Sede Vacante 1124



(December 14-15, December 21, 1124)

:Lateran Basilica and palace in Middle Ages
The Lateran Basilica, Papal Palace, and other buildings

 

Background

The greatest achievement of Calixtus' reign was the agreement which was reached between the Empire (Henry V) and the Church over the issue of lay investiture. That compromise, which was worked out under the leadership of Lambert, Cardinal Bishop of Ostia, was embodied in the Concordat of Worms (September 1122). Not everyone, however, was pleased or satisfied. The unhappiness of the extreme Gregorians was squelched by the clever expedient of the summoning of an Ecumenical Council (I Lateran), to which the Concordat was submitted. It was then embodied in the decrees of the Council (March 27, 1123) and consequently could no longer be an issue of contention (Gieseler, Compendium III, pp. 44-47; Baronius-Theiner, Vol. 18, sub anno 1122, pp. 343-348; MGH Leges 2, 182; Mansi, Patrologiae Latinae 163, 1359-1364). Or so it was hoped. The struggle against lay control over the Church took other, more indirect paths. But it did not abate.

Death of Calixtus II

Pope Calixtus spent July and August of 1124 in territorio Ortensi, but by August 26 he was back at the Lateran. Guy, son of Count Guillaume of Burgundy (Calixtus II) died either on December 13 (Idus Decembr.) or December 14 (XIX Kal. Ianuar.), overtaken by a sudden fever (See Baronius-Theiner, p. 363). Pandulphus Pisanus (Muratori, Rerum Italicarum Scriptores III. 1, p. 419) says:

...Romam rediit, et in alta pace resedit, pauperes profunde procurans. Gaudebat mundus fieret dum Papa secundus, sed nulla potentia longa, nam fere jam antiqui Octaviani tempora redundabant, jam Christus continue in mentibus fidelium nascebatur dum febris inopina proveniens Papam repente consumit, et caput nobis omnibus in solo Papa cecidit, nec mora confessus et ordinatus omnibus ululantibus obdormivit in Domino, et sic pacis pater cum ipsa pace recedit. Sepultus est laterani juxta Domnum Papa Paschalem in festivitate Sanctae Luciae Virginis.

If Petrus is correct, Calixtus died and was buried on the same day, December 13, the Feast of St. Lucia. The biography of Pandulphus Pisanus (Muratori, Rerum Italicarum Scriptores III. 1, p. 421), however, makes it the 14th of December, et in Lateranensi Ecclesia honorifice tumulatus. It may be that Calixtus died on the 13th and was buried on the 14th, which would be the normal practice. He was entombed in the Lateran Basilica.

The Cardinals

Onuphrio Panvinio, who was a scriptor in the Vatican Library in the mid-16th century and had access to original documents, in the Epitome Pontificum Romanorum (Venetiis 1557) states that there were fifty-three cardinals who took part in the so-called 'election' of Honorius II on December 15 or December 21 (pp. 94-95); these would have been mostly the same men as participated in the unanimous Election of Celestine II on December 15. Actually, this is only a list of the cardinals who were alive in December, 1124. There is a lengthy but incomplete list of participants in the Election of 1118, provided by Pandulphus of Pisa, from which deductions can begin. There is little indication of who were actually present in 1124. A very tentative list of living cardinals can be constructed using the various subscriptiones on bulls of the last years of the reign of Pope Calixtus II and first years of Honorius II. One must be aware, however, that not all cardinals signed papal bulls. See Jaffé, Regesta Pontificum pp. 526-527 and 549-550, though only forty-five of Panvinio's cardinals can plausibly be verified, with an additional four uncertainties. But Panvinio's list is also in need of correction, based on more recent discoveries. Panvinio has prematurely replaced Vitalis, Bishop of Albano, with Matthaeus. Gerardus had already replaced Amicus iunior at Santa Croce in Ierusalem. Divizzo had been replaced by Petrus at SS. Silvestri et Martini tit. Equitii. Odaldus had replaced Guido at S. Balbina. Hubertus had not yet replaced Anastasius at S. Clemente. There was no Wilhelm at S. Sabina (He was Bishop of Praeneste). There was no cardinal at S. Vitalis in tit. Vestinae. Theobald is a ghost at S. Vito et Modesti; Cardinal Gregory was the incumbent.

Certainly present were: Lambert of Ostia, Jonathas of SS. Cosma e Damiano, and Theobald of S. Anastasia.

Certainly absent were: Joannes de Crema of S. Crisogono, Petrus Petri Leonis of tit. Calixti (S. Maria in Trastevere), and Oderisio of Montecassino.

Whether Robertus of S. Eusebio was still alive is not known; he last subscribes on April 6, 1123.

  1. Crescentius, Suburbicarian Bishop of Sabina [Cardella I.1, 212] He first subscribed on March 4, 1102 [JL 5894]. Subscribed April 1, 1124 [Pflugk-Harttung, Acta pontificum Romanorum inedita 2, no. 289, p. 244-245; JL 7147] Subscribed on May 5, 1125 (?) [Pflugk-Harttung, no. 295, p. 255; JL 7210]. His latest known subscription is on July 21, 1126 [JL 6901]. His successor was Cardinal Conradus of S. Pudenziana, whose earliest subscription as Bishop of Sabina is on May 7, 1128 [JL 7311].
  2. Petrus, Suburbicarian Bishop of Porto [Cardella I.1, p. 212-213]. He was Subscribes April 1, 1124 [Pflugk-Harttung, Acta pontificum Romanorum inedita 2, no. 289, p. 244-245; JL 7147]. He supported Pope Anacletus II in the schism of 1130-1138. He died in 1133 or 1134.
  3. Lambertus Scannabecchi di Fagnano [Bolognese], Can. Reg. S. Maria de Reno in Bologna, Suburbicarian Bishop of Ostia. Appointed as successor to Cardinal Leo Marsicanus, who died on May 22, 1115. It is suggested on the very thin evidence of Romualdus of Salerno that he had been a Cardinal before being made Bishop of Ostia [MGH SS 19, p. 417: Huic successit Honorius Secundus, natione Lombardus, prius Archidiaconus Bononiensis, post cardinalis, deinde Episcopus Hostiensis, qui et Lambertus dictus est]. He was already Bishop of Ostia on April 20, 1117, when he subscribed a bull at Benevento for Paschal II [Kehr IP 8, p. 252 no. 23]. He was one of the electors of Gelasius II in 1118, and he played a part in the Election of Calixtus II at Cluny in 1119. He was one of the three cardinals appointed by Calixtus II in 1120 to negotiate with Emperor Henry V. He was Apostolic legate in Germany in 1122, and summoned a council to meet at Mainz—it was finally held at Worms—on September 8, 1122 [Recueil des historiens des Gaules 15, p. 245 no. xxxiii]. Subscribes April 1, 1124 [Pflugk-Harttung, Acta pontificum Romanorum inedita 2, no. 289, p. 244-245; JL 7147] [Hüls, Kardinäle, Klerus und Kirche, pp. 106-107]. He became Pope Honorius II (1124-1130).
  4. Guilelmus (Guillaume, Wigelmus) [French] Praenestinus (died 1140/41) [Cardella I.1, 261; Ulysse Robert (editor), Bulliare du Pape Calixte II (Paris 1891), no. 505, p. 333]. Subscribed on April 6, 1123 [Migne PL 163, 1289; JL 7056]. Subscribes as Wigelinus, which must be a misreading of Wigelmus, on April 1, 1124 [Pflugk-Harttung, Acta pontificum Romanorum inedita 2, no. 289, p. 244-245; JL 7147]. Sent to Germany and France on June 24, 1124 to consecrate bishops (Jaffé, no. 5185; JL 7163). He consecrated Bishop Godefridus of Trier on Sunday, September 7, 1124 [MGH SS VIII, 201]. Subscribed on May 5, 1125 (?) [Pflugk-Harttung, no. 295, p. 255; JL 7210].
  5. Vitalis, Suburbicarian Bishop of Albano [Ulysse Robert (editor), Bulliare du Pape Calixte II (Paris 1891), no. 500, p.329; Bullarium Romanum II (Turin 1865), p. 353]. His earliest surviving subscription is on December 23, 1116 [JL 6533]. He subscribed on April 1, 1124 [Pflugk-Harttung, Acta pontificum Romanorum inedita 2, no. 289, p. 244-245; JL 7147]. Subscribed on May 5, 1125 (?) [Pflugk-Harttung, no. 295, p. 255; JL 7210]. His latest known subscription is on March 28, 1126 [JL 7251]. His successor was Cardinal Mattheus, late in 1126 or early 1127, who was appointed Legate in France by Pope Honorius [Laurentius, Historia Virdunensium Episcoporum, in Bouquet-Delisle, Recueil des historiens des Gaules et de la France 13 (Paris 1869), p. 636; Migne, Patrologiae Tomus 173, 1261-1262].
  6. Aegidius (Gilo, Gilles), O.Clun. [Toucy in the diocese of Auxerre], Suburbicarian Bishop of Tusculum (died 1139) [Cardella, 262-263]. A good friend of Peter the Venerable, Abbot of Cluny. Calixtus II brought him from Cluny to Rome. His predecessor Divizzo subscribed as late as November 10, 1121; Aegidius' earliest subscription is December 28, 1121 [Brixius, p. 31 no. 1]. Subscribes April 6, 1123 [Migne PL 163, 1289; JL 7056]. Subscribes at Beneventum on September 11, 1123 [Kehr, Nachrichten... Göttingen (1903), p. 105]. Subscribes on May 5, 1125 (?) [Pflugk-Harttung, Acta pontificum Romanorum Inedita 2, no. 295, p. 255; JL 7210].

  7. Bonifacius, Cardinal Priest of S. Marco, Archpriest of the S. R. E. [Cardella, 191-192]. He appears as early as April 11, 1111, as one of those who took the oath with the Emperor Henry, on behalf of Paschal II [Jaffé, Bibliotheca Rerum Germanicarum, V: Monumenta Bambergensia (1869), p. 275]. He was one of the cardinals who did not flee with Pope Gelasius to France in 1118. Subscribed on June 4, 1124 at the Lateran [U. Robert, Étude sur les actes du pape Calixte II, Appendice, p. cxxxi. no. 348].Subscribed on May 5, 1125 (?) [Pflugk-Harttung, Acta pontificum Romanorum Inedita 2, no. 295, p. 255; JL 7210]. His latest subscription is on May 7, 1128 [Pflugk-Harttung, Acta pontificum Romanorum inedita 2, 261; JL 7312]; The election of Pope Anacletus II, of whom he was a supporter, was held in his titulus. He supported Anacletus in the schism of 1130-1138. [Brixius, p. 32 no. 7]
  8. Benedictus, Cardinal Priest of S. Pietro ad Vincula tit. Eudoxiae. Subscribes on December 28, 1121 [Migne PL 163, 1229; JL 6940]. Subscribes April 6, 1123 [Migne PL 163, 1289; JL 7056]. Subscribes April 1, 1124 [Pflugk-Harttung, Acta pontificum Romanorum inedita 2, no. 289, p. 244-245; JL 7147]. Subscribed on June 4, 1124 at the Lateran [U. Robert, Étude sur les actes du pape Calixte II (1874), Appendice, p. cxxxi. no. 348]. Subscribed on May 5, 1125 (?) [Pflugk-Harttung, Acta pontificum Romanorum Inedita 2, no. 295, p. 255; JL 7210]. [Cardella, 247]
  9. Ioannes, Cardinal Priest in the titulus S. Caeciliae [Cardella, 214-215]. He was one of the Cardinals who consented to the election of Calixtus II by correspondence in February 1119. He subscribed on January 3, 1121 [JL 6887], on December 28, 1121 [Migne PL 163, 1229; JL 6940], and on April 6, 1123 [Migne PL 163, 1289; JL 7056]. He and Cardinal Petrus Petri Leonis dedicated an oratory at S. Callisto on July 11, 1123: Laderchi, S. Caeciliae... acta et Transtyberina basilica II (1723) 22. He subscribed on April 1, 1124 [Pflugk-Harttung, Acta pontificum Romanorum inedita 2, no. 289, p. 244-245; JL 7147], and on May 5, 1125 (?) [Pflugk-Harttung, no. 295, p. 255; JL 7210]. He subscribed as late as May 7, 1128 [JL 7312]. His successor, Jocelinus, was appointed in 1129; his earliest subscription is on March 24].
  10. Conradus [Romanus, from the Suburra] [Nephew of Honorius II, according to Cardella (I, pp. 279-280), who makes him a creation of Honorius II in his second creation, in 1126—in complete contradiction to the evidence. Honorius II was from Bologna, and Cardinal Conradus was subscribing long before 1126] Conradus was Cardinal Priest in the titulus Pastoris [S. Pudenziana] [Cardella, 221]. He had been Abbot of S. Rufus in Avignon [Brixius, 36 no. 26]. Conradus, however, had been appointed Cardinal Priest by Paschal II, somewhere between 1111 and 1114 [Hüls, p. 201]. His earliest subscription is on February 25, 1114 [Ughelli, Italia Sacra 1, column 893; JL 6371. Miranda makes the date February 23]. He subscribed a bull on April 1, 1124 [Pflugk-Harttung, Acta pontificum Romanorum inedita 2, no. 289, p. 244-245; JL 7147]. His latest subscription as Cardinal Priest is on July 21, 1126 [JL 7266]. He was promoted Cardinal Bishop of Sabina, before May 7, 1128 [Pflugk-Harttung, Acta pontificum Romanorum inedita II, no. 300, p. 260-261; Hüls, p.128]. [ In general see Brixius, p. 36 no. 26, and pp. 78-79; Ganzer, pp. 66-67; Hüls, p. 201]. During the expulsion of Innocent II (1130-1133), he held the office of Papal Vicar in Rome. He was elected Pope Anastasius IV on July 8, 1153, and died on December 3, 1154. Salvador Miranda knows nothing of him after the Election of 1124, and has him die ca. 1130!
          He was sent on a legation along with Cardinal Comes of S. Maria in Aquiro by Paschal II; they were in Ventimiglia, allegedly in 1110 [Kehr, IP VI. 2, p. 364 no. *1; Ganzer, p. 66; the text is known only from an 18th century collection made by order of the bishop], on their way to France [Cappelletti, Le chiese d' Italia XIII, p. 582, who does not give the date]. One must be suspicious of the early date. Hüls (p. 231) remarks that Cardinal Comes was "zu einem nicht genau bestimmbaren Zeitpunkt päpstlicher legat in Ventimiglia". Comes' earliest subscription is on December 21, 1116 [JL 6533].
  11. Desiderius, Cardinal Priest of S. Praxedis. Subscribes a bull on December 28, 1121 [Migne PL 163, 1229; JL 6940]. {Cardella, 221-222]. Subscribed April 1, 1124 [Pflugk-Harttung, Acta pontificum Romanorum inedita 2, no. 289, p. 244-245; JL 7147]. Subscribed on May 5, 1125 (?) [Pflugk-Harttung, no. 295, p. 255; JL 7210]. [Brixius, p. 33 no. 10].
  12. Deusdedit, Cardinal Priest of S. Lorenzo tit. Damaso. Subscribed June 15, 1121 (Pflugk-Harttung, Iter Italicum, p. 217, no. 282). Subscribes a bull on December 28, 1121 [Migne PL 163, 1229; JL 6940]. He was sent as Apostolic Legate to Spain in January of 1124 [Didacus of Compostella invites him to consecrate the newly elected Bishop of Braga as soon as possible after February 2; the consecration was still unaccomplished on April 20, 1124: Historia Compostellana II. 71, in Migne PL 170, 1127]. Deusdedit was able to inform Archbishop Didacus from Rome of the death of Pope Calixtus and the election of Pope Honorius [Historia Compostellana II. 71, in Migne PL 170, 1132]. . He subscribes again on February 1, 1125 [Erdmann, Papsturkunden in Portugal (1927), p. 183 no. 26]. Subscribed on May 5, 1125 (?) [Pflugk-Harttung, Acta pontificum Romanorum Inedita 2, no. 295, p. 255; JL 7210]. His latest subscription is on April 19, 1129 [JL 7371]. [Hüls, p. 180]. Pope Anacletus II appointed Stephen Stornatus of Venice, Cardinal Deacon of S. Lucia in Orphea, to succeed him by April 24, 1130 [JL 8375; Zenker, p. 77].
  13. Gregorius Albergati de Cicano [Romanus], Cardinal Priest in the title of S. Lorenzo in Lucina. He subscribed under Paschal II on November 23, 1116 [JL 6531]. He subscribed under Calixtus II on March 11, 1120 [JL 6831, with some doubt]; on December 28, 1121 [Migne PL 163, 1229; JL 6940]; and on April 15, 1123 [JL 7064]. [Cardella, 268]. He is probably the Gregorius presbiter cardinalis who, along with Abbot Pontius of Cluny, settled the dispute between the monks of S. Blaise and the Church of Basel [Bruel, Recueil des chartes de l' Abbaye de Cluny V, 3946, p. 299 (April 1, 1120), who wrongly identifies Cardinal Gregory as Gregory of S. Angelo who became Innocent II, and who was in France a few years later with Cardinal Petrus Pierleoni. The Cardinal Gregory who settled the dispute was a Cardinal Priest; Gregory of S. Angelo was a Cardinal Deacon]. In July of 1124, he was Apostolic Legate in Milan [Kehr, IP VI.1, p. 76, no. 9]. His latest known subscription was on November 28, 1125 [JL 7221].
  14. Saxo (Sasso) dei Conti di Segni [born in Anagni], Cardinal Priest in the titulus S. Stephani in Monte Celio (died ca. 1137). [Cardella, 225-226] One of the three cardinals appointed by Calixtus II in 1120 to negotiate with Emperor Henry V. Subscribed on May 16, 1123 [Mémoires de l' Académie des Inscriptions et Belles-lettres 34 (Paris 1892), p. 118]. Subscribed on April 2, 1125 [Bullarium Cluniacense, p. 42 [JL 7193]. Subscribed on May 5, 1125 (?) [Pflugk-Harttung, Acta pontificum Romanorum Inedita 2, no. 295, p. 255; JL 7210]. Subscribed on March 28, 1126 [Migne PL 166, 1244]. Subscribed on May 7, 1128 [Pflugk-Harttung, Acta pontificum Romanorum inedita II, no. 300, p. 260-261]. Signed March 24, 1129 [Migne PL 166, 1296] and April 10, 1129 [Pflugk-Harttung, Acta pontificum Romanorum inedita III, no. 36, p. 31]. He supported Pope Anacletus II in the schism of 1130, and signed his Electoral Decree.
  15. Petrus della Gherardesca dei Conti di Donoratico [Petrus Pisanus], Cardinal Priest in the titulus S. Susannae {Cardella, 227-228]. Subscribed at Beneventum on September 11, 1123 [Kehr, Nachrichten... Göttingen (1903), p. 105]. Subscribes April 1, 1124 [Pflugk-Harttung, Acta pontificum Romanorum inedita 2, no. 289, p. 244-245; JL 7147]. Subscribed on June 4, 1124 at the Lateran [U. Robert, Étude sur les actes du pape Calixte II, Appendice, p. cxxxi. no. 348]. Subscribed on May 5, 1125 (?) [Pflugk-Harttung, no. 295, p. 255; JL 7210]. He supported Pope Anacletus II in the schism of 1130, and signed his Electoral Decree.
  16. Joannes de Crema (Cremensis) [Lombard], son of Olricus and Ratilda [Forcella Inscrizioni delle chiese di Roma 2, p. 169 no. 487]. He had been the leader of the army which, in April of 1121, hunted down Mauricius Burdinus, Archbishop of Braga ("Gregory VIII"), who was ensconced at Sutrii [Vita Calixti]. Cardinal Priest in the titulus S. Crisogoni (died 1138) [Cardella, 229-231] He did not attend the Election of 1124. He was still in Scotland or England as Legatus a latere. [He is commended in a letter to the hierarchy and laity of England on April 12, 1125 by Honorius II: Jaffé, no. 5207; and on April 13 Honorius writes to him to carry on the legantine job given him by Pope Callistus: JL 7203; on April 18, the Pope writes similarly to King David of Scotland. See also Baronius-Theiner, sub anno 1125, no. 12-13, p. 370-371; no. 12, p. 375; a letter of his is in W. Stubbs (ed.), Councils and Ecclesiastical Documents relating to Great Britain and Ireland I (Oxford 1869), p. 318. Cardinal Joannes returned to Rome after the Council of London on September 9, 1125: Stubbs Councils II. 1 (1873), p. 23 and n.]
  17. Sigito (Sigizo, Sigizzone), Cardinal Priest of S. Sisto, appointed by Paschal II [Cardella, 226, 267 (Sigirone); Turin edition Bullarium Romanum II, 360]. Attended the Election of 1118, according to Pandulphus Pisanus. Subscribed a bull on December 28, 1121 [Migne PL 163, 1229; JL 6940]. Subscribed April 6, 1123 [Migne PL 163, 1289; JL 7056]. Subscribed April 1, 1124 [Pflugk-Harttung, Acta pontificum Romanorum inedita 2, no. 289, p. 244-245; JL 7147]. Subscribed on May 5, 1125 (?) [Pflugk-Harttung, no. 295, p. 255; JL 7210].He supported Pope Anacletus II in the schism of 1130, and signed his Electoral Decree.
  18. Petrus (Pierre) de Fontanis [of Fontaine, near Dijon in Burgundy], Cardinal Priest in the titulus S. Marcelli [Cardella, 253-254]. Subscribed on September 24, 1120 [JL 6861]. Subscribed April 1, 1124 [Pflugk-Harttung, Acta pontificum Romanorum inedita 2, no. 289, p. 244-245; JL 7147]. Subscribed on May 5, 1125 (?) [Pflugk-Harttung, no. 295, p. 255; JL 7210]. He signed the Electoral Decree of Pope Anacletus II. His latest dated act was on April 11, 1139 [Hüls, p. 184].
  19. Petrus, Cardinal Priest of SS. Silvestri et Martini tit. Equitii. Subscribed April 1, 1124 [Pflugk-Harttung, Acta pontificum Romanorum inedita 2, no. 289, p. 244-245; JL 7147]. Subscribed on May 5, 1125 (?) [Pflugk-Harttung, Acta pontificum Romanorum Inedita 2, no. 295, p. 255; JL 7210].
  20. ? Amicus, Cardinal Priest in the title of SS. Nereus et Achilles [Julius von Pflugk-Harttung (editor), Acta pontificum Romanorum inedita II, no. 260, p. 216: April 20, 1117; Kehr IP 8, p. 252 no. 23; and Pandulphus of Pisa in the Election of 1118]. He received a grant for his monastery of S. Vincenzo at Volturno in 1128 [Kehr Italia Pontificia 8, p. 253 no. 23]. A bull of Calixtus II of 1123, however, contains the subscription of Petrus presbiter cardinalis tituli S. Nerei et Achillei [U. Robert, Étude sur les actes du pape Calixte II, Appendice, pp. cxcxiii-cxcxiv. no. 296 (November 1, 1123)].
  21. Theobaldus, Cardinal Priest of SS. Ioannis et Pauli tit. Pammachi. Subscribes a bull on December 28, 1121 [Migne PL 163, 1229; JL 6940]; another on April 6, 1123 [Migne, PL 163, column 1290; JL 7056]. His successor, Cardinal Aldericus, subscribed on May 5, 1125 (?) [Pflugk-Harttung, Acta pontificum Romanorum Inedita 2, no. 295, p. 255; JL 7210].
  22. Theobaldus Buccapecus, Cardinal Priest in the tit. S. Anastasiae [Cardella, 215-216]. Pandulphus Pisanus states that he was made a cardinal by Calixtus II [Pandulphus Pisanus, "Vita Calixti II", in Watterich II, p. 116]. He subscribes on April 6, 1123 [Migne PL 163, 1289; JL 7055]. and April 1, 1124 [Pflugk-Harttung, Acta pontificum Romanorum inedita 2, no. 289, p. 244-245; JL 7147]
  23. Gerardus, Cardinal Priest in the tit. SS. Aquilae et Priscae. [Cardella, 267]. Pandulphus Pisanus (wrongly?) states that he was present at the Election of Gelasius II in 1118 [Cf. Hüls, 199]. Subscribes April 6, 1123 [JL 7056]. Subscribes April 1, 1124 [Pflugk-Harttung, Acta pontificum Romanorum inedita 2, no. 289, p. 244-245; JL 7147]; June 4, 1124 at the Lateran [U. Robert, Étude sur les actes du pape Calixte II, Appendice, p. cxxxi. no. 348]; May 4, 1125 [Migne PL 166, 1233]. His latest surviving subscription is on April 10, 1129 [JL 7370].
  24. ? Gregorius Cardinal Priest in the tit. S. Balbinae. Pandulphus of Pisa states that Gregory was made a Cardinal by Calixtus II [Pandulphus Pisanus, "Vita Calixti II", in Watterich II, p. 116]. He subscribes from February 25, 1125 [Brixius, p. 34 no. 14]. His predecessor was Cardinal Odaldus, Cardinal Priest in the tit. S. Balbinae. {Cardella, 275-276], who subscribed December 1, 1120 [JL 6869]; June 15, 1121 (Pflugk-Harttung, Iter Italicum, p. 217, no. 282; May 16, 1122 [Migne, PL 163, 1247; JL 6974]. Huls (p. 154) indicates that Cardinal Gregory was actually created by Honorius II.
  25. Comes, Cardinal Priest in the titlus S. Sabinae. Subscribed on April 15, 1123 [JL 7064]. [Cardella, 267; Baronius-Theiner 18, sub anno 1130, no. 3]. He supported Pope Anacletus II in the schism of 1130-1138, though he was not present at the Election. He later went over to Innocent II.
  26. Petrus Petri Leonis (Pierleoni) [Romanus], Cardinal Priest of S. Mariae trans Tiberim tit. Calixti [Cardella 234-237; Hüls pp. 189-191]. He was promoted on June 3, 1120 by Calixtus II [Brixius, p. 38 no. 33 and pp. 80-81 n. 31; cf. Hüls, who makes the date June 12, 1120]. He was previously Cardinal Deacon of SS. Cosma e Damiano (1116-1120). Earliest subscription September 24, 1120 [JL 6861]. He was sent as Apostolic Legate to France, England, Scotland and Ireland in 1120, along with Gregory Papareschi, but his presence as Legate in England was resisted by King Henry I, on the principle that only invited Legates could come to England—a principle apparently acknowledged by Paschal II [JL 6547 (March 24, 1117); cf. Baronius-Theiner sub anno 1117, no. 9, pp. 274-275, and no. 10 p. 279], and Petrus' mission ended unsuccessfully [Stroll, The Jewish Pope, pp. 106-107]. He was back in the Curia on May 25, 1121, when he signed a bull for Calixtus II [Robert, Bullaire no. 233]. He was legatus a latere and Papal Vicar in England, Scotland, Ireland and the Isles in 1122, to which was added France [Stroll, p. 13; H. Tillmann, Die päpstlichen Legaten in England bis zur Beendigung der Legation Gualas (1218) (Bonn 1926)], but he was back at the Curia in time to sign the bull of April 6, 1123, in the matter of Genoa, Pisa and Corsica [Migne PL 163, 1289; JL 7056; see Duchesne, Le provincial romain au XIIe siècle pp. 85-86]. He was legatus a latere in France from 1123 [Migne, Patrologiae 163, 1297: September 30, 1123]. On October 27, 1123, he was at Seez with Cardinal Gregorius Papareschi, according to Ordericus Vitalis. He was at Noyon on June 28, 1124 [Hüls, p. 190 n.20]. He did not attend the Election of 1124. He subscribed again at the Lateran on April 2, 1125 [Migne PL 166, 1225-1227] and May 5, 1125 (?) [Pflugk-Harttung, Acta pontificum Romanorum Inedita 2, no. 295, p. 255; JL 7210]. He was elected Pope Anacletus II late in the morning of February 14, 1130.
  27. Oderisius, OSB, Cardinal Deacon sanctae Agathae, qui postea abbas Cassinensis (January, 1123 to May, 1126) effectus est. Also said to have been Cardinal Priest of S. Ciriaco in Thermis, though when he might have received the promotion is not recorded. There was a Beraldus abbas sanctae Agathes, not a cardinal, who subscribed a bull of Paschal II on May 11, 1112. Pandulphus Pisanus calls him Oderisius Sangretanus sanctae Agathae [in his life of "Gelasius II", in Watterich II, p. 95]. Petrus Diaconus explains, "Hic ex Sangrorum comitum prosapia suae originis lineam ducens" [Petrus Diaconus IV. 77, Migne, 903; MGH SS 7, 804]. Oderisius was made a cardinal in A.D. 1111, at the same time as Cardinal Roscemannus [Petrus Diaconus Chronicon IV. 42, in Migne PL 173, 871]. His predecessor died on January 17, 1123 [Petrus Diaconus IV. 77, Migne, 903; MGH SS 7, 804]. Oderisius was deposed as abbot in March, 1126, due to his hostile position with regard to Pope Honorius and his belligerent attitude toward Count Adenulf of Aquino [Cardella, 239-240; H. Bloch, Montecassino II, 960-962]. Salvador Miranda gives the date of his death as August 28, 1126; the Necrologion Casinense [Muratori, Rerum Italicarum Scriptores VII, 944] says: "3 Kal. Sept. Obiit D. Oderisius Card. diac. et Abb. hujus loci." [August 30]. Paulus Diaconus says he ruled Montecassino as abbot for 3 years, 4 months, and 15 days. There was such strife in the monastery over the election of a successor that Pope Honorius had to send an Apostolic Legate, Cardinal Gregory of XII Apostolorum to deal with the situation, but he was not successful in obtaining the election of a candidate favorable to Pope Honorius [Petrus Diaconus IV. 91]. Cardinal Oderisius was not present at the papal Election of 1124, according to Petrus Diaconus IV. 83 [Watterich II, p. 160], and when he refused to send assistance to the new pontiff shortly after the Election, a situation of enmity developed between Oderisius and Honorius.
  28. Crescentius, Cardinal Priest in the titulus SS. Marcellini et Petri. Made a Cardinal Deacon by Calixtus II. Made a Cardinal priest by Calixtus II [Pandulphus Pisanus, "Vita Calixti II", in Watterich II, p. 116]. Subscribed as Cardinal Priest in succession to Cardinal Rainerius (who last subscribes on April 17, 1121), by December 28, 1121 [Migne PL 163, 1229; JL 6940]. Subscribed April 1, 1124 [Pflugk-Harttung, Acta pontificum Romanorum inedita 2, no. 289, p. 244-245; JL 7147]. He supported Pope Anacletus II in the schism of 1130-1138. Last subscription on April 11, 1139, at which point he was deposed by the II Lateran Council of Innocent II [Cardella, 243-244; Brixius, pp. 32-33 no. 9; Zenker, 115].
  29. Anastasius, Cardinal Priest in the titulus S. Clementis [Cardella, 221]. Subscribed September 24, 1120. Subscribed April 6, 1123 [Migne PL 163, 1289; JL 7056]. Subscribed on June 4, 1124 at the Lateran [U. Robert, Étude sur les actes du pape Calixte II, Appendice, p. cxxxi. no. 348]. Subscribed on May 5, 1125 (?) [Pflugk-Harttung, Acta pontificum Romanorum Inedita 2, no. 295, p. 255; JL 7210]. However, Pandulphus Pisanus states that Cardinal Robertus, who had been in schism since at least 1116, was made cardinal of S. Clemente by Calixtus II [Pandulphus Pisanus, "Vita Calixti II", in Watterich II, p. 116], for which there appears to be no positive evidence, and much contradictory evidence. Is he perhaps referring to Robert's reappointment to S. Eusebio rather than S. Clemente?
  30. Gerardus Cacciamemici [Bolognese] Cardinal Priest in the titulus S. Crucis in Gerusalemme {Cardella, 263-265]. Subscribes at Beneventum on September 11, 1123 [Kehr, Nachrichten... Göttingen (1903), p. 105]. Subscribes April 1, 1124 [Pflugk-Harttung, Acta pontificum Romanorum inedita 2, no. 289, p. 244-245; JL 7147]. {Brixius, p. 33 no. 11]. But Pandulphus of Pisa names Amicus as Cardinal Priest of S. Croce in Ierusalem [Pandulphus Pisanus, "Vita Calixti II", in Watterich II, p. 1166], which may indicate that Cardinal Gerardus died in the Spring or Summer of 1124.
  31. Gregorius [Romanus] Cardinal Priest in tit. Basilicae SS. XII Apostolorum [Panvinio, 95]. Subscribes April 6, 1123 [Migne PL 163, 1289; JL 7056]. Subscribes April 1, 1124 [Pflugk-Harttung, Acta pontificum Romanorum inedita 2, no. 289, p. 244-245; JL 7147] [Brixius, p. 33-34 no. 13]. Subscribed on June 4, 1124 at the Lateran [U. Robert, Étude sur les actes du pape Calixte II, Appendice, p. cxxxi. no. 348].
  32. ? Robertus, Cardinal Priest in the tit. S. Eusebii. [Cardella, 267]. Subscribed December 28, 1121 [Migne PL 163, 1229; JL 6940] as Cardinal Priest of S. Sabina, and on April 6, 1123 [Migne PL 163, 1289; Bullarium Romanum II, pp. 335-336; JL 7056] as Robertus card. tit. S. Eusebii—at the top of the list of subscriptions. His predecessor at S. Eusebio was Cardinal Johannes, whose latest known subscription is on January 7, 1121 [JL 6889]. Hüls (p. 116, n.10), however, appears to deny the return of Cardinal Robertus to S. Eusebio: "Ein Nachfolger (to Cardinal Johannes) ist erst 1130 Apr. 24 bekannt: JL 8375." This was Cardinal Petrus, an appointee of Pope Anacletus II.

  33. Gregorius Papareschi [Romanus, of Trastevere], Cardinal Deacon of S. Angelo in Pescheria [Cardella, 199-200]. S.R.E. Archidiaconus. One of the three cardinals appointed by Calixtus II in 1120 to negotiate with Emperor Henry V. In November, 1122, he escorted the Imperial Ambassadors to Rome, while Lambert and Saxo remained in Bamberg with the Emperor [MGH 2 Leges 4 Constitutiones vol. 1, no. 109 and 110, pp. 162-163.] Subscribed on May 5, 1125 (?) [Pflugk-Harttung, Acta pontificum Romanorum Inedita 2, no. 295, p. 255; JL 7210]. Made Innocent II on February 14, 1130 in the middle of the night by a minority of cardinals, in violation of canon laws. He did not receive the approval of the nobles, clergy or people of Rome, and was expelled from the City.
  34. Romanus S. Mariae in Porticu (died 1134). Earliest subscription January 5, 1120 [JL 6804]. Subscribed on April 15, 1123 [JL 7064]. Subscribes April 6, 1123 [Migne PL 163, 1289; JL 7056]. Subscribes April 1, 1124 [Pflugk-Harttung, Acta pontificum Romanorum inedita 2, no. 289, p. 244-245; JL 7147]. Latest subscription on November 16, 1134 [JL 7662]. Legate to Germany in 1125. Followed Innocent II in the schism of 1130-1138 [Cardella, 239; Zenker, p. 167]
  35. Gregorius, Cardinal Deacon S. Eustachii and Prior of the Monastery of SS. Andrew and Gregory in Clivo Scauri (San Gregorio Magno) [Cardella, 237-238]. [Brixius, p. 31 no. 16]
  36. †Gregorius†, Cardinal Deacon of S. Lucia in Silice (Septem solii) [Cardella, 268]. His name was actually Girardus: Pflugk-Harttung, Acta pontificum Romanorum inedita 3, 28 (April 15, 1122). "Gregorius" seems to be one of the most common misreadings among subscriptions.
  37. Gregorius, Cardinal Deacon of SS. Viti et Modesti martyrum in Macello. His predecessor was Cardinal Leo [Nachrichten Göttingen (1900) p. 157 (May 11, 1112)], who also subscribed on March 24, 1116 [Migne PL 163, 404; JL 6517]. Gregorius subscribes for Calixtus II on April 6, 1123 [Migne PL 163, 1289; JL 7056]
  38. Roscemanus [Rossemagnus] Sanseverino, OSB, Cardinal Deacon of S. Georgii ad Velum Aureum [Cardella, 238] Subscribes April 6, 1123 [Migne PL 163, 1289; JL 7056]. He seems to have no successor until Cardinal Odo under Innocent II (1132-1161).
  39. Henricus [Siculus], Cardinal Deacon of S. Teodoro [This identification is endorsed by Ciacconius, but disputed by Cardella, 240-241; see Brixius, p. 35 no. 20, and pp. 75-76 n. 18] Cardinal Gualterus is attested at S. Teodoro on January 3, 1121 [Bullarium Romanum II, 311; JL 6886] and on June 15, 1121 [Pflugk-Harttung, Acta pontificum Romanorum inedita 2, no. 269, p. 226; Hüls, 143]. Henricus subscribes a bull on December 28, 1121 [Migne PL 163, 1229; JL 6940]. Henricus' appointment therefore must come in 1121. A Cardinal Henricus was Cardinal Priest of S. Prisca on April 24, 1130, and was a follower of Pope Anacletus II in the schism of 1130-1138.
  40. Comes, Cardinal Deacon of S. Maria in Aquiro. [Panvinio, 95]. Comes' earliest subscription is on December 21, 1116 [JL 6533]. Subscribed at Beneventum on September 11, 1123 [Kehr, Nachrichten... Göttingen (1903), p. 105]. Subscribed on May 5, 1125 (?) [Pflugk-Harttung, Acta pontificum Romanorum Inedita 2, no. 295, p. 255; JL 7210].
  41. Hubertus (Hugo), Cardinal Deacon of S. Maria in Via Lata [Ciacconius-Olduinus, 957; Cardella, 267-268; L. Cavazzi, S. Maria in Via Lata (1906), 400] In 1120 he was holding Benevento for Calixtus II [Pandulphus Pisanus, "Vita Calixti II", Watterich II, 115 (Pandulphus calls him a cardinal at the time, but that may be premature; Hüls, 258); Baronius-Theiner, sub anno 1120, no. 14, p. 328]. Subscribes on April 6, 1123 [Bullarium Romanum (Turin edition) II, pp. 335-336]. His predecessor, Cardinal Romoaldus, last subscribes on December 28, 1121 [F. Ughelli Italia Sacra IX, 368; JL 6940]. He was appointed Archbishop of Salerno in 1121 [according to Falco of Benevento, in Migne, PL 173, 1183, whose chronology is sometimes off by one year; Ughelli Italia Sacra VII, 396]. Hubertus' successor was Cardinal Petrus, by March 28, 1126 [JL 7251].
  42. Stephanus dei Conti di Barry (Montebeliardo), Cardinal Deacon of S. Mariae Scholae Graecae [S. Maria in Cosmedin] , nephew of Callistus II and nephew of the Duke of Lorraine. Archbishop of Metz [Cardella, 254-255].Subscribed on April 6, 1123 [Migne PL 163, 1289; JL 7056]. Subscribed on April 15, 1123 [JL 7064]. Subscribed on May 5, 1125 (?) [Pflugk-Harttung, Acta pontificum Romanorum Inedita 2, no. 295, p. 255; JL 7210].
  43. Jonathas (Gionato) Cardinal Deacon SS. Cosmae et Damiani [Cardella, 255-256], by December 17, 1120 [His subscription appears in the bull of Paschal II, found in Migne, PL 163, no. dxxxviii, columns 445-448, but the date (1116) reveals it to be a forgery]. Pandulphus Pisanus states that he was made a cardinal by Calixtus II [Pandulphus Pisanus, "Vita Calixti II", in Watterich II, p. 117]. First subscribes on January 3, 1121 [JL 6886] . Subscribes a bull on December 28, 1121 [Migne PL 163, 1229; JL 6940]. Subscribed April 6, 1123 [Migne PL 163, 1289; JL 7056]. Subscribed on April 15, 1123 [JL 7064]. Subscribed on April 1, 1124 [Pflugk-Harttung, Acta pontificum Romanorum inedita 2, no. 289, p. 244-245; JL 7147]. He followed Pope Anacletus II during the schism of 1130-1138, and was promoted Cardinal Priest S. Maria transtiberim tit. Calixti on February 21, 1130, in succession to Cardinal Petrus Petri Leonis, who had been elected Pope Anacletus II. [Brixius, p. 36 no. 25; Zenker, 54-55]. Was certainly present.
  44. Angelus, Cardinal Deacon of S. Maria in Dominica [Cardella, 265-266; cf. 243-244]. Pandulphus Pisanus states that he was made a cardinal by Calixtus II [Pandulphus Pisanus, "Vita Calixti II", in Watterich II, p. 117]. Attested in subscriptions from April 6, 1123 [Migne, PL 163, column 1290; JL 7056] to May 7, 1128 [Brixius, p. 32 no. 5].
  45. ? Stephanus Stornatus [Venetus], Cardinal Deacon of S. Lucia [in Selci (Silice) or Orfea: Panvinio, 95; Cardella, 244] He is only attested in subscriptions from April 2, 1125 to May 5, 1128 [Brixius, p. 39 no. 43], though he appears on Pandulphus Pisanus' list of cardinals at the time of the Election of 1118. Subscribed on May 5, 1125 (?) [Pflugk-Harttung, Acta pontificum Romanorum Inedita 2, no. 295, p. 255; JL 7210]. Pope Anacletus II promoted Stephanus to Cardinal Priest of S. Lorenzo in Damaso, but when he went over to Innocent II, his promotion was not recognized and he had to resume his old deaconate (1132-1137) [Zenker, 182].
  46. Haimericus (Aymeric) [Burgundian] Cardinal Deacon of S. Maria Nova, Apostolicae Sedis Cancellarius [Duchesne Cardinaux françois I, 95-97; Cardella, 256]. Pandulphus Pisanus states that he was made a cardinal by Calixtus II [Pandulphus Pisanus, "Vita Calixti II", in Watterich II, p. 117]. First signs as Chancellor on April 28, 1123. Subscribes as Chancellor on April 1, 1124 [Pflugk-Harttung, Acta pontificum Romanorum inedita 2, no. 289, p. 244-245; JL 7147]. In the letter of the electors of Pope Anacletus to the Emperor Lothar [Watterich II, 186], they remark of Aymeric: Porro Haimericus quondam cancellarius, qui Romanam ecclesiam quasi vile scortum pro luxuriis et avaritia sua long iam tempore habuit pristitutam, qui simoniis, sicut vos ipsi {Lotharus], ut credimus, aliquando fuistis experti, exactionibusque variis Dei ecclesiam et Dei servos diutius trucidavit, arridente ei egregio viro Leone Fraiapane.... Aymeric himself appears to have been in need of some reformation, to judge from the complaints of his fellow cardinals. He died in 1141.
  47. Gregorius Tarquinius [Romanus], Cardinal Deacon of SS. Sergii et Bacchi [Cardella, 265]. Pandulphus Pisanus states that he was made a cardinal by Calixtus II [Pandulphus Pisanus, "Vita Calixti II", in Watterich II, p. 116].
  48. Matthaeus Pisanus, Cardinal Deacon of S. Adriano [Cardella, 266]. Pandulphus Pisanus states that he was made a cardinal by Calixtus II [Pandulphus Pisanus, "Vita Calixti II", in Watterich II, p. 117]. Subscribes at Beneventum on September 11, 1123 [Kehr, Nachrichten... Göttingen (1903), p. 105]. Subscribes April 1, 1124 [Pflugk-Harttung, Acta pontificum Romanorum inedita 2, no. 289, p. 244-245; JL 7147]. Subscribed on May 5, 1125 (?) [Pflugk-Harttung, Acta pontificum Romanorum Inedita 2, no. 295, p. 255; JL 7210].
  49. Ioannes Dauferi [Salernitanus], Cardinal Deacon of S. Nicolai in carcere Tulliano. Pandulphus Pisanus states that he was made a cardinal by Calixtus II [Pandulphus Pisanus, "Vita Calixti II", in Watterich II, p. 116]. First subscribed April 6, 1123 [JL 7638]. Subscribed at Beneventum on September 11, 1123 [Kehr, Nachrichten... Göttingen (1903), p. 105]. During the schism of 1130-1138, he followed Pope Anacletus II, who promoted him to Cardinal Priest of S. Pudentiana tit. Pastoris (1130-1131); but he switched over to Innocent II, who made him resume his old deaconate (December 1133-January 1134), though on April 22, 1134, he is Cardinal Priest of S. Pudentiana again [Brixius, p. 35 no. 24; Zenker, pp. 110-111; Cardella, 269; cf. Hüls, 240-241]

• Chrysogonus, S.R.E. Diaconus et Bibliothecarius last acts as Datary on June 26, 1122; Bulliare du Pape Calixte II, no. 305. The Subdiaconus cardinalis S.R.E. Ugo signs as Datary from September 15, 1122:Bullaire du Pape Calixte II, no. 311, until April 26, 1123. [Also, Robert, Étude sur les actes du Pape Calixte II, p. 116, no. 288]. He is followed by Cardinal Aimeric as Chancellor, from April 28, 1123: Bulliare du Pape Calixte II, no.402.].

• Hugh, a monk of Cluny, in a letter to his Abbot, Pontius (Ponce de Melgueil), lauds the grant of the Cardinalate to Pontius and his successors by Pope Calixtus II, during his visit to Cluny in the first week of January, 1120. There is only one other reference to the event, but it says that it took place in Rome. Pontius never signed any papal documents, and never signed himself as a Cardinal. The many, many confirmations of the privileges of the Monastery of Cluny never mention the privilege of a cardinalate or cardinalatial trappings. It is a myth that he was Cardinal Priest of S. Cecilia. This cardinalate, too, is another monastic fraud. One recalls the mythical cardinalate bestowed on Archbishop Guy of Vienne.

Election

The Election of 1124 involved a familiar Roman urban partisan contest, in this case in the interest of the adherents of the Frangipane. Pandulphus of Pisa tells the story at the beginning of his "Vita Honorii Papae II" (Muratori, Rerum Italicarum Scriptores III.1, 421):

Religiosae autem memoriae Calisto Papa dufuncto, omnes Patres de curia, Cardinales et alii, praesertim Petrus Leonis et Leo Franjapane pariter condixerunt ut usque ad diem tertium cum simul exinde secundum scita Canonum pertractarent, interim nulla de electione mentio haberetur; hoc idcirco potissimum Leo Frajapane constituerat ut infra datum spatium, quod de Lamberto diutius cogitaverat, aliquando quietus persiniret, nam totus ab hoc populus Saxonem S. Stephani Cardinalem futurum Papam petebant. Quos ut deciperet aptius Leo Frajapane itidem simulabat, insero autem praesenti idem Leo per nuncios unumquemque seorsum de capellanis Cardinalium praemonet, ut mane summo diluculo cum pluviali rubeo sub cappa nigra retento, ignorante domino, eumdem suum dominum inducerent; istud vero propter hoc ingenium adinvenerat, quatenus singulos pro accipiendo de manibus ejus Papatu attentiores redderet, et sic saltem absque timore venirent et quidam factum Papae Gelasii recolentes, convenire timebant, tamen in crastinum illecti fatuique conveniunt ad B. Johannis Basilicam in Ecclesia quae Sancti Pancratii dicitur, Episcopi et Cardinales intrarunt, ibique post verba quaelibet Jonatas Sanctorum Cosmae et Damiani Diaconus Cardinalis collaudantibus omnibus, ipso etiam Domino Lamberto Episcopo Theobaldum Cardinalem Presbyterum Sanctae Anastasiae in Papam Coelestinum calppa rubea coelitus induit; sed patitur Coelestinus, ego nescio tunc aliquando quae nollet. Incaeptum est: Te Deum laudamus gaudendo, non tamen dimidiato adhuc Lamberto pariter nobis cum alta voce cantante in Ecclesia; Robertus ipsius Frajapane verti fecit in luctum cytharam, etenim ipse cum quibusdam consentaneis fuit, et aliquibus de curia Lambertum Ostiensem Episcopum Papam acclamaverunt, deinde infimiis, quae ante Ecclesiam Sancti Silvestri sitae sunt, sine mora eum composuerunt: unde licet magna discordia et tumuntus emerserit, tamen postea pacificatis omnibus et ad concordiam redactis Papam Honorium sublimant.

All of the leaders of the Curia, including the Cardinals, and especially Petrus Leonis Pierleone and Leo Frangipane had agreed that they should put off all discussion of the election until the third day from the death of Pope Callistus (Guy de Bourgogne, brother of Count Stephen)—that is to say, that the Electoral Meeting would take place on December 15 or 16 (depending on the date one accepts for Calixtus' death). Leo Frangipane had already decided on Cardinal Lambert of Ostia, while the whole people were demanding Cardinal Saxo, Cardinal Priest of S. Stefano. Frangipane tricked all the cardinals into attending a meeting, though they were afraid as they remembered the election of Pope Gelasius. Nonetheless, they assembled at the Lateran Basilica in the chapel of S. Pancrazio, and there, after a few words by Jonathan, Cardinal Deacon of SS. Cosmas and Damian, they unanimously (even including Lambert, Cardinal Bishop of Ostia) elected Theobald Boccadipecora (Buccapecus), the Cardinal Priest of S. Anastasia, as Pope Celestine. They then sang the Te Deum, led by Cardinal Lambert. Celestine II was Pope.

But Robert Frangipane, who was not prepared to see the Cardinals proclaim Cardinal Theobald (Celestine II), along with some of his supporters in the Curia, loudly proclaimed Cardinal Lambert instead. At the far end of the Basilica where the Chapel of Saint Silvester is, they immediately installed Cardinal Lambert as Honorius II (there is no indication of how the Cardinal came into their company, or what his feelings about the proceedings were), despite the fact that no Cardinal Bishops and no other Cardinals had participated in their illegal election. As St. Bernard of Clairvaux put it with regard to the double election of 1130 (Epistle 126): Stat quippe sententia ecclesiastica et authentica, post primam electionem non esse secundam. The authentic ecclesiastical rule is that after a first election there is no second election—that is, presuming that the first election was a valid canonical election. There certainly was a valid, in fact a unanimous election, made by the Cardinals. The election of Cardinal Lambert came entirely from a few noble families and "the people". It is no surprise that a great tumult ensued. Eventually, Pandulphus of Pisa says, everyone was pacified. It is not clear what this pacification involved. Was it armed adherents of the Frangipani? Was it pressure from the people? Pandulph notes that the common opinion had been in favor of Saxo of S. Stefano in Monte Celio, and it isn't actually stated what the reaction of the Roman people was. Somehow Lambert came to be acknowledged as Pope Honorius (it is not stated whether some or all of the Cardinals were agreeable). In the next generation, Cardinal Boso, the Chancellor of Adrianus IV, says, "electio ipsius Honorii minus canonice processerat." [Watterich II, 159]. And on the same day Theobald resigned. It is not clear whether he resigned voluntarily, or whether he was forced to abdicate the Papal Throne. But in the Lateran and in Rome, Honorius was Pope. The Frangipani had stolen the election for their patrons, the French monks.

The "Life of Honorius II" (Muratori RIS III.1, 422), provides the continuation of the story, noting the bad conscience of Honorius, his resignation of the papal throne, and his reinvesting by the Cardinal Bishops, Cardinal Priests, and Cardinal Deacons:

Hic electus est sub contentione cum Tebaldo Buccapecu Presbytero Cardinali tituli Sanctae Anastasiae, anno incarnationis Dominicae MCCXXV. Sed quia electio ipsius Honorii minus canonice processerat, post septem dies in conspectu Fratrum sponte mitram et mantum refutavit, atque deposuit. Fratres vero tam Episcopi quam Presbyteri et Diaconi Cardinales, videntes ipsius humilitatem et prospicientes in posterum, ne in Romanum Ecclesiam aliquam inducerent novitatem, quod perperam factum fuerat, in melius reformarunt et eumdem Honorium denuo advocantes, ad ejus vestigia prociderunt et tamquam Pastori suo et universali Papae consuetam sibi obedientiam exhibuere.

Thus, the defective claim of Honorius to the papal throne was repaired through his resignation and the repledging of obedience by the College of Cardinals. Whether that was actually done according to the canons,and whether the action of the Cardinals constituted an Election, is a moot question, since the affair was never challenged and Honorius continued to reign. On Sunday, December 21 he was consecrated. The Chronicon Fossae Novae [Muratori, Rerum Italicarum Scriptores VII, 868; Watterich II, 159-160) states:

obiit Calixtus papa xix Kalend. Ianuar; consensu omnium clericorum post septem dies ordinaverunt Lambertum Ostiensem episcopum in Honorium papam, qui sedit annos quinque, mensem unum, dies vigintiquinque.


 


 

Bibliography

Ulysse Robert (editor), Bulliare du Pape Calixte II (Paris 1891).

Pandulphus Pisanus, "Vita Calisti Papae II," "Vita Honorii II," Ludovico Antonio Muratori (editor), Rerum Italicarum Scriptores III. 1 (Milan 1723), pp. 418-419; 421-422. José Maria March, Liber Pontificalis prout extat in codice manuscripto Dertusensi (Barcelona 1925) [This is the original version of Pandulphus Pisanus. The biographies were hitherto available only in an expurgated version by Petrus William, a Cistercian, ca. 1142, working in the interest of the party of Innocent II].

Cardinal of Aragon, "Vita Calisti Papae II," "Vita Honorii II," Ludovico Antonio Muratori (editor), Rerum Italicarum Scriptores III. 1 (Milan 1723), pp. 419-422. Bernardus Guidonis, "Vita Honorii II," Ludovico Antonio Muratori (editor), Rerum Italicarum Scriptores III. 1 (Milan 1723), p. 422. Jose Maria March, Liber Pontificalis prout extat in codice manuscripto Dertusensi (Barcelona 1925).

"Leonis Marsicani et Petri Diaconi, Chronicon Casinense," in: J.P. Migne (editor), Patrologiae Latinae Cursus Completus Tomus 173 (Paris 1854), columns 410-978.

Falco of Benevento: "Falconis Beneventani Chronicon," in: J. P. Migne (editor) Patrologiae Latinae Cursus Completus 173 (Paris 1854), columns 1145-1262.

Petrus Diaconus Cassiniensis, Chronicon in: J. P. Migne (editor) Patrologiae Latinae Cursus Completus 173, columns 907-908. Erich Caspar, Petrus diaconus und die Monte Cassineser Fälschüngen (Berlin 1909).

Mario da Bergamo OFM Cist. [Luigi Pellegrini}, "Osservazioni sulle fonti per la duplice elezione papale del 1130" Aevum .39 (1965) 45-65.   Luigi Pellegrini (Mario da Bergamo), "Cardinali e Curia sotto Callisto II (1119-1124)," Raccolta di studi in memoria de S. Mochi Onory (Milano 1972), 507-556. Mary Stroll, The Jewish Pope (New York: Brill 1987). Herbert Bloch, Monte Cassino in the Middle Ages II (Roma: Edizioni di storia e letteratura 1986), pp. 944-967.

Ludovico Antonio Muratori, Annali d' Italia Tomo 16 (Firenze: Marchini 1827).

Caesaris S. R. E. Cardinalis Baronii, Od. Raynaldi et Jac. Laderchii Annales Ecclesiastici denuo excusi et ad nostra usque tempora perducti ab Augusto Theiner Tomus Octavusdecimus 1094-1146 (Barri-Ducis: Ludovicus Guerin 1869), pp 415-452. [Baronius-Theiner]

Johannes C. L. Gieseler, A Compendium of Ecclesiastical History 4th edition revised Volume III (Edinburgh 1853). [Lehrbuch der Kirchengeschichte]

Johann M. Watterich, (editor), Pontificum Romanorum qui fuerunt inde ab exeunte saeculo IX usque ad finem saeculi XIII vitae ab aequalibus conscriptae Tomus II (Lipsiae 1862).

Richard Zöpffel, Die Papstwahlen und die mit ihnen im Zusammenhange stehenden Ceremonien von 11.-14. Jahrhunderts (Göttingen 1871).

Ulisse Robert, Histoire du Pape Calixte II (Paris: Picard 1891). Horace K. Mann, The Lives of the Popes in the Middle Ages Volume VIII (London 1914). Mary Stroll, Calixtus II (New York: E. J. Brill 2004). Pier Fausto Palumbo, Lo scisma del MCXXX: i precedenti, la vicenda romana e le ripercussioni europee della lotta tra Anacleto e Innocenzo II, col regesto degli atti di Anacleto II (Roma: Presso la R. Deputazione alla Biblioteca Vallicellana 1942).

F. Gregorovius, History of Rome in the Middle Ages, Volume IV. 2 second edition, revised (London: George Bell, 1896) [Book VIII chapter 2], pp. 401-407.G. Tellenbach, "Der Sturz des Abtes Pontius von Cluny und seine geschichtliche Bedeutung," Quellen und Forschungen aus italienischen Archiven und Bibliotheken 42/43 (1963) 13-55. M. Strobl, "New Perspectives on the struggle between Guy of Vienne and Henry V," Archivum Historiae Pontificiae 18 (1980) 97 ff. Gerd Tellenbach, "La questione del carattere dell' Imperatore Enrico V: Uno studio di storia della personalità," Società, Istituzioni, Spiritualità: Studi in onore di Cinzio Violante tomo secondo (Spoleto 1994), 943-973. Mary Stroll, "Calixtus II: A Reinterpretation of His Election and the End of the Investiture Contest," Studies in Medieval and Renaissance History 3 (1980), 3-53.

Louis Duchesne, "Le provincial romain au XIIe siècle,Mélanges d' archéologie et d' histoire 24 (Rome: EFDR 1904), 75-123.  J. Brixius, Die Mitglieder des Kardinalkollegiums von 1130 bis 1181 (Berlin 1912). Barbara Zenker, Die Mitglieder des Kardinalcollegiums von 1130 bis 1159 (Würzburg 1964). H.-W. Klewitz, Reformpapsttum und Kardinalkolleg. Die Entstehung des Kardinalkollegiums (Darmstadt 1957).   Klaus Ganzer, Die Entwicklung des auswärtigen Kardinalats im hohen Mittelalter (Tubingen 1963) [Bibliothek des Deutschen Historischen Instituts in Rom, 26].  Rudolf Hüls, Kardinäle, Klerus und Kirchen Roms: 1049-1130 (Tübingen 1977 [Bibliothek des Deutschen Historischen Instituts in Rom, Band 48].

November 14, 2013 5:41 PM

John Paul Adams, CSUN
john.p.adams@csun.edu

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