta da Pandolfo Pisano suo famigliare (Roma 1802). C. G. Furst, "Kennen wir die Wähler Gelasius' II? Zur Glaubwürdigkeit des Kardinalverzeichnisses in Pandulfs Vita Gelasii," Innsbrucker Beiträge zur Kulturwissenschaft XII (Innsbruck 1966) [Festschrift Karl Pivec], 69-80.

"Leonis Marsicani et Petri Diaconi, Chronicon Casinense," in: J.P. Migne (editor), Patrologiae Latinae Cursus Completus Tomus 173 (Paris 1854), columns 410-978.

Falco of Benevento: "Falconis Beneventani Chronicon," in: J. P. Migne (editor) Patrologiae Latinae Cursus Completus 173 (Paris 1854), columns 1145-1262.

"Annales Romani," in Monumenta Germaniae Historiae. Scriptorum Tomus V (edited by G. H. Pertz) (Hannover 1844), 468-480.

Petrus Diaconus Cassiniensis, Chronicon in: J. P. Migne (editor) Patrologiae Latinae Cursus Completus 173, columns 907-908. L. A. Muratori (editor), Rerum Italicarum Scriptores 4 (Mediolani 1723), pp. 241-628. E. Caspar, Petrus diaconus und die Monte Cassineser Fälschüngen (Berlin 1909).

Orderici Vitalis Historiae Ecclesiasticae libri tredecim (Augustus le Prevost, editor) Tomus Quartus (Paris 1852), pp. 334-335.

J. P. Migne (editor), Patrologiae Latinae Tomus CLXIII: Paschalis II, Gelasii II, Calixti II ... Epistolae et Privilegia ... (Paris 1854) "Gelasius II Pontifex Romanus," columns 473-514 [includes "Life" by Pandulphus Pisanus].

Ludovico Antonio Muratori, Annali d' Italia Tomo 16 (Firenze: Marchini 1827).

J. D. Mansi (editor), Sacrorum Conciliorum nova et amplissima collectio Tomus 21 (Venetiis: apud Antonium Zatta 1776).

Caesaris S. R. E. Cardinalis Baronii, Od. Raynaldi et Jac. Laderchii Annales Ecclesiastici denuo excusi et ad nostra usque tempora perducti ab Augusto Theiner Tomus Octavusdecimus 1094-1146 (Barri-Ducis: Ludovicus Guerin 1869), pp 415-452. [Baronius-Theiner]

Johann M. Watterich, (editor), Pontificum Romanorum qui fuerunt inde ab exeunte saeculo IX usque ad finem saeculi XIII vitae ab aequalibus conscriptae Tomus II (Lipsiae 1862).

Richard Zöpffel, Die Papstwahlen und die mit ihnen im Zusammenhange stehenden Ceremonien von 11.-14. Jahrhunderts (Göttingen 1871). Karl Hölder, Die Designation der Nachfolder der Päpste (Freiburg Schweiz: Universitäts-Buchhandlung R. Veith 1892). Georges Peries, L' intervention du pape dans l' élection de son successeur (Paris 1902). Horace K. Mann, The Lives of the Popes in the Middle Ages Volume VIII (London 1914). F. Gregorovius, History of Rome in the Middle Ages, Volume IV. 2 second edition, revised (London: George Bell, 1896) [Book VIII chapter 2], pp. 365-389. Eduard Franz, Papst Paschalis II (Breslau 1877). Carlo Servatius, Papst Paschalis II (Hiersemann 1979) [Papste und Papsttum, 14]. I. S. Robinson, The Papacy 1073-1198: Continuity and Innovation (NY: Cambridge University Press 1990).

Monastery called the Palladium (S. Maria in Pallara): Ridolfo Lanciani, The Ruins and Excavations of Ancient Rome (1897), 170-171; Mariano Armellini, Le chiese di Roma (Roma 1887), pp. 440-443.   P. Fedele, "Una chiesa del Palatino: S. Maria 'in Pallara'," Archivio della Societa romana di storia patria 26 (1903), 343-380.   Gregorovius IV. 1, p. 97 n.. On the houses of the Frangipani: Pasquale Adinolfi, Roma nell' età di mezzo I (Roma 1881), 392-397.

Cardinal Conon [Kuno]: Gustav Schoene, Kardinallegat Kuno, Bischof von Präneste  (Weimar 1857).

Maurice Burdinus, Archbishop of Braga: Stephanus Baluzius, "Vita Mauritii Burdini", Miscellaneorum Liber Tertius (Parisiis 1680), pp. 471-514.

J. Brixius, Die Mitglieder des Kardinalkollegiums von 1130 bis 1181 (Berlin 1912). Barbara Zenker, Die Mitglieder des Kardinalcollegiums von 1130 bis 1159 (Würzburg 1964),  H.-W. Klewitz, Reformpapsttum und Kardinalkolleg. Die Entstehung des Kardinalkollegiums (Darmstadt 1957).   Klaus Ganzer, Die Entwicklung des auswärtigen Kardinalats im hohen Mittelalter (Tubingen 1963) [Bibliothek des Deutschen Historischen Instituts in Rom, 26].  Rudolf Hüls, Kardinäle, Klerus und Kirchen Roms: 1049-1130 (Tübingen 1977 [Bibliothek des Deutschen Historischen Instituts in Rom, Band 48]. Paul Fridolin Kehr, "Zwei falsche Privilegien Paschals II. (JL 6555-6556)," Scritti di storia di filologia e d' arte (Napoli 1908), 1-24.   Zelina Zafarana, "Bosone," Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani 13 (1971). Luigi Pellegrini (Mario da Bergamo), "Cardinali e Curia sotto Callisto II (1119-1124)," Raccolta di studi in memoria de S. Mochi Onory (Milano 1972), 507-556. Herbert Bloch, Monte Cassino in the Middle Ages II (Roma: Edizioni di storia e letteratura 1986).

 

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