SEDE VACANTE 1700

(September 27, 1700—November 23, 1700)




Holy Spirit, 1700 AG




Obv.: NON • VOS • RELINQUAM • ORPHANOS

(in exergue:) ANNO | IVBIL


The Holy Spirit, in clouds, surrounded by rays. (in exergue:) Episcopal Coat-of-Arms






Arms of Cardinal Spinola


SEDE • VACA NTE • MDCC


Arms of Giovanni Battista Card. Spinola, Chamberlain of the Holy Roman Church (1698-1719), crossed keys behind, surmounted by the Ombrellone




Berman, p. 162 #2330.


Coat of Arms of  Don Paolo Borghese Æ
27mm



SEDE • V ACANTE

Shield with the Borghese coat of arms, surmounted by clerical hat, with six tassels on each side (signifying episcopal status)



ornamental shield with inscription  naming Paolo Borghese as Governor of the Conclave of 1700

Ornamental shield, with inscription:

PAVLVS | BVRGHESIVS | CONCLAVIS | GVBERNATOR | 1700

"L' origine de tant de médailles remonte à l'époque où le conclave se tenait toujours au palais du Vatican, et où l'on interdisait à tout le monde, pendant tout le temps de sa durée, l'entrée de la cité Léonine, c'est-à-dire du quartier appelé le Borgo. Alors tous ceux qui, soit pour leurs affaires, soit pour tout autre motif, devaient se rendre dans ce quartier du Borgo, étaient arretés en tête du pont Saint-Ange ou de tout autre pont communiquant avec le Vatican; on ne laissait passer que ceux qui étaient porteurs d'une médaille expressément frappée pendant la vacance du siége au nom de l'un des personnages nommés ci-dessus."

X. Barbier de Montault, Le Conclave (Roma 1878) 19.




GIAMBATTISTA CARDINAL SPINOLA, iuniore (1646–1719) was the nephew of Giulio Card. Spinola and Giambattista Card. Spinola, seniore. He was Governor of Rome and Vice-Chamberlain of the Holy Roman Church between July 28, 1691 and December 12, 1695, when he was created Cardinal Deacon of S. Cesareo in Palatio. He became Camerlengo of the Holy Roman Church on November 24, 1698, and held the office until his death on March 19, 1719.

The Dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals was François de la Tour-d'Auvergne .(d. 1715), who, at the time, was in disfavor with Louis XIV. His benefices had been confiscated along with his private fortune, and he was, in fact, living in exile in Rome (Picot, xxxvi).

The Marshal of the Conclave was Prince Giulio Savelli (1626-1712), the second son of Prince Bernardino Savelli, Prince of Albano (1606-1658) and Felice Peretti, the heiress of Pope Sixtus V. He married Caterina Aldobrandini, daughter of Pietro Aldobrandini, Duke of Carpentino, and then Caterina Giustiniani. The family were perpetually in financial difficulties: in 1596 they sold Castel Gandolfo to the pope, and in 1650 the duchy of Albano. He succeeded his father as Marshal of the Holy Roman Church in 1658. He had one son, who predeceased him. On his death in 1712, the office of Hereditary Marshal of the Roman Church was conferred on the Chigi Family. Prince Giulio Savellio left a manuscript Conclave Diary; it is in the Chigi archives.



DON PAOLO BORGHESE (1663–1701) was the second son of Giovanni Battista Borghese, Principe Borghese and Principe di Sulmona, and Donna Eleonora Boncompagni, daughter of the Duke of Sora; his elder brother, Don Marcantonio, succeeded to the titles in 1717. Don Paolo was Governor of the Conclave of 1700.

The first Master of Ceremonies was Pietro Sante de Fantibus, Abbot of S. Felice e Adaucti (Fermo).


Death of Pope Innocent

Pope Innocent XII (Pignatelli) died on September 27, 1700, at the worst possible time for Europe. The impending Spanish succession was promising to embroil France, Spain, the Empire and many others in a bloody struggle. Innocent had finally pronounced in favor of Philippe de Bourbon, Duke of Anjou, grandson of Louis XIV. This was contrary to the interests of the Empire, whose candidate, the Archduke Charles of Austria (Emperor Charles VI, 1711-1740), would by no means give way. Trouble had already broken out in the Duchy of Milan (a Spanish possession) in March, 1700, between French and Spanish forces on the one hand, and Imperial forces, led by Prince Eugene, on the other. The mediation of a strong pope would be useful; the struggle to obtain a compliant pope would produce great difficulties. The Conclave of 1700 began on October 9, and lasted a total of 46 days.

 

The College of Cardinals

There were sixty -six cardinals at the time of the death of Pope Innocent XII. Cardinal Federico Sforza, Bishop of Ostia and Velletri and Cardinal Dean of the Sacred College, had died on July 22, 1700.  A list of the Cardinals and their Conclavists is attached to the motu proprio  Nos Volentes, of December 8, 1700 [Bullarium Romanum Turin edition  21 (1871), pp. 1-4].  A list is given by the anonymous author of the pamphlet Conjectures politiques sur le Conclave de MDCC at pp. 38-41 [drawn up before the deaths of Cardinals Cibo (July 22, 1700), Maidalchini (June 10, 1700)], and Aguillara (September 19, 1699)]. Of the sixty-six cardinals, fifty-seven took part. Three Spanish cardinals, the Portuguese cardinal, two Imperial cardinals, two Italian cardinals, and the Polish cardinal, Radziejowski (nephew of King John Sobieski), were absent.

Cardinals attending:

  1. Emanuel de la Tour d'Auvergne de Bouillon (aged 57), Suburbicarian Bishop of Porto e Santa Rufina, Vice-Dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals. (died March 2, 1715.)
  2. Niccolò Acciaioli (aged 70), Suburbicarian Bishop of Frascati (died February 23, 1719).
  3. Gaspare Carpegna (aged 75), Suburbicarian Bishop of Sabina (died April 6, 1714).
  4. César d'Estrées (aged 72), Suburbicarian Bishop of Albano (died December 18, 1714). [Born in Rome, son of the current Ambassador Extraordinary of France before the Holy See]

  5. Carlo Barberini (aged 70), Cardinal Priest of S. Lorenzo in Lucina (died October 2, 1704). Grand-nephew of Urban VIII. Nephew of Cardinal Francesco Barberini and Cardinal Antonio Barberini.
  6. Vincenzo Maria Orsini de Gravina (aged 51), Cardinal Priest of S. Sisto (died February 21, 1730) Archbishop of Benevento.
  7. Francesco Nerli (aged 64)), Cardinal-Priest of S. Matteo in Merulana (died April 8, 1708) Former Secretary of State
  8. Galeazzo Marescotti (aged 73), Cardinal Priest of S. Prassede (died July 3, 1726) . Doctor in utroque iure.
  9. Fabrizio Spada (aged 57), Cardinal Priest of S. Crisogono (died June 15, 1717) Legate in Urbino. Doctor in utroque iure, Pavia
  10. Giambattista Spinola (aged 85), Cardinal Priest of S. Maria in Trastevere (died January 4, 1704) Doctor in utroque iure. He had been Governor of Rome for sixteen years.
  11. Savo Millini (aged 56), Cardinal Priest of S. Pietro in Vincoli (died February 10, 1701) Bishop of Nepi e Sutri. Doctor in utroque iure, Rome (La Sapienza).
  12. Marcello Durazzo (aged 67) [Genoa], Cardinal Priest of S. Prisca (died April 27, 1710). Archbishop-Bishop of Faenza. Doctor in utroque iure, Perugia.
  13. Marcantonio Barbarigo (aged 60), Cardinal Priest of S. Marco (died May 26, 1706) Bishop of Montefiascone e Corneto. Doctor in utroque iure, Padua.
  14. Etienne Le Camus (aged 68), Cardinal Priest of S. Maria degli Angeli (died September 12, 1707) Bishop of Grenoble. Doctor of Theology, Paris (Sorbonne).
  15. Pier Matteo Petrucci, Orat.(aged 64), Cardinal Priest of S. Marcello (died July 5, 1701). Doctor in utroque iure, Macerata.
  16. Leandro Colloredo, Orat.(aged 61), Cardinal Priest of SS. Nereo ed Achilleo (died January 11, 1709). Major Penitentiary.
  17. Giovanni Francesco Negroni (aged 70), Cardinal Priest of S. Maria in Ara Coeli (died January 1, 1713). legate in Bologna.
  18. Bandino Panciatici (aged 71), Cardinal Priest of S. Pancrazio (died April 21, 1718). Relative of Clement IX. Pro-Datary of Innocent XI. Doctor in law, Pisa.
  19. Giacomo Cantelmo (aged 55), Cardinal Priest of SS. Marcellino e Pietro (died December 11, 1702). Archbishop of Naples.
  20. Ferdinando d'Adda (aged 50), Cardinal Priest of S. Balbina (died January 27, 1719) Legate in Bologna. Degree in law, Bologna.
  21. Toussaint de Forbin-Janson (69), Cardinal Priest of S. Callisto (died March 24, 1713). Bishop of Beauvais. French Ambassador at Rome
  22. Giovanni Battista Rubini (aged 58), Cardinal Priest of S. Lorenzo in Panisperna (died February 17, 1707). Grandnephew of Pope Alexander VIII. Bishop of Vincenza, Legate in Urbino. Doctor in utroque iure, Padua.
  23. Francesco del Giudice (aged 52), Cardinal Priest of S. Sabina (died October 10, 1725). Made cardinal on the recommendation of Carlos II, King of Spain, by Pope Alexander VIII.
  24. Giovanni Battista Costaguti (aged 64), Cardinal Priest of S. Anastasia (died March 8, 1704).
  25. Giovanni Francesco Albani (aged 51), Cardinal Priest of S. Silvestro in Capite (died March 19, 1721) Doctor in utroque iure, Urbino.
  26. Giacomo Antonio Morigia, (aged 67), Cardinal Priest of S. Cecilia (died October 8, 1708). Archpriest of the Liberian Basilica (S. Maria Maggiore)
  27. Sebastiano Antonio Tanara (aged 50, Cardinal Priest of Ss. Quattro Coronati (died May 5, 1724). Doctor in utroque iure, Bologna.
  28. Giacomo Boncompagni (aged 48), Cardinal Priest of S. Maria in Via (died March 24, 1731). Archbishop of Bologna. Doctor in utroque iure, Rome (La Sapienza).
  29. Taddeo Luigi del Verme (aged 59), Cardinal Priest of Ss. Bonifacio ed Alessio (died January 12, 1717). Bishop of Imola. Doctor in utroque iure, Rome (La Sapienza).
  30. Baldassare Cenci (aged 52), Cardinal Priest of S. Pietro in Montorio (died May 26, 1709). Archbishop of Fermo. Doctor in utroque iure, Rome (La Sapienza).
  31. Tommaso Maria Ferrari, OP (aged 51), Cardinal Priest of S. Clemente (died August 20, 1716).
  32. Giuseppe Sacripante (aged 58), Cardinal Priest of S. Maria in Traspontina (died January 4, 1727) .
  33. Enrico Noris, OESA (aged 69), Cardinal Priest of S. Agostino (died February 23, 1704). Librarian and Archivist of the Holy Roman Church.
  34. Giorgio Cornaro (aged 42), Cardinal Priest of SS. XII Apostoli (died August 10, 1722). Archbishop-Bishop of Padua. Doctor in utroque iure, Pavia..
  35. Pierre-Armand du Cambout de Coislin (aged 63), Cardinal Priest of Santissima Trinità al Monte Pincio (died February 5, 1706). Bishop of Orléans. Doctor of Theology, Paris (Sorbonne).
  36. Fabrizio Paolucci (aged 48), Cardinal Priest of Ss. Giovanni e Paolo (died June 13, 1726). Archbishop of Ferrara. Doctor in utroque iure, Rome (La Sapienza).
  37. Niccolò Radulovich (aged 73), Cardinal Priest of S. Bartolomeo all’Isola (died October 27, 1702). Archbishop of Chieti.
  38. Giuseppe Archinto (aged 49), Cardinal Priest without titulus (died April 9, 1712). Archbishop of Milan. Nuncio in Spain (1696-1700).
  39. Andrea Santacroce (aged 44), Cardinal Priest of S. Maria del Popolo.(died May 10, 1712).
  40. Marcello d'Aste (aged 43), Cardinal Priest of S. Martino ai Monti (died June 11, 1709). Archbishop-Bishop of Ancona and Numana, Legate in Urbino.
  41. Daniello Marco Delfino (aged 47), Cardinal Priest of S. Susanna (died August 5, 1704). Archbishop-Bishop of Brescia.
  42. Sperello Sperelli (aged 61), Cardinal-Priest of S. Giovanni a Porta Latina (died March 22, 1710).
  43. Giambattista Gabrielli, O.Cist. (aged 46), Cardinal-Priest of S. Pudenziana (died September 17, 1711).
  44. Louis-Antoine de Noailles (aged 49), Cardinal Priest without titulus (died May 4, 1729). Archbishop of Paris.
  45. Johannes Philip von Lamberg (aged 48), Cardinal-Priest of S. Silvestro in Capite (died October 21, 1712). Bishop of Passau

  46. Benedetto Pamphili (aged 47), O.S.Io.Hieros., Cardinal Deacon of S. Maria in Via Lata (died March 22, 1730). Archpriest of the Lateran Basilica. Cardinal Protodeacon.
  47. Fulvio Astalli (aged 45), Cardinal Deacon of Ss. Cosma e Damiano (died January 14, 1721) legate in Ferrara.
  48. Francesco Maria de' Medici (aged 39), Cardinal Deacon of S. Maria in Domnica (died February 3, 1711). Brother of the Grand Duke of Tuscany, who was married to an Austrian Archduchess. Protector of Austria (Conjectures politiques, 49).
  49. Pietro Ottoboni (aged 33), Cardinal Deacon of S. Lorenzo in Damaso (died February 29, 1740) Vice-Chancellor of the Holy Roman Church and Legate in Avignon. Protector of France. Grand-nephew of Alexander VIII.
  50. Carlo Bichi (aged 62), Cardinal-Deacon of S. Agata alla Suburra (died November 7, 1718).
  51. Giuseppe Renato Imperiali (aged 49), Cardinal-Deacon of S. Giorgio in Velabro (Died January 15, 1737). Legate in Ferrara.
  52. Luigi Omodei (aged 43), Cardinal Deacon of S. Maria in Portico (died August 18, 1706).
  53. Francesco Barberini (aged 37), Cardinal-Deacon of S. Angelo in Pescheria (died August 17, 1738). Grandnephew of Pope Urban VIII. Nephew of Cardinal Carlo Barberini. Legate in the Romagna. Protector of Poland.
  54. Lorenzo Altieri (aged 29), Cardinal Deacon of S. Maria in Aquiro (died August 3, 1741). Legate in Urbino.
  55. Giambattista Spinola (aged 54), Cardinal Deacon of S. Cesareo in Palatio (died March 19, 1719). Camerlengo of the Holy Roman Church.
  56. Henri Albert de la Grange d'Arquien (aged 87), Cardinal-Deacon of S. Nicola in Carcere Tulliano (died May 24, 1707).
  57. Vincenzo Grimani (aged 47), Cardinal-Deacon of S. Eustachio (died September 26, 1710).[nominated by the Emperor].

Cardinals not attending:

  1. Luis Manuel Fernández de Portocarrero (aged 65), Suburbicarian Bishop of Palestrina (died September 14, 1709) Archbishop of Toledo. Spanish Minister of State.
  2. Pierre de Bonzi (aged 69), Cardinal Priest of S. Eusebio (died July 11, 1703) Archbishop of Narbonne.
  3. Urbano Sacchetti (aged 60), Cardinal Priest of S. Bernardo alle Terme (died April 6, 1705). Bishop of Viterbo e Toscanella.
  4. Leopold Charles von Kollonitsch (aged 69), Cardinal Priest of S. Girolamo dei Schiavoni/Croati (died January 20, 1707) Archbishop of Esztergom
  5. Augustyn Michal Stefan Radziejowski (aged 54), Cardinal Priest of S. Maria della Pace (died October 11, 1705). Archbishop of Gniezno
  6. Pedro de Salazar (aged 70), Cardinal-Priest of S. Croce in Gerusalemme (died August 15, 1706). Bishop of Córdoba
  7. Wilhelm Egon von Fürstenberg (aged 70), Cardinal Priest of S. Onofrio (died April 10, 1704). Bishop of Strasbourg [had received permission from Louis XIV not to participate: Conjectures politiques, 43)
  8. Luiz de Sousa (69), Cardinal Priest without titulus (died January 3, 1702). Patriarch of Lisbon, Portugal. Doctor of Canon Law.
  9. Francisco Antonio de Borja-Centelles y Ponce de León (aged 41), Cardinal Priest without titulus (died April 3, 1702). Archdeacon of Calatrava and Canon prebendary of Toledo.

Factions

Popes Innocent XI (Odescalchi of Milan) and Innocent XII (Pignatelli of Naples) did not engage in nepotism, and consequently there was no obvious claimant to leadership among their creature. This gave those cardinals an opportunity to redistribute themselves according to their own wishes and needs.

 

Card. Forbin-JansonThe French faction was composed of seven Cardinals: César d'Estrées, Pierre de Bonzi (who was a Florentine, and who, in the event, did not attend the Conclave), Etienne Le Camus (who claimed to belong to the Zelanti ), Toussaint de Forbin-Janson (strongly anti-Jansenist and pro-Jesuit) [portrait at right], Henri d'Arquien, Pierre-Armand de Coislin, and Louis-Antoine de Noailles (Conjectures politiques, 43). Bouillion, the Dean of the Sacred College, might once have been considered its leader, but he was, in fact, a doubtful adherent, considering the way he had been treated by Louis XIV (Conjectures politiques, 48). The leader of the faction, therefore, was d'Estrées, who had experience with conclaves and who carried "the King's secret".

 

The Spanish faction was led by Cardinal Francesco de' Medici, assisted by Cardinal del Giudice. The other members were Cardinals Portocarrero (who did not attend), Kollonitsch (who likewise did not attend), Salazar (also absent), Vincenzo Grimani, Johannes Philip von Lamberg, and Francisco Antonio de Borja-Centelles (who also did not attend). The practical strength of the faction in votes was four. They could usually count, however, on votes from the Milanese and Neapolitans.

Venice, of course, could claim a number of cardinals in her territory, whom the Signoria expected to vote in Venice's interest: Ottoboni, Barbarigo, Colloredo, Cornaro, Delfino, Grimani, Noris and Rubini. The speculation was that they might unite behind Cardinal Ottoboni and form a formidable faction. Genoa, always in competition with Venice, could boast of five cardinals, Giambattista Spinola senior, Giambattista Spinola iunior, Giovanni Francesco Negroni, Marcello Durazzo, and Giuseppe Renato Imperiali. In any event, the Venetians were usually more friendly to France than to Spain. The Spanish in Milan were too close and too strong for the comfort of the Signoria. Cardinal de' Medici had heard from the Spanish Ambassador, the Duke d' Uzeda, in fact, that although the Venetian Ambassador publicly granted its cardinals freedom of action, in private Venice was demanding of its cardinals that they elect a pope who would stand for Italian liberty, and to that end they were working with the French to frustrate the Spanish (Petruccelli, 421).

The Duke of Savoy, who was one of the pretenders to the Spanish throne, attempted to keep a low profile in the pre-conclave maneuvers. On October 5, however, his minister in Rome, Count Maurizio Graneri, wrote to him, "We would like to give the exclusiva to Panciatini." Savoy, however, did not have the acknowledged privilege of casting a veto. That belonged solely to the Emperor and the Kings of France and Spain. The Duke's contact inside the Conclave was Cardinal Carlo Barberini, who was favoring Cardinal Albani (dispatch of del Bene to the Grand Duke of Tuscany, Cosimo III, October 9: Petruccelli, 419).

Card. Marcello DurazzoCosimo III had been ruling Florence and the Grand Duchy of Tuscany since 1670. He had been influential in earlier conclaves, but he was coming more and more under the influence of religious attitudes and was less interested in pursuing Machiavellian designs. He had given his initial instructions to his brother, Cardinal Francesco Maria de'Medici. It was said that as soon as the Conclave was over, the Cardinal was going to resign so that he could marry and perpetuate the Medici line. Cosimo wrote to him on the 15th of October that the French were putting pressure on him to support Cardinal Durazzo [portrait at left]  and offering to veto anybody that Cosimo did not like; he asked his brother for information about Durazzo, and the Cardinal replied on the 18th that Cardinal Spinola had the worst things to say about Durazzo who (he said) was filled with the "mal francese". Cardinal de Medici claimed, however, that he had twenty votes besides the Germans to exclude Durazzo. (Petruccelli, 419-420). The Grand Duke told him to tell Janson (the French leader) that he would support the candidates desired by the King: Spada, Morigia and Sperelli. Durazzo was being aided with money provided by Vienna through the Duke of Modena and Cardinal D'Adda

 

The creature of Clement X (Altieri) were represented: Carpegna, Nerla, Orsini, Marescotti, and Spada, but Cardinal Lorenzo Altieri was not a sufficiently strong character as to be a leader and form a faction, and in any case Spada was associated with the Zelanti.

The creature of Alexander VIII (Ottoboni, a Venetian) were more strongly organized, behind Cardinal Pietro Ottoboni. They included Cardinals Panciatici, Pantelmi, Costaguti, Bichi, Imperiali (who considered himself one of the Zelanti), Omodei, Albani, Barberini and Altieri. Omodei and Ottoboni seem, however, to have had a personal enmity, and therefore his vote would depend on what was being asked of him.

 

Early Favorites and a Veto

Cardinal Galeazzo Marescotti was an early favorite, despite his age (73). He was a Roman, and was highly experienced in papal government. He was highly regarded and influential among the Curial Congregations (Cardella, VII, 230-231). But the French faction, who remembered that he had been Nuncio in Spain, successfully blocked him with a Veto (exclusiva). When Marescotti had been Nuncio in Poland (1668-1670) he had (according to Louis XIV, or rather Madame de Maintenon) worked against the interests of France, favoring the cause of the Duke of Lorraine for the Polish throne, and then the (successful) bid of John Sobieski. The French expected that he would favor the Spanish. The Venetians were not favorable to his candidacy either.

Other 'soggeti papabili' were Cardinals Bandino Panciatici, Leandro Colloredo and Giambattista Spinola (who came within ten votes of success).

 

Election of Cardinal Albani

On the day that the news of the death (November 1) of King Charles II of Spain reached the conclave, the cardinals settled down and unanimously elected Giovanni Francesco Cardinal Albani, the influential advisor of Alexander VIII and Innocent XII. At his desperate request, Albani was given three days to consider his response. At the end of the grace period, another vote was taken. Of the 58 cardinals, he had received 57 votes. Finally, on November 23, Cardinal Albani consented to his election, taking the name Clement XI. On the same day (or on the 30th, according to Moroni) he was consecrated a bishop, having only become a priest in September.

The coronation took place on December 8. On Sunday, April 8, 1701, the new pope took possession of the Lateran Basilica.



Bibliography

See: Conjectures politiques sur le Conclave de MDCC & sur ce qui s'est passé à Rome pendant la maladie, et aprés la mort du Pape Innocent XII. pour l' election d' un successeur (A Parme: Chez Innocent Treize, MDCC).   Neu-eröffnetes Conclave, in welchem eine kurze historische Nachricht von dem Leben und Absterben Pabsts Clementis XI. (Leipzig: Augustus Martini 1721) 6-12. Picot, Mémoires pour servir a l'histoire ecclésiastique, pendant le dix-huitième siècle seconde édition Tome I (Paris 1815) xxxvi-xl.

Petrus Polidori, de vita et rebus gestis Clementis undecimi pontificis maximi Libri sex (Urbini 1727), pp. 43-48.

Lorenzo Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa Tomo Settimo (Roma 1793); Tomo Ottavo (Roma 1794).

Giuseppe de Novaes, Elementi della storia de' Sommi Pontefici Volume 12 (Roma 1822), 9-13. G. Moroni, Dizionario di erudizione storico-ecclesiastica Vol. XIV (Venezia 1842) 60-61. Alexis François Artaud de Montor, Histoire des souverains Pontifes Romains, Volume VI (Paris 1851), pp. 239-242. Francesco Petruccelli della Gattina, Histoire diplomatique des conclaves Volume III (Paris 1865) 411-458. Ludwig Wahrmund, Das Ausschliessungs-recht (jus exclusivae) (Wien 1888) 178-184.  P. Blet, "Louis XIV et le Saint Siège," XVIIe Siècle, no. 123 (1979), pp. 137—154.


April 20, 2014 2:04 PM

© 2008 John Paul Adams, CSUN
john.p.adams@csun.edu

Valid HTML 4.01 Transitional
Valid CSS!

| Home | | Papal Portraits Home | | Medals Bibliography | | Other Conclaves | | Conclave Bibliography |