Obv.: NON • VOS • RELINQUAM • ORPHANOS
(in exergue:) ANNO | IVBIL
The Holy Spirit, in clouds, surrounded by rays. (in exergue:) Episcopal Coat-of-Arms
SEDE • VACA NTE • MDCC
Arms of Giovanni Battista Card. Spinola, Chamberlain of the Holy Roman Church (1698-1719), crossed keys behind, surmounted by the Ombrellone
Berman, p. 162 #2330.
SEDE • V ACANTE
Shield with the Borghese coat of arms, surmounted by clerical hat, with six tassels on each side (signifying episcopal status)
Ornamental shield, with inscription:
PAVLVS | BVRGHESIVS | CONCLAVIS | GVBERNATOR | 1700
|"L' origine de tant de médailles remonte à l'époque où le conclave se tenait toujours au palais du Vatican, et où l'on interdisait à tout le monde, pendant tout le temps de sa durée, l'entrée de la cité Léonine, c'est-à-dire du quartier appelé le Borgo. Alors tous ceux qui, soit pour leurs affaires, soit pour tout autre motif, devaient se rendre dans ce quartier du Borgo, étaient arretés en tête du pont Saint-Ange ou de tout autre pont communiquant avec le Vatican; on ne laissait passer que ceux qui étaient porteurs d'une médaille expressément frappée pendant la vacance du siége au nom de l'un des personnages nommés ci-dessus."
X. Barbier de Montault, Le Conclave (Roma 1878) 19.
GIAMBATTISTA CARDINAL SPINOLA, iuniore (1646–1719) was the nephew of Giulio Card. Spinola and Giambattista Card. Spinola, seniore. He was Governor of Rome and Vice-Chamberlain of the Holy Roman Church between July 28, 1691 and December 12, 1695, when he was created Cardinal Deacon of S. Cesareo in Palatio. He became Camerlengo of the Holy Roman Church on November 24, 1698, and held the office until his death on March 19, 1719.
The Dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals was François de la Tour-d'Auvergne .(d. 1715), who, at the time, was in disfavor with Louis XIV. His benefices had been confiscated along with his private fortune, and he was, in fact, living in exile in Rome (Picot, xxxvi).
The Marshal of the Conclave was Prince Giulio Savelli (1626-1712), the second son of Prince Bernardino Savelli, Prince of Albano (1606-1658) and Felice Peretti, the heiress of Pope Sixtus V. He married Caterina Aldobrandini, daughter of Pietro Aldobrandini, Duke of Carpentino, and then Caterina Giustiniani. The family were perpetually in financial difficulties: in 1596 they sold Castel Gandolfo to the pope, and in 1650 the duchy of Albano. He succeeded his father as Marshal of the Holy Roman Church in 1658. He had one son, who predeceased him. On his death in 1712, the office of Hereditary Marshal of the Roman Church was conferred on the Chigi Family. Prince Giulio Savellio left a manuscript Conclave Diary; it is in the Chigi archives.
DON PAOLO BORGHESE (1663–1701) was the second son of Giovanni Battista Borghese, Principe Borghese and Principe di Sulmona, and Donna Eleonora Boncompagni, daughter of the Duke of Sora; his elder brother, Don Marcantonio, succeeded to the titles in 1717. Don Paolo was Governor of the Conclave of 1700.
The first Master of Ceremonies was Pietro Sante de Fantibus, Abbot of S. Felice e Adaucti (Fermo).
Pope Innocent XII (Pignatelli) died on September 27, 1700, at the worst possible time for Europe. The impending Spanish succession was promising to embroil France, Spain, the Empire and many others in a bloody struggle. Innocent had finally pronounced in favor of Philippe de Bourbon, Duke of Anjou, grandson of Louis XIV. This was contrary to the interests of the Empire, whose candidate, the Archduke Charles of Austria (Emperor Charles VI, 1711-1740), would by no means give way. Trouble had already broken out in the Duchy of Milan (a Spanish possession) in March, 1700, between French and Spanish forces on the one hand, and Imperial forces, led by Prince Eugene, on the other. The mediation of a strong pope would be useful; the struggle to obtain a compliant pope would produce great difficulties. The Conclave of 1700 began on October 9, and lasted a total of 46 days.
There were sixty -six cardinals at the time of the death of Pope Innocent XII. Cardinal Federico Sforza, Bishop of Ostia and Velletri and Cardinal Dean of the Sacred College, had died on July 22, 1700. A list of the Cardinals and their Conclavists is attached to the motu proprio Nos Volentes, of December 8, 1700 [Bullarium Romanum Turin edition 21 (1871), pp. 1-4]. A list is given by the anonymous author of the pamphlet Conjectures politiques sur le Conclave de MDCC at pp. 38-41 [drawn up before the deaths of Cardinals Cibo (July 22, 1700), Maidalchini (June 10, 1700)], and Aguillara (September 19, 1699)]. Of the sixty-six cardinals, fifty-seven took part. Three Spanish cardinals, the Portuguese cardinal, two Imperial cardinals, two Italian cardinals, and the Polish cardinal, Radziejowski (nephew of King John Sobieski), were absent.
Popes Innocent XI (Odescalchi of Milan) and Innocent XII (Pignatelli of Naples) did not engage in nepotism, and consequently there was no obvious claimant to leadership among their creature. This gave those cardinals an opportunity to redistribute themselves according to their own wishes and needs.
The French faction was composed of seven Cardinals: César d'Estrées, Pierre de Bonzi (who was a Florentine, and who, in the event, did not attend the Conclave), Etienne Le Camus (who claimed to belong to the Zelanti ), Toussaint de Forbin-Janson (strongly anti-Jansenist and pro-Jesuit) [portrait at right], Henri d'Arquien, Pierre-Armand de Coislin, and Louis-Antoine de Noailles (Conjectures politiques, 43). Bouillion, the Dean of the Sacred College, might once have been considered its leader, but he was, in fact, a doubtful adherent, considering the way he had been treated by Louis XIV (Conjectures politiques, 48). The leader of the faction, therefore, was d'Estrées, who had experience with conclaves and who carried "the King's secret".
The Spanish faction was led by Cardinal Francesco de' Medici, assisted by Cardinal del Giudice. The other members were Cardinals Portocarrero (who did not attend), Kollonitsch (who likewise did not attend), Salazar (also absent), Vincenzo Grimani, Johannes Philip von Lamberg, and Francisco Antonio de Borja-Centelles (who also did not attend). The practical strength of the faction in votes was four. They could usually count, however, on votes from the Milanese and Neapolitans.
Venice, of course, could claim a number of cardinals in her territory, whom the Signoria expected to vote in Venice's interest: Ottoboni, Barbarigo, Colloredo, Cornaro, Delfino, Grimani, Noris and Rubini. The speculation was that they might unite behind Cardinal Ottoboni and form a formidable faction. Genoa, always in competition with Venice, could boast of five cardinals, Giambattista Spinola senior, Giambattista Spinola iunior, Giovanni Francesco Negroni, Marcello Durazzo, and Giuseppe Renato Imperiali. In any event, the Venetians were usually more friendly to France than to Spain. The Spanish in Milan were too close and too strong for the comfort of the Signoria. Cardinal de' Medici had heard from the Spanish Ambassador, the Duke d' Uzeda, in fact, that although the Venetian Ambassador publicly granted its cardinals freedom of action, in private Venice was demanding of its cardinals that they elect a pope who would stand for Italian liberty, and to that end they were working with the French to frustrate the Spanish (Petruccelli, 421).
The Duke of Savoy, who was one of the pretenders to the Spanish throne, attempted to keep a low profile in the pre-conclave maneuvers. On October 5, however, his minister in Rome, Count Maurizio Graneri, wrote to him, "We would like to give the exclusiva to Panciatini." Savoy, however, did not have the acknowledged privilege of casting a veto. That belonged solely to the Emperor and the Kings of France and Spain. The Duke's contact inside the Conclave was Cardinal Carlo Barberini, who was favoring Cardinal Albani (dispatch of del Bene to the Grand Duke of Tuscany, Cosimo III, October 9: Petruccelli, 419).
Cosimo III had been ruling Florence and the Grand Duchy of Tuscany since 1670. He had been influential in earlier conclaves, but he was coming more and more under the influence of religious attitudes and was less interested in pursuing Machiavellian designs. He had given his initial instructions to his brother, Cardinal Francesco Maria de'Medici. It was said that as soon as the Conclave was over, the Cardinal was going to resign so that he could marry and perpetuate the Medici line. Cosimo wrote to him on the 15th of October that the French were putting pressure on him to support Cardinal Durazzo [portrait at left] and offering to veto anybody that Cosimo did not like; he asked his brother for information about Durazzo, and the Cardinal replied on the 18th that Cardinal Spinola had the worst things to say about Durazzo who (he said) was filled with the "mal francese". Cardinal de Medici claimed, however, that he had twenty votes besides the Germans to exclude Durazzo. (Petruccelli, 419-420). The Grand Duke told him to tell Janson (the French leader) that he would support the candidates desired by the King: Spada, Morigia and Sperelli. Durazzo was being aided with money provided by Vienna through the Duke of Modena and Cardinal D'Adda
The creature of Clement X (Altieri) were represented: Carpegna, Nerla, Orsini, Marescotti, and Spada, but Cardinal Lorenzo Altieri was not a sufficiently strong character as to be a leader and form a faction, and in any case Spada was associated with the Zelanti.
The creature of Alexander VIII (Ottoboni, a Venetian) were more strongly organized, behind Cardinal Pietro Ottoboni. They included Cardinals Panciatici, Pantelmi, Costaguti, Bichi, Imperiali (who considered himself one of the Zelanti), Omodei, Albani, Barberini and Altieri. Omodei and Ottoboni seem, however, to have had a personal enmity, and therefore his vote would depend on what was being asked of him.
Cardinal Galeazzo Marescotti was an early favorite, despite his age (73). He was a Roman, and was highly experienced in papal government. He was highly regarded and influential among the Curial Congregations (Cardella, VII, 230-231). But the French faction, who remembered that he had been Nuncio in Spain, successfully blocked him with a Veto (exclusiva). When Marescotti had been Nuncio in Poland (1668-1670) he had (according to Louis XIV, or rather Madame de Maintenon) worked against the interests of France, favoring the cause of the Duke of Lorraine for the Polish throne, and then the (successful) bid of John Sobieski. The French expected that he would favor the Spanish. The Venetians were not favorable to his candidacy either.
Other 'soggeti papabili' were Cardinals Bandino Panciatici, Leandro Colloredo and Giambattista Spinola (who came within ten votes of success).
On the day that the news of the death (November 1) of King Charles II of Spain reached the conclave, the cardinals settled down and unanimously elected Giovanni Francesco Cardinal Albani, the influential advisor of Alexander VIII and Innocent XII. At his desperate request, Albani was given three days to consider his response. At the end of the grace period, another vote was taken. Of the 58 cardinals, he had received 57 votes. Finally, on November 23, Cardinal Albani consented to his election, taking the name Clement XI. On the same day (or on the 30th, according to Moroni) he was consecrated a bishop, having only become a priest in September.
The coronation took place on December 8. On Sunday, April 8, 1701, the new pope took possession of the Lateran Basilica.
See: Conjectures politiques sur le Conclave de MDCC & sur ce qui s'est passé à Rome pendant la maladie, et aprés la mort du Pape Innocent XII. pour l' election d' un successeur (A Parme: Chez Innocent Treize, MDCC). Neu-eröffnetes Conclave, in welchem eine kurze historische Nachricht von dem Leben und Absterben Pabsts Clementis XI. (Leipzig: Augustus Martini 1721) 6-12. Picot, Mémoires pour servir a l'histoire ecclésiastique, pendant le dix-huitième siècle seconde édition Tome I (Paris 1815) xxxvi-xl.
Petrus Polidori, de vita et rebus gestis Clementis undecimi pontificis maximi Libri sex (Urbini 1727), pp. 43-48.
Lorenzo Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa Tomo Settimo (Roma 1793); Tomo Ottavo (Roma 1794).
Giuseppe de Novaes, Elementi della storia de' Sommi Pontefici Volume 12 (Roma 1822), 9-13. G. Moroni, Dizionario di erudizione storico-ecclesiastica Vol. XIV (Venezia 1842) 60-61. Alexis François Artaud de Montor, Histoire des souverains Pontifes Romains, Volume VI (Paris 1851), pp. 239-242. Francesco Petruccelli della Gattina, Histoire diplomatique des conclaves Volume III (Paris 1865) 411-458. Ludwig Wahrmund, Das Ausschliessungs-recht (jus exclusivae) (Wien 1888) 178-184.
© 2008 John Paul Adams, CSUN