SEDE VACANTE 1700
(September 27, 1700—November 23, 1700)
NON • VOS • RELINQUAM • ORPHANOS
(in exergue:) ANNO | IVBIL
The Holy Spirit, in clouds, surrounded by rays.
(in exergue:) Episcopal Coat-of-Arms
SEDE • VACA NTE • MDCC
Arms of Giovanni Battista Card. Spinola, Chamberlain of the Holy Roman Church (1698-1719), crossed keys behind, surmounted by the Ombrellone
Berman, p. 162 #2330.
SEDE • V ACANTE
Shield with the Borghese coat of arms, surmounted by clerical hat, with six tassels on each side (signifying episcopal status)
Ornamental shield, with inscription:
PAVLVS | BVRGHESIVS | CONCLAVIS | GVBERNATOR | 1700
|"L' origine de tant de médailles remonte à l'époque où le conclave se tenait toujours au palais du Vatican, et où l'on interdisait à tout le monde, pendant tout le temps de sa durée, l'entrée de la cité Léonine, c'est-à-dire du quartier appelé le Borgo. Alors tous ceux qui, soit pour leurs affaires, soit pour tout autre motif, devaient se rendre dans ce quartier du Borgo, étaient arretés en tête du pont Saint-Ange ou de tout autre pont communiquant avec le Vatican; on ne laissait passer que ceux qui étaient porteurs d'une médaille expressément frappée pendant la vacance du siége au nom de l'un des personnages nommés ci-dessus."
X. Barbier de Montault, Le Conclave (Roma 1878) 19.
GIAMBATTISTA CARDINAL SPINOLA, iuniore (1646–1719) was the nephew of Giulio Card. Spinola and Giambattista Card. Spinola, seniore. He was Governor of Rome and Vice-Chamberlain of the Holy Roman Church between July 28, 1691 and December 12, 1695, when he was created Cardinal Deacon of S. Cesareo in Palatio. He became Camerlengo of the Holy Roman Church on November 24, 1698, and held the office until his death on March 19, 1719.
The Dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals was François de la Tour-d'Auvergne .(d. 1715), who, at the time, was in disfavor with Louis XIV. His benefices had been confiscated along with his private fortune, and he was, in fact, living in exile in Rome (Picot, xxxvi).
The Marshal of the Conclave was Prince Giulio Savelli (1626-1712), the second son of Prince Bernardino Savelli, Prince of Albano (1606-1658) and Felice Peretti, the heiress of Pope Sixtus V. He married Caterina Aldobrandini, daughter of Pietro Aldobrandini, Duke of Carpentino, and then Caterina Giustiniani. The family were perpetually in financial difficulties: in 1596 they sold Castel Gandolfo to the pope, and in 1650 the duchy of Albano. He succeeded his father as Marshal of the Holy Roman Church in 1658. He had one son, who predeceased him. On his death in 1712, the office of Hereditary Marshal of the Roman Church was conferred on the Chigi Family. Prince Giulio Savellio left a manuscript Conclave Diary; it is in the Chigi archives.
DON PAOLO BORGHESE (1663–1701) was the second son of Giovanni Battista Borghese, Principe Borghese and Principe di Sulmona, and Donna Eleonora Boncompagni, daughter of the Duke of Sora; his elder brother, Don Marcantonio, succeeded to the titles in 1717.
Don Paolo was Governor of the Conclave of 1700.
The first Master of Ceremonies was Pietro Sante de Fantibus, Abbot of S. Felice e Adaucti (Fermo). He was assisted by Candido Cassina, Canon of S. Maria in Trastevere; Giustiniano Chiapponi, perpetuus beneficiatus of the Vatican Basilica; Bernardino Porto, perpetuus beneficiatus of the Lateran Basilica; Pietro Orlando, Canon of S. Maria in Trastevere; and Leo Battelli, perpetuus beneficiatus of the Lateran Basilica [Bullarium Romanum Turin edition 21 (1871), p. 1].
Death of Pope Innocent
Pope Innocent XII (Pignatelli) died on September 27, 1700, at the age of 85, and after a reign of nine years, two months, and fifteen days, at the worst possible time for Europe. The impending Spanish succession was promising to embroil France, Spain, the Empire and many others in a bloody struggle. Innocent had finally pronounced in favor of Philippe de Bourbon, Duke of Anjou, grandson of Louis XIV. This was contrary to the interests of the Empire, whose candidate, the Archduke Charles of Austria (Emperor Charles VI, 1711-1740), would by no means give way. Trouble had already broken out in the Duchy of Milan (a Spanish possession) in March, 1700, between French and Spanish forces on the one hand, and Imperial forces, led by Prince Eugene, on the other. The mediation of a strong pope would be useful; the struggle to obtain a compliant pope would produce great difficulties. The Conclave of 1700 began on October 9, and lasted a total of 46 days.
At the same time, the Emperor was engaged in the liberation of the Balkans from the Turkish menace, and attempting to bring the war to a successful diplomatic conclusion. Or so he said. His ambition was to conquer Hungary. The last insurrection of Rakoczy was still in the future [Contarini, Istoria della guerra di Leopoldo I. Libro decimosesto, 734-742].
The College of Cardinals
There were sixty -six cardinals at the time of the death of Pope Innocent XII. Cardinal Alderano Cibo, Bishop of Ostia and Velletri and Cardinal Dean of the Sacred College, had died on July 22, 1700 [V. Forcella, Inscrizioni delle chiese di Roma I, p. 394, no. 1504]. A list of the Cardinals and their Conclavists is attached to the motu proprio Nos Volentes, of December 8, 1700 [Bullarium Romanum Turin edition 21 (1871), pp. 1-4]. A list is given by the anonymous author of the pamphlet Conjectures politiques sur le Conclave de MDCC at pp. 38-41 [drawn up before the deaths of Cardinals Cibo (July 22, 1700), Maidalchini (June 10, 1700)], and Aguillara (September 19, 1699)]. Of the sixty-six cardinals, fifty-seven took part. Three Spanish cardinals, the Portuguese cardinal, two Imperial cardinals, two Italian cardinals, and the Polish cardinal, Radziejowski (nephew of the King of Poland), were absent.
- Emanuel de la Tour d'Auvergne de Bouillon (aged 57), Suburbicarian Bishop of Porto e Santa Rufina, Vice-Dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals (1698-December 5, 1700). Abbot of Cluny (1683-1715) (died March 2, 1715) [Michaud, Louis XIV et Innocent XI III, 147-151].
- Niccolò Acciaioli (aged 70), Suburbicarian Bishop of Frascati (1693-December 5, 1700). (died February 23, 1719).
- Gaspare Carpegna (aged 75), Suburbicarian Bishop of Sabina (1698-1715) Vicar-General of Rome (1671-1714) (died April 6, 1714).
- César d'Estrées (aged 72), son of François-Annibale, Duc d'Estrées, Marshal of France; and Marie de Bethune-Selles. [Born in Rome, son of the then Ambassador Extraordinary of France before the Holy See]. Member of the Academie Française (1657). Bishop of Laon (1653-1681), consecrated in September, 1655; he resigned the see to his nephew, when he was appointed Chargé d'affaires by Louis XIV to go to Rome to negotiate about the regalia. He succeeded his brother as Ambassador to the Pope in 1687. He returned to France in 1692, leaving the Cardinal de Bouillon as Chargé d'affaires. Suburbicarian Bishop of Albano (1698-1714). He journeyed to Rome again at the beginning of 1700 [Gallia christiana 9 (1751), 557-558]. (died December 18, 1714).
- Carlo Barberini (aged 70), Cardinal Priest of S. Lorenzo in Lucina. Grand-nephew of Urban VIII. Nephew of Cardinal Francesco Barberini and Cardinal Antonio Barberini. Prefect of the SC de propaganda fide (1698-1704). He died October 2, 1704, at which time he was Archpriest of S. Peter's Basilica [V. Forcella, Inscrizioni delle chiese di Roma VI, p. 165-166 nos. 611; VIII, p. 272, no. 686].
- Vincenzo Maria Orsini de Gravina (aged 51), eldest son of Ferdinando Orsini, tenth Duke of Gravina; and Giovanna Frangipani. Cardinal Priest of S. Sisto (1672-1701). Archbishop of Benevento (1686-1730). [Pope Benedict XIII (1724-1730)]
- Francesco Nerli (aged 64) [Florentinus], son of Pietro Nerli and Costanza Magalotti. Cardinal-Priest of S. Matteo in Merulana (1673-1704). He had studied philosophy in Rome, and Civil and Canon Law in Siena, and received his Doctorate in Pisa. In 1638 Alexander VII made him a Referendary and one of the Abbreviatores de parco maiori in the Apostolic Camera. In 1666 he was named vice-Legate in Bologna. Clement IX made him a voting member of the Apostolic Segnatura. Clement X made him a Canon of the Vatican Basilica. Archbishop of Florence (1670-1682), and Nuncio to Vienna and Poland. Nuncio in France (1672-1673). He was named cardinal on June 13, 1673, and presented with the red biretta by Maria Theresia. Secretary of State (1673-1676). Bishop of Assisi (1685-1689). Clement XI appointed him secretary of Briefs to Princes. Archpriest of the Vatican Basilica (1704-1708). He died on April 8, 1708; his heart was placed in the Chapel of Relics in the Sacristy of S. Peter's; his body in S. Matteo in Merulana [V. Forcella, Inscrizioni delle chiese di Roma VI, p. 167, no. 615-617].
- Galeazzo Marescotti (aged 73), Cardinal Priest of S. Prassede (1700-1708). Pro-Camerlengo (1697-1698) Nuncio to Spain (1670-1675). Nuncio to Poland (1668-1670). Titular Archbishop of Corinth (1668-1675). Doctor in utroque iure. [named Prefect of the Holy Inquisition (1700-1716) by the new Pope Clement XI]. (died July 3, 1726).
- Fabrizio Spada (aged 57), Cardinal Priest of S. Crisogono (1689-1708). Legate in Urbino. Nuncio to France (1674-1676). Doctor in utroque iure, Pavia. Secretary of State of Innocent XII (1691-1700). (died June 15, 1717)
- Giambattista Spinola (aged 85), Cardinal Priest of S. Maria in Trastevere (1698-1704). Archbishop of Genoa (1664-1681). Doctor in utroque iure. He had been Governor of Rome for sixteen years. He died on January 4, 1704, at the age of 88. His funeral inscription is in S. Salvatore delle Coppelle [V. Forcella, Inscrizioni delle chiese di Roma VIII, p. 505 no. 1173].
- Savo Millini (aged 56), Cardinal Priest of S. Pietro in Vincoli (1689-1701). Bishop of Nepi e Sutri (1694-1701). Bishop of Orvieto (1681-1694). Nuncio to Spain (1675-1681) and titular Archbishop of Caesarea Marittima (1675-1681). Doctor in utroque iure, Rome (La Sapienza). (died February 10, 1701)
- Marcello Durazzo (aged 67) [Genoa], Cardinal Priest of S. Prisca (1689-1701). Archbishop-Bishop of Faenza (1697-1710). Doctor in utroque iure, Perugia. (died April 27, 1710).
- Marcantonio Barbarigo (aged 60) [born in Venice, of a senatorial family; a relative of S. Gregory Barbadigo], Cardinal Priest of S. Marco (1697-1706). Bishop of Corfu in 1678, where he entered into a contest for power with Admiral Barbone Morosini; his appeals both to Venice and to Pope Innocent XI were ignored. Bishop of Montefiascone e Corneto (July 7, 1687—May 26, 1706) [Ughelli-Colet I, 990]. Doctor in utroque iure, Padua. (died May 26, 1706)
- Etienne Le Camus (aged 68) [Poitiers], Cardinal Priest of S. Maria degli Angeli (1691-1707). Doctor of Theology, Paris (Sorbonne). Almoner to the King of France. Bishop of Grenoble (1671-1707) [Gallia christiana 16, 256-257]. He opposed the Gallican Articles in 1682, in consideration of which Innocent XI named him cardinal in 1686, but without consulting Louis XIV [Michaud, Louis XIV et Innocent XI III, pp. 124-125; Cardella VII, 280]. He was appointed to the Congregations of Bishops and Regulars, the Council, and the Propaganda. (died September 12, 1707).
- Pier Matteo Petrucci, Orat.(aged 64), Cardinal Priest of S. Marcello (1687-1701) (died July 5, 1701). Doctor in utroque iure, Macerata.
- Leandro Colloredo, Orat.(aged 61) [born in the Castel de Colloredo, in the diocese of Gorizio in Friuli], Cardinal Priest of SS. Nereo ed Achilleo (died January 11, 1709). Major Penitentiary (1688-1709). He had earlier been Examiner of Bishops, Consultor of the Holy Office,
- Giovanni Francesco Negroni (aged 70), Cardinal Priest of S. Maria in Ara Coeli (died January 1, 1713). legate in Bologna.
- Bandino Panciatici (aged 71), Cardinal Priest of S. Pancrazio (died April 21, 1718). Relative of Clement IX. Pro-Datary of Innocent XI. Doctor in law, Pisa. Under the authority of Pope Innocent XII, he opened the Holy Door at S. Paolo fuori le mura for the Jubilee of 1700 [V. Forcella, Inscrizioni delle chiese di Roma XII, p. 20, no. 34].
- Giacomo Cantelmo Stuardo (aged 55), son of Fabrizio Duca di Populo; related to James II of England. Cardinal Priest of SS. Marcellino e Pietro (died December 11, 1702). Archbishop of Naples (1691-1702) [Ughelli-Colet Italia sacra 6, 202-209].
- Ferdinando d'Adda (aged 50), Cardinal Priest of S. Balbina (died January 27, 1719) Legate in Bologna. Degree in law, Bologna.
- Toussaint de Forbin-Janson (69), Cardinal Priest of S. Callisto (1690-1713) (died March 24, 1713). Bishop of Beauvais. Former French Ambassador in Poland, where he helped procure the election of King John Sobieski. Appointed cardinal in 1690 after fourteen years of papal refusals of nominations of both Louis XIV and John Sobieski [Michaud, Louis XIV et Innocent XI III, pp. 94-134]. French Ambassador at Rome
- Giovanni Battista Rubini (aged 58) [Venetus], Cardinal Priest of S. Lorenzo in Panisperna. Grandnephew of Pope Alexander VIII (Ottoboni). Secretary (a secretis) of Alexander VIII. Bishop of Vincenza (1684-1702) [Ughelli-Colet V, 1071]. Legate in Urbino (1684-1700). Doctor in utroque iure, Padua. He died on February 17, 1707. His memorial inscription is in S. Marco [V. Forcella, Inscrizioni delle chiese di Roma IV, p. 361 no. 858].
- Francesco del Giudice (aged 52) [Neapolitanus], Cardinal Priest of S. Sabina (died October 10, 1725). Made cardinal on the recommendation of Carlos II, King of Spain, by Pope Alexander VIII. [Eggs, Supplementum novum Purpurae Doctae (Augustae Vindelicorum 1729), 614-616].
- Giovanni Battista Costaguti (aged 64), Cardinal Priest of S. Anastasia (died March 8, 1704).
- Giovanni Francesco Albani (aged 51), Cardinal Priest of S. Silvestro in Capite (died March 19, 1721) Doctor in utroque iure, Urbino.
- Giacomo Antonio Morigia, (aged 67), Cardinal Priest of S. Cecilia (1699-1708). Archpriest of the Liberian Basilica (S. Maria Maggiore) (1697-1708) [V. Forcella, Inscrizioni delle chiese di Roma XI, p. 85 no. 165]. (died October 8, 1708).
- Sebastiano Antonio Tanara (aged 50, Cardinal Priest of Ss. Quattro Coronati (1696-1715). Nuncio to Vienna (1692-1695). Nuncio to Portugal (1690-1692). Doctor in utroque iure, Bologna. (died May 5, 1724)
- Giacomo Boncompagni (aged 48), Cardinal Priest of S. Maria in Via (1696-1724). Archbishop of Bologna (1690-1731). Doctor in utroque iure, Rome (La Sapienza). (died March 24, 1731).
- Taddeo Luigi del Verme (aged 59), Cardinal Priest of Ss. Bonifacio ed Alessio (1696-1717). Bishop of Imola (1696-1702). Bishop of Fano (1688-1696). Doctor in utroque iure, Rome (La Sapienza). (died January 12, 1717).
- Baldassare Cenci (aged 52), Cardinal Priest of S. Pietro in Montorio (1697-1709). Archbishop of Fermo (1697-1709). Doctor in utroque iure, Rome (La Sapienza). (died May 26, 1709).
- Tommaso Maria Ferrari, OP (aged 51) [Manduriensis], Cardinal Priest of S. Clemente (1696-1716). Magister Sacri Palatii (1688-1695). (died August 20, 1716, at the age of sixty-nine, at the Monastery of S. Sabina, where he was interred: V. Forcella, Inscrizioni delle chiese di Roma VII, p.318, no. 654).
- Giuseppe Sacripante (aged 58) [Nerni], Cardinal Priest of S. Maria in Traspontina (1696-1727). Prefect of the Congregation of the Clergy (1695-1700). Before becoming cardinal, he had been Vice-Datary of Innocent XI. Prefect of the SC de Propaganda fide (1704-1727) [V. Forcella, Inscrizioni delle chiese di Roma X, p. 105, no. 188]. (died January 4, 1727) .
- Enrico Noris, OESA (aged 69) [born at Verona, of an Irish family, one of whose ancestors was a soldier in the defense of Cyprus; his father, Alessandro, wrote a history of German Wars], Cardinal Priest of S. Agostino (1696-1704). His baptismal name was Hieronymus (Girolamo). At the age of fifteen he was sent to study with the Jesuits at Rimini; he studied philosophy and became a fan of the works of S. Augustine. He decided to join the Order of the Hermits of Saint Augustine. During his novitiate he attracted the favorable attention of the Father Assistant for Italy, Fr. Celestino Bruni, who recommended him to the General of the Order, Fr. Fulgenzio Petrelli. After his novitiate in Rimini and his solemn profession, he was called to Rome by the Father General. He lived at the Convent of S. Agostino, in the company of a number of scholars in history, both secular and ecclesiastical, and had the opportunity to study at the Angelicum, deepening his appreciation of S. Augustine. He came to profit from the company of Fr. Christian Lupus, OESA [the Life by the Ballerini brothers, in the Berti edition, xx]. At the age of 26,he began writing his History of Pelagianism. Having attained proficiency in Theology, his Order assigned him to teach in their convents at Pesaro (he was Reggente dello studio Agostiniano, prima in Pisauro, dipoi in Perugia, ove otenne la consueta laurea del Magistero, e finalmente in Padova, in the words of Bianchini, in Crescembi I, 203), then Perugia (Theologicae scholae praeficitur, primum Pisauri, deinde Perusiae, as Zazzerio puts it), which he did for five years. He then returned to Rome, where he attained the rank of Magister pro exatlantis laboribus. He then worked at Padua [Inde Pataviam ... digressus, acceptam tradendae Theologiae provinciam ibidem jubetur persequi—language which some have unjustifiably turned into a professorship at the University], where he also finished the Historia Pelagiana, et Dissertatio de synodo V. oecumenico (Padua 1673), and published the Vindiciae Augustinianae (Padua 1673). The books were denounced to the Inquisition, where he came to the (favorable) attention of the Assessor Msgr. Girolamo Casante (who became a cardinal on June 12, 1673), but Noris was exonerated [Crescimbeni, 203]. In 1674, on the recommendation of Antonio Magliabecci, the Ducal Librarian, he was appointed court Theologian by Grand Duke Cosimo III of Tuscany. He was also appointed Lecturer in Sacred History at Pisa [according to Bianchini, in Crescembi I, 204; the Life by the Ballerini brothers, however, says he held the title of Doctor, and that the appointment was to a cathedra, xxi; Zazzerio calls him Professor, xiii]; there he enjoyed the company of Jacobus Gronovius. It was also in 1674 that Noris was attacked by Fr. Francesco Macedo, O.Min., to which Noris replied in his Adventoria, which led to a war of pamphlets [See Noris, Opera omnia theologica II (1759), 553 ff., for the texts]. In 1675, he was elected to Queen Christina of Sweden's Arcadian Academy, with the name Eucrate Agoretico; fellow members were Cardinal Vincenzo Maria Orsini, the future Pope Benedict XIII, under the name Teofilo Samio, and Cardinal Domenico Tarugi (1695-1696), under the name Egerio Daseo. Noris, with all of his troubles with the Inquisition, was actually appointed Qualificator at the Holy Office by Clement X (1670-1676), a clear papal rebuke to his critics. At the same time Noris published extensively on numismatics, epigraphy, and chronology, and he continued answering his critics on the matter of Pelagianism and Saint Augustine. He was offered the Bishopric of Pistoia, but he refused (This would have been after the death of Bishop Francesco Renuccini on March 2, 1678). He was also offered the post of papal Sacristan, which he refused. In 1692 he was brought back to Rome by Innocent XI and made sub-Librarian of the Vatican Library. His books were denounced again to the Inquisition, and after an extensive examination he was again completely vindicated. He wrote again in defense of S. Augustine and published the 4th edition of his Pelagian history. The Pope made him Consultor at the Inquisition. He was raised to the cardinalate on December 12, 1695. In 1700 he was appointed Librarian and Archivist of the Holy Roman Church, following the death of Cardinal Casanate on March 3, 1700 (1700-1704), and granted an annual pension of 5585 scudi by Pope Clement XI from his own personal pensions. He died on February 23, 1704, and was buried in his titular church, S. Agostino.
A "Vita" of Cardinal Noris by Hieronymus Zazzerio, OESA, precedes the 1708 edition of his Historia Pelagiana (Patavii 1708); it is reprinted in J. L. Berti, OESA, Henrici Norisii Opera Omnia Theologica Tomus Primus (Venice 1769), xii-xviii. A second, by Msgr. Francesco Bianchini, also of 1708, was published by Giovan Mario Crescimbeni, Le vite degli Arcadi illustri Parte prima (Roma: Antonio de' Rossi 1708), 199-222. A third life, by Pietro and Hieronymo Ballerini, first published in 1738, can be found at pp. xix-xxxiv in the Berti edition. See also Moroni, Dizionario storico-ecclesiastica 49 (Venezia 1848), 103-105.
- Giorgio Cornaro (aged 42) [Venetus], brother of Giovanni Cornaro, Doge of Venice Cardinal Priest of SS. XII Apostoli (appointed on July 22, 1697; died August 10, 1722). Archbishop-Bishop of Padua. Doctor in utroque iure, Pavia..
- Pierre-Armand du Cambout de Coislin (aged 63), brother of Duke Armand de Coislin, Peer of France and Lieutenant-General. Cardinal Priest of Santissima Trinità al Monte Pincio (appointed on July 22, 1697). He became First Almoner of the King of France in the place of the Cardinal de Bouillon, who was in disfavor. (died February 5, 1706). Bishop of Orléans. Doctor of Theology, Paris (Sorbonne).
- Fabrizio Paolucci (aged 48) [Forli], Cardinal Priest of Ss. Giovanni e Paolo (appointed on July 22, 1697; died June 13, 1726). Appointed Bishop of Macerata by Innocent XII (1697-1698) [Ughelli-Colet, Italia sacra II (1717), 746]. Administrator of the Diocese of Fermo. Nuncio in Cologne. Apostolic Legate in Poland. Bishop of Ferrara (1697-1701) [Ughelli-Colet, Italia sacra II (1717), 563-564]. Doctor in utroque iure, Rome (La Sapienza). [appointed Secretary of State by the new pope, Clement XI (Albani)].
- Niccolò Radulovich (aged 73) [Polymniani, Apulia], son of Francesco, the third Marchese of Polymniani. Cardinal Priest of S. Bartolomeo all’Isola (November 14, 1699-October 27, 1702). Archbishop of Chieti (1659-1702) [Ughelli-Colet, Italia sacra VI, 770-771]. Secretary of the SC of Bishops and Regulars. He had earlier pamphletized against the Comte de Lavardan, the French Orator before the Holy See (who was recalled in 1689).
- Giuseppe Archinto (aged 49) [Mediolanensis], Cardinal Priest without titulus (appointed November 14, 1699). Doctor in utroque iure (Ingolstadt) Appointed protonotarius e numero participantium by Innocent XI. Vice-Legate in Bologna. Apostolic nuncio in Tuscany. Alexander VIII appointed him Apostolic Legate to the Venetian Republic. Innocent XII appointed him Nuncio to Spain (1696-1700). Archbishop of Milan (May 18, 1699-1712). (died April 9, 1712). [Ughelli-Colet, Italia Sacra IV, 280].
- Andrea Santacroce (aged 44) [Romanus]. Cardinal Priest of S. Maria del Popolo (appointed November 14, 1699). Nuncio in Vienna (1696). Nuncio in Poland. Bishop of Viterbo e Toscanella (January 24, 1700-May 10, 1712). (died May 10, 1712).
- Marcello d'Aste (aged 43) [born at Aversa in the Kingdom of Naples], son of Maurizio Baron of Acerna, of the Barons d'Aste; and Donna Vicenza Caraffa. Cardinal Priest of S. Martino ai Monti (appointed November 14, 1699; died June 11, 1709). Auditor of Pope Alexander VIII (1689-1691). Canon of the Vatican Basilica. Consultor of the Holy Inquisition. Voting member of the Signature of Grace. Nuncio in Switzerland (1692-1694). Archbishop-Bishop of Ancona and Numana (from February 3, 1700) [Ughelli-Colet Italia sacra I, 342; Gams, 666]. Legate in Urbino. Secretary of the SC of Bishops and Regulars. He was also a member of the Arcadian Academy, under the name Candido Petrofacio [See his biography, by Ab. Carlo Doni, in Crescimbeni, III, 253-270].
- Daniello Marco Delfino (aged 47) [Venetus], Cardinal Priest of S. Susanna (1699-1704) (died August 5, 1704). Utriusque signaturae Referendarius. Vice-Legate in Avignon (April 8, 1692–February 26, 1696) [Gallia christiana I (1716) 849] . Apostolic Nuncio to Louis XIV. Archbishop-Bishop of Brescia (1698-1704) [Ughelli-Colet Italia sacra IV, 566-567].
- Sperello Sperelli (aged 61) [Assisi-Perugia], nephew of Alexander Sperelli, Bishop of Iguvium. Cardinal-Priest of S. Giovanni a Porta Latina (appointed November 14, 1699; died March 22, 1710). Consultor of the Holy Inquisition, and then First Assessor (appointed by Innocent XI, June 1698). Vice-governor of the City of Rome. Bishop of Interamna (Terni) (1684-1698, succeeded by his brother Cesare Sperelli). Utriusque iuris Doctor. He was a member of the Arcadian Academy, under the name of Euthemius Chalidius (from September 1677) [See his biography by Giacinto Vincioli, in Crescimbeni, Volume III (1714), pp. 129-141].
- Giambattista Gabrielli, O.Cist. (aged 46) [Città di Castello, Tifernas], Cardinal Priest of S. Pudenziana (1700-1711). (died September 17, 1711). Abbot General of the Cistercian Order. Began his monastic career at the Monastery of S. Pudenziana in Rome, studying philosophy and theology at the Istituto di S. Bernardo. His studies occupied twenty years. He is said to have been offered a bishopric several times by Innocent XI (1676-1689); if true, and if Innocent were observing minimum age requirements of Canon Law, these offers would have come after 1679. He was one of the Inquisitors at the Holy Office between 1697 and 1699, when he was reviewed Fenelon's book on quietism, Maximes des saintes [V. Verlaque, "Lettres de Louis XIV au Cardinal de Bouillon," Collection des documents inédits sur l'histoire de la France. Mélanges historiques IV (Paris 1882), pp. 718 (February 4, 1698), 723 (May 6, 1698)] [The statement in "G-Catholic" that Gabrielli was Abbot General of the Cistercians from 1670-1692 is impossible. He could not have been elected at the age of 16. Perhaps 1690-1692?]. He was also Prefect of Studies at the College of the Propaganda at the time of his promotion to the Cardinalate in November of 1699; it is said that he was recommended to Innocent XII by Msgr. Carlo Agostino Fabroni, the Secretary of Memorials of Innocent XII, and Secretary of the SC de Propaganda, who became a Cardinal himself in 1706. He died on September 17, 1711, at the age of 58, as his funeral inscription in S. Bernardo alle Terme indicates [V. Forcella, Inscrizioni delle chiese di Roma IX, p. 183, no. 365]. His praecordia were entombed at S. Pudenziana [V. Forcella, Inscrizioni delle chiese di Roma XI, p. 143, no. 279].
- Louis-Antoine de Noailles (aged 49), son of Anne, duc de Noailles, and Louise de Boyer. Cardinal Priest without titulus (appointed November 14, 1699). He was given the title of S. Maria sopra Minerva by Clement XI on January 3, 1701. Archbishop of Paris (1695-1729) [Gallia christiana 7, 188-191]. Bishop of Chalons-sur-Marne (1680-1695) [Gallia christiana 9, 901]. Bishop of Cahors (1679-1680) [Gallia christiana 1, 153]. Doctor of Theology (Paris, March 14, 1676) [Eggs, Supplementum novum Purpurae Doctae (Augustae Vindelicorum 1729), 619]. He was the official French Ambassador to the Conclave of 1700. Cardinal de Janson was the Chargé d'affaires de France. (died May 4, 1729).
- Johannes Philip von Lamberg (aged 48), Cardinal Priest without title (appointed November 14, 1699). He was assigned the title of S. Silvestro in Capite by Clement XI. Bishop of Passau (from May 23, 1689) (died October 21, 1712). [created cardinal at the request of Emperor Leopold I]
- Benedetto Pamphili (aged 47), O.S.Io.Hieros., Cardinal Deacon of S. Maria in Via Lata (died March 22, 1730). Prior of the Roman house of the O.S.Io.Hieros. Archpriest of the Liberian Basilica, appointed by Innocent XII (1694—ca.1697). Archpriest of the Lateran Basilica. He opened and closed the Holy Door at the Lateran in 1700 [V. Forcella, Inscrizioni delle chiese di Roma VIII, p. 73 no. 195); he was still Archpriest in 1729 [Forcella, p. 77, nos. 209-210]; he was succeeded by Cardinal Pietro Ottoboni in 1730 [Forcella, p. 79, no. 214]. Cardinal Protodeacon. He had been Legate in Bologna under Alexander VIII. Grand-nephew of Innocent X (Pamphili).
- Fulvio Astalli (aged 45), Cardinal Deacon of Ss. Cosma e Damiano (died January 14, 1721). legate in Ferrara.
- Francesco Maria de' Medici (aged 39), Cardinal Deacon of S. Maria in Domnica (died February 3, 1711). Brother of the Grand Duke of Tuscany, who was married to an Austrian Archduchess. Protector of Austria (Conjectures politiques, 49). In an inscription of 1711 in S. Giovanni dei Fiorentini, he is named as Protector of Germany, France and Spain [ V. Forcella, Inscrizioni delle chiese di Roma VII, p. 36 no. 86].
- Pietro Ottoboni (aged 33), Cardinal Deacon of S. Lorenzo in Damaso (died February 29, 1740) Vice-Chancellor of the Holy Roman Church (1689-1740) and Legate in Avignon. Protector of France. Grand-nephew of Alexander VIII.
- Carlo Bichi (aged 62), Cardinal-Deacon of S. Agata alla Suburra (died November 7, 1718).
- Giuseppe Renato Imperiali (aged 49), Cardinal-Deacon of S. Giorgio in Velabro (Died January 15, 1737). Legate in Ferrara.
- Luigi Omodei (aged 43) [Mediolanensis], nephew of Cardinal Luigi Omodei (1652-1685). Cardinal Deacon of S. Maria in Portico (1690-1706) He was born in Madrid, where he spent his first thirty years. Cleric of the Chamber under Innocent XI. (died August 18, 1706). Faineant.
- Francesco Barberini (aged 37), Cardinal-Deacon of S. Angelo in Pescheria (died August 17, 1738). Grandnephew of Pope Urban VIII. Nephew of Cardinal Carlo Barberini. Legate in the Romagna. Protector of Poland.
- Lorenzo Altieri (aged 29), Cardinal Deacon of S. Maria in Aquiro (died August 3, 1741). Legate in Urbino.
- Giambattista Spinola (aged 54), Cardinal Deacon of S. Cesareo in Palatio (died March 19, 1719). Camerlengo of the Holy Roman Church. Before being named cardinal, he had been Governor of Rome. As Camerlengo he was also Chancellor of the University of Rome; on his important achievements in reviving a tired institution, see F. Renazzi, Storia dell' Universita degli studi di Roma, detta communemente La Sapienza Volume IV (Roma 1806), Libro v, capo 1.
- Henri Albert de la Grange d'Arquien (aged 87), Marquis d'Arquien. Cardinal-Deacon of S. Nicola in Carcere Tulliano (1695-1699-1707) [at the request of the King of Poland]. Married twice. Father of seven children, including Maria Sobieska, former Queen of Poland. Innocent XII (Pignatelli), when Legate in Poland (1660-1668), had performed the marriage of King John and Queen Maria (1665). Captain of the Guard of Monsieur (brother of Louis XIV). Member of the Order of the Holy Spirit. (died May 24, 1707). [medal at right]
- Vincenzo Grimani (aged 47), Cardinal-Deacon of S. Eustachio (appointed on July 22, 1697; died September 26, 1710). [nominated by the Emperor].
Cardinals not attending:
- Luis Manuel Fernández de Portocarrero (aged 65), Suburbicarian Bishop of Palestrina, Archbishop of Toledo (1678-1709). (died September 14, 1709) Spanish Minister of State. Leader of the pro-French faction in the struggle for the succession of Carlos II (who died on November 3, 1700, at the age of 38).
- Pierre de Bonzi (aged 69) [Florentinus], Cardinal Priest of S. Eusebio (1689-1703) Archbishop of Narbonne (1673-1703) [Gallia christiana 6, 123; Michaud, Louis XIV et Innocent XI III, 139-147]. Bishop of Toulouse (1671-1673). Bishop of Beziers (1660-1671). (died July 11, 1703).
- Urbano Sacchetti (aged 60), Cardinal Priest of S. Bernardo alle Terme Bishop of Viterbo e Toscanella (1683-1699) [Gams, 736]. (died April 6, 1705).
- Leopold Charles von Kollonitsch (aged 69), Cardinal Priest of S. Girolamo dei Schiavoni/Croati (1689-1707). Archbishop of Esztergom (1695-1707). Archbishop of Kalocsa (1690-1695). (died January 20, 1707)
- Augustyn Michal Stefan Radziejowski (aged 54) [born in the County of Radziejicowice, his family's fief], Cardinal Priest of S. Maria della Pace (1686-1705). (died October 11, 1705). He had studied at the Sorbonne, but took his doctorate in Rome. Returning to Poland, he became a Canon in the Cathedral of Crakow. With the support of King John III [Johann Wolfgang Jaeger, Historia ecclesiastica cum parallelismo profanae. Tomus II, pars 2 (Hamburg 1717), Lib. 5, cap.5, p. 292], his maternal uncle, he became Latin rite BIshop of Kiev, then of Ermland (Warmia) in Prussia (1679-1687) [Gams, 359], and finally Archbishop of Gniezno and Primate of Poland (1687-1705) [Gams, 348]. He was also named Grand Chancellor of the Kingdom of Poland. He presided over the election of the successor of his uncle John (died June 17, 1696), and supported the French candidate [See Oeuvres de Louis XIV Tome VI (Paris 1806), Pièces historiques, no. 13, pp. 514-516 (Prince de Conti to Cardinal Radziejowski (July 1697)], who, despite Cardinal Michael's manipulations, lost to Augustus of Saxony. He began to conspire against the new King with the King of Sweden, which brought a rebuke from Clement XI. [See Johann Wolfgang Jaeger, Historia ecclesiastica cum parallelismo profanae. Tomus II, pars 2 (Hamburg 1717), Lib. 6, cap. 4, p. 151; Lib. 7, cap. 9, pp. 158-160; Lib. 8, cap. III, p. 173-175; K. Waliszewski, Marysienka: Marie de la Grange d'Arquien, 266-270]. In 1700 a war between Poland and Sweden was in progress.
- Pedro de Salazar (aged 70), Cardinal-Priest of S. Croce in Gerusalemme. Bishop of Córdoba (1686-1706). Bishop of Salamanca (1681-1686). (died August 15, 1706).
- Wilhelm Egon von Fürstenberg (aged 70), Cardinal Priest of S. Onofrio (died April 10, 1704). Bishop of Strasbourg [had received permission from Louis XIV not to participate: Conjectures politiques, 43)].
- Luiz de Sousa (69) [Lisbon], Cardinal Priest without titulus (appointed on July 22, 1697). Patriarch of Lisbon, Portugal (1676-1702). Doctor of Canon Law. Secretary of State of the King of Portugal. (died January 3, 1702)
- Francisco Antonio de Borja-Centelles y Ponce de León (aged 41), of the family of the Dukes of Gandia. Archdeacon of Calatrava and Canon prebendary of Toledo, on the nomination of Carlos II. Cardinal Priest without titulus, at the request of Carlos II (November 14, 1699). Member of the Council of Aragon. Bishop of Calahorra (1701-1702). Bishop-elect of Burgos (1702). (died April 3, 1702)
Popes Innocent XI (Odescalchi of Milan) and Innocent XII (Pignatelli of Naples) did not engage in nepotism, and consequently there was no obvious claimant to leadership among their creature. This gave those cardinals an opportunity to redistribute themselves according to their own wishes and needs.
The French faction was composed of seven Cardinals: César d'Estrées, Pierre de Bonzi (who was a Florentine, and who, in the event, did not attend the Conclave), Etienne Le Camus (who claimed to belong to the Zelanti ), Toussaint de Forbin-Janson (strongly anti-Jansenist and pro-Jesuit) [portrait at right], Henri d'Arquien, Pierre-Armand de Coislin, and Louis-Antoine de Noailles (Conjectures politiques, 43). Bouillion, the Dean of the Sacred College, might once have been considered its leader, but he was, in fact, a doubtful adherent, considering the way he had been treated by Louis XIV (Conjectures politiques, 48). The leader of the faction, therefore, was d'Estrées, who had experience with conclaves and who carried "the King's secret".
The Spanish faction was led by Cardinal Francesco de' Medici, assisted by Cardinal del Giudice. The other members were Cardinals Portocarrero (who did not attend), Kollonitsch (who likewise did not attend), Salazar (also absent), Vincenzo Grimani, Johannes Philip von Lamberg, and Francisco Antonio de Borja-Centelles (who also did not attend). The practical strength of the faction in votes was four. They could usually count, however, on votes from the Milanese and Neapolitans.
Venice, of course, could claim a number of cardinals in her territory, whom the Signoria expected to vote in Venice's interest: Ottoboni, Barbarigo, Colloredo, Cornaro, Delfino, Grimani, Noris and Rubini. The speculation was that they might unite behind Cardinal Ottoboni and form a formidable faction. Genoa, always in competition with Venice, could boast of five cardinals, Giambattista Spinola senior, Giambattista Spinola iunior, Giovanni Francesco Negroni, Marcello Durazzo, and Giuseppe Renato Imperiali. In any event, the Venetians were usually more friendly to France than to Spain. The Spanish in Milan were too close and too strong for the comfort of the Signoria. Cardinal de' Medici had heard from the Spanish Ambassador, the Duke d' Uzeda, in fact, that although the Venetian Ambassador publicly granted its cardinals freedom of action, in private Venice was demanding of its cardinals that they elect a pope who would stand for Italian liberty, and to that end they were working with the French to frustrate the Spanish (Petruccelli, 421).
The Duke of Savoy, who was one of the pretenders to the Spanish throne, attempted to keep a low profile in the pre-conclave maneuvers. On October 5, however, his minister in Rome, Count Maurizio Graneri, wrote to him, "We would like to give the exclusiva to Panciatini." Savoy, however, did not have the acknowledged privilege of casting a veto. That belonged solely to the Emperor and the Kings of France and Spain. The Duke's contact inside the Conclave was Cardinal Carlo Barberini, who was favoring Cardinal Albani (dispatch of del Bene to the Grand Duke of Tuscany, Cosimo III, October 9: Petruccelli, 419).
Cosimo III had been ruling Florence and the Grand Duchy of Tuscany since 1670. He had been influential in earlier conclaves, but he was coming more and more under the influence of religious attitudes and was less interested in pursuing Machiavellian designs. He had given his initial instructions to his brother, Cardinal Francesco Maria de'Medici. It was said that as soon as the Conclave was over, the Cardinal was going to resign so that he could marry and perpetuate the Medici line. Cosimo wrote to him on the 15th of October that the French were putting pressure on him to support Cardinal Durazzo [portrait at left] and offering to veto anybody that Cosimo did not like; he asked his brother for information about Durazzo, and the Cardinal replied on the 18th that Cardinal Spinola had the worst things to say about Durazzo who (he said) was filled with the "mal francese". Cardinal de Medici claimed, however, that he had twenty votes besides the Germans to exclude Durazzo. (Petruccelli, 419-420). The Grand Duke told him to tell Janson (the French leader) that he would support the candidates desired by the King: Spada, Morigia and Sperelli. Durazzo was being aided with money provided by Vienna through the Duke of Modena and Cardinal D'Adda
The creature of Clement X (Altieri) were represented: Carpegna, Nerla, Orsini, Marescotti, and Spada, but Cardinal Lorenzo Altieri was not a sufficiently strong character as to be a leader and form a faction, and in any case Spada was associated with the Zelanti.
The creature of Alexander VIII (Ottoboni, a Venetian) were more strongly organized, behind Cardinal Pietro Ottoboni. They included Cardinals Panciatici, Pantelmi, Costaguti, Bichi, Imperiali (who considered himself one of the Zelanti), Omodei, Albani, Barberini and Altieri. Omodei and Ottoboni seem, however, to have had a personal enmity, and therefore his vote would depend on what was being asked of him.
Early Favorites and a Veto
Cardinal Galeazzo Marescotti was an early favorite, despite his age (73). He was a Roman, and was highly experienced in papal government. He was highly regarded and influential among the Curial Congregations (Cardella, VII, 230-231). But the French faction, who remembered that he had been Nuncio in Spain, successfully blocked him with a Veto (exclusiva). When Marescotti had been Nuncio in Poland (1668-1670) he had (according to Louis XIV, or rather Madame de Maintenon) worked against the interests of France, favoring the cause of the Duke of Lorraine for the Polish throne, and then the (successful) bid of John Sobieski. The French expected that he would favor the Spanish. The Venetians were not favorable to his candidacy either.
Other 'soggeti papabili' were Cardinals Bandino Panciatici, Leandro Colloredo and Giambattista Spinola (who came within ten votes of success).
View of the Conclave, with the stove for burning ballots in the corner
Histoire des conclaves 3rd ed. (1703)
Election of Cardinal Albani
On the day that the news of the death (November 1) of King Charles II of Spain reached the conclave, the cardinals settled down and unanimously elected Giovanni Francesco Cardinal Albani, the influential advisor of Alexander VIII and Innocent XII. At his desperate request, Albani was given three days to consider his response. At the end of the grace period, another vote was taken. Of the 58 cardinals, he had received 57 votes. Finally, on November 23, Cardinal Albani consented to his election, taking the name Clement XI. On the same day (or on the 30th, according to Moroni; and Cancellieri, Storia de solenni Possessi, 325) he was consecrated a bishop, having only become a priest in September.
The coronation took place on December 8. On Sunday, April 8, 1701, the new pope took possession of the Lateran Basilica. Cardinal Pamfili, the Archpriest of the Lateran Basilica, presided.
See: Conjectures politiques sur le Conclave de MDCC & sur ce qui s'est passé à Rome pendant la maladie, et aprés la mort du Pape Innocent XII. pour l' election d' un successeur (A Parme: Chez Innocent Treize, MDCC). Neu-eröffnetes Conclave, in welchem eine kurze historische Nachricht von dem Leben und Absterben Pabsts Clementis XI. (Leipzig: Augustus Martini 1721) 6-12. Picot, Mémoires pour servir a l'histoire ecclésiastique, pendant le dix-huitième siècle seconde édition Tome I (Paris 1815) xxxvi-xl.
Petrus Polidori, de vita et rebus gestis Clementis undecimi pontificis maximi Libri sex (Urbini 1727), pp. 43-48.
Lorenzo Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa Tomo Settimo (Roma 1793); Tomo Ottavo (Roma 1794).
Giuseppe de Novaes, Elementi della storia de' Sommi Pontefici Volume 12 (Roma 1822), 9-13. G. Moroni, Dizionario di erudizione storico-ecclesiastica Vol. XIV (Venezia 1842) 60-61. Alexis François Artaud de Montor, Histoire des souverains Pontifes Romains, Volume VI (Paris 1851), pp. 239-242. Francesco Petruccelli della Gattina, Histoire diplomatique des conclaves Volume III (Paris 1865) 411-458. Ludwig Wahrmund, Das Ausschliessungs-recht (jus exclusivae) (Wien 1888) 178-184. P. Blet, "Louis XIV et le Saint Siège," XVIIe Siècle, no. 123 (1979), pp. 137—154.
Giovan Mario Crescimbeni, Le vite degli Arcadi illustri Parte prima (Roma: Antonio de' Rossi 1708); Parte Seconda (1710); Parte Terza (1714); Parte Quarta (1727); Parte Quinta (1750). [Ludovico Antonio Muratori was also an Arcadian, under the name of Leucoto Gateate]
Camillo Contarini, Istoria della guerra di Leopoldo I Imperadore e de' Principi collegati contro il Turco, dall' anno 1683. fino al Pace Parte seconda (Venezia: Hertz e Bortoli 1750).