SEDE VACANTE 1700
(September 27, 1700—November 23, 1700)
NON • VOS • RELINQUAM • ORPHANOS
["I shall not leave you orphans"]
(in exergue:) ANNO | IVBIL
The Holy Spirit, in clouds, surrounded by rays.
(in exergue:) Episcopal Coat-of-Arms
SEDE • VACA NTE • MDCC
Arms of Giovanni Battista Card. Spinola, Chamberlain of the Holy Roman Church (1698-1719), crossed keys behind, surmounted by the Ombrellone
Berman, p. 162 #2330.
GIAMBATTISTA CARDINAL SPINOLA, iuniore (1646–1719) was the nephew of Giulio Card. Spinola and Giambattista Card. Spinola, seniore. He was Governor of Rome and Vice-Chamberlain of the Holy Roman Church between July 28, 1691 and December 12, 1695, when he was created Cardinal Deacon of S. Cesareo in Palatio. He became Camerlengo of the Holy Roman Church on November 24, 1698, and held the office until his death on March 19, 1719.
The Dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals was François de la Tour-d'Auvergne .(d. 1715), who, at the time, was in disfavor with Louis XIV. His benefices had been confiscated along with his private fortune, and he was, in fact, living in exile in Rome (Picot, xxxvi).
The Marshal of the Conclave was Prince Giulio Savelli (1626-1712), the second son of Prince Bernardino Savelli, Prince of Albano (1606-1658) and Felice Peretti, the heiress of Pope Sixtus V. He married Caterina Aldobrandini, daughter of Pietro Aldobrandini, Duke of Carpentino, and then Caterina Giustiniani. The family were perpetually in financial difficulties: in 1596 they sold Castel Gandolfo to the pope, and in 1650 the duchy of Albano. He succeeded his father as Marshal of the Holy Roman Church in 1658. He had one son, who predeceased him. On his death in 1712, the office of Hereditary Marshal of the Roman Church was conferred on the Chigi Family. Prince Giulio Savellio left a manuscript Conclave Diary; it is in the Chigi archives.
PAOLO BORGHESE (1663–1701) was the second son of Giovanni Battista Borghese, Principe Borghese and Principe di Sulmona, and Donna Eleonora Boncompagni, daughter of the Duke of Sora; his elder brother, Don Marcantonio, succeeded to the titles in 1717. Doctor in utroque iure. Cleric of the Apostolic Camera (Alexander VIII). Presidente delle strade in the Apostolic Camera (Innocent XII). Msgr. Borghese was Governor of the Conclave of 1700, appointed by the College of Cardinals on Wednesday morning, September 29, 1700. He died on August 25, 1701, of a malignant fever. He was buried in the Cappella Paolina (Cappella Borghese) in S. Maria Maggiore [His biography: Giovanni Mario Crescimbeni, Notizie istoriche degli Arcadi morti Tomo II (Roma 1720), 329-330. He had been a member of the Arcadi since July 20, 1691]
SEDE • V ACANTE
Shield with the Borghese coat of arms, surmounted by clerical hat, with six tassels on each side (signifying episcopal status)
Ornamental shield, with inscription:
PAVLVS | BVRGHESIVS | CONCLAVIS | GVBERNATOR | 1700
|"L' origine de tant de médailles remonte à l'époque où le conclave se tenait toujours au palais du Vatican, et où l'on interdisait à tout le monde, pendant tout le temps de sa durée, l'entrée de la cité Léonine, c'est-à-dire du quartier appelé le Borgo. Alors tous ceux qui, soit pour leurs affaires, soit pour tout autre motif, devaient se rendre dans ce quartier du Borgo, étaient arretés en tête du pont Saint-Ange ou de tout autre pont communiquant avec le Vatican; on ne laissait passer que ceux qui étaient porteurs d'une médaille expressément frappée pendant la vacance du siége au nom de l'un des personnages nommés ci-dessus."
X. Barbier de Montault, Le Conclave (Roma 1878), 19.
The first Master of Ceremonies was Pietro Sante de Fantibus, Abbot of S. Felice e Adaucti (Fermo). He was assisted by Candido Cassina, Canon of S. Maria in Trastevere; Giustiniano Chiapponi, perpetuus beneficiatus of the Vatican Basilica; Bernardino Porto, perpetuus beneficiatus of the Lateran Basilica; Pietro Orlando, Canon of S. Maria in Trastevere; and Leo Battelli, perpetuus beneficiatus of the Lateran Basilica [Bullarium Romanum Turin edition 21 (1871), p. 1].
Death of Pope Innocent
Pope Innocent XII (Pignatelli) died on September 27, 1700, at the age of 85, and after a reign of nine years, two months, and fifteen days. He had been attended by the physician Luca Tozzi, Chamberlain de numero participantium and holder of the First Chair of Medicine at the Sapienza [Prosper Mandozius, Theatron, in Marini, Degli archiatri pontifici II, 98-101; G. M. Crescimbeni, Notizie istoriche degli Arcadi morti I (Roma 1720), 243-247]. He had made his general confession to the Apostolic Preacher, the Capuchin Casini.
It was the worst possible time for Europe. The impending Spanish succession was promising to embroil France, Spain, the Empire and many others in a bloody struggle. Innocent had finally pronounced in favor of Philippe de Bourbon, Duke of Anjou, grandson of Louis XIV. This was contrary to the interests of the Empire, whose candidate, the Archduke Charles of Austria (Emperor Charles VI, 1711-1740), would by no means give way. Trouble had already broken out in the Duchy of Milan (a Spanish possession) in March, 1700, between French and Spanish forces on the one hand, and Imperial forces, led by Prince Eugene, on the other. The mediation of a strong pope would be useful; the struggle to obtain a compliant pope would produce great difficulties. The Conclave of 1700 began on October 9, and lasted a total of 46 days.
At the same time, the Emperor was engaged in the liberation of the Balkans from the Turkish menace, and attempting to bring the war to a successful diplomatic conclusion. Or so he said. His ambition was to conquer Hungary. The last insurrection of Rakoczy was still in the future [Contarini, Istoria della guerra di Leopoldo I. Libro decimosesto, 734-742].
The College of Cardinals
There were sixty -six cardinals at the time of the death of Pope Innocent XII. Cardinal Alderano Cibo, Bishop of Ostia and Velletri and Cardinal Dean of the Sacred College, had just died, on July 22, 1700 [V. Forcella, Inscrizioni delle chiese di Roma I, p. 394, no. 1504], and no one had yet opted for the vacant See of Ostia. A list of the Cardinals and their Conclavists is attached to the motu proprio Nos Volentes, of December 8, 1700 [Bullarium Romanum Turin edition 21 (1871), pp. 1-4]. A list is given by the anonymous author of the pamphlet Conjectures politiques sur le Conclave de MDCC at pp. 38-41 [drawn up before the deaths of Cardinals Cibo (July 22, 1700), Maidalchini (June 10, 1700)], and Aguillara (September 19, 1699)]. Of the sixty-six cardinals, fifty-seven took part. Three Spanish cardinals, the Portuguese cardinal, two Imperial cardinals, two Italian cardinals, and the Polish cardinal, Radziejowski (nephew of the King of Poland), were absent.
- Emanuel de la Tour d'Auvergne de Bouillon (aged 57), Suburbicarian Bishop of Porto e Santa Rufina, Vice-Dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals (1698-December 5, 1700). Abbot of Cluny (1683-1715) (died March 2, 1715) [Michaud, Louis XIV et Innocent XI III, 147-151].
- Niccolò Acciaioli (aged 70), Suburbicarian Bishop of Frascati (1693-December 5, 1700). (died February 23, 1719).
- Gaspare Carpegna (aged 75), Suburbicarian Bishop of Sabina (1698-1715) Vicar-General of Rome (1671-1714) (died April 6, 1714).
- César d'Estrées (aged 72), son of François-Annibale, Duc d'Estrées, Marshal of France; and Marie de Bethune-Selles. [Born in Rome, son of the then Ambassador Extraordinary of France before the Holy See]. Member of the Academie Française (1657). Bishop of Laon (1653-1681), consecrated in September, 1655; he resigned the see to his nephew, when he was appointed Chargé d'affaires by Louis XIV to go to Rome to negotiate about the regalia. He succeeded his brother as Ambassador to the Pope in 1687. He returned to France in 1692, leaving the Cardinal de Bouillon as Chargé d'affaires. Suburbicarian Bishop of Albano (1698-1714). He journeyed to Rome again at the beginning of 1700 [Gallia christiana 9 (1751), 557-558]. (died December 18, 1714).
- Carlo Barberini (aged 70), Cardinal Priest of S. Lorenzo in Lucina. Grand-nephew of Urban VIII. Nephew of Cardinal Francesco Barberini and Cardinal Antonio Barberini. Prefect of the SC de propaganda fide (1698-1704). He died October 2, 1704, at which time he was Archpriest of S. Peter's Basilica [V. Forcella, Inscrizioni delle chiese di Roma VI, p. 165-166 nos. 611; VIII, p. 272, no. 686].
- Vincenzo Maria Orsini de Gravina (aged 51), eldest son of Ferdinando Orsini, tenth Duke of Gravina; and Giovanna Frangipani. Cardinal Priest of S. Sisto (1672-1701). Archbishop of Benevento (1686-1730). [Pope Benedict XIII (1724-1730)]
- Francesco Nerli (aged 64) [Florentinus], son of Pietro Nerli and Costanza Magalotti [engraved portrait at right]. Cardinal-Priest of S. Matteo in Merulana (1673-1704). He had studied philosophy in Rome, and Civil and Canon Law in Siena, and received his Doctorate in Pisa. In 1638 Alexander VII made him a Referendary and one of the Abbreviatores de parco maiori in the Apostolic Camera. In 1666 he was named vice-Legate in Bologna. Clement IX made him a voting member of the Apostolic Segnatura. Clement X made him a Canon of the Vatican Basilica. Archbishop of Florence (1670-1682), and Nuncio to Vienna and Poland. Nuncio in France (1672-1673). He was named cardinal on June 13, 1673, and presented with the red biretta by Empress Maria Theresia. He was Secretary of State of Pope Clement X (1673-1676). Bishop of Assisi (1685-1689). Clement XI appointed him secretary of Briefs to Princes.
Archpriest of the Vatican Basilica (1704-1708). He died on April 8, 1708; his heart was placed in the Chapel of Relics in the Sacristy of S. Peter's; his body was entombed in S. Matteo in Merulana [V. Forcella, Inscrizioni delle chiese di Roma 6, p. 167, no. 615-617; His funeral inscription is in S. Matteo in Merulana [V. Forcella, Inscrizioni delle chiese di Roma 10, p. 455 no. 739].
- Galeazzo Marescotti (aged 73) [Romanus], Cardinal Priest of S. Prassede (1700-1708). Pro-Camerlengo (1697-1698) Nuncio to Spain (1670-1675). Nuncio to Poland (1668-1670). Titular Archbishop of Corinth (1668-1675). Doctor in utroque iure. [named Prefect of the Holy Inquisition (1700-1716) by the new Pope Clement XI]. He died on July 3, 1726, and was buried in the Gesù. [V. Forcella, Inscrizioni delle chiese di Roma 10, p. 486 no. 813]
- Fabrizio Spada (aged 57), Cardinal Priest of S. Crisogono (1689-1708). Legate in Urbino. Nuncio to France (1674-1676). Doctor in utroque iure, Pavia. Secretary of State of Innocent XII (1691-1700). He died on June 15, 1717, and was interred in S. Maria in Vallicella [V. Forcella Inscrizione delle chiese di Roma 4, p. 171, no. 421].
- Giambattista Spinola (aged 85), Cardinal Priest of S. Maria in Trastevere (1698-1704). Archbishop of Genoa (1664-1681). Doctor in utroque iure. He had been Governor of Rome for sixteen years. He died on January 4, 1704, at the age of 88. His funeral inscription is in S. Salvatore delle Coppelle [V. Forcella, Inscrizioni delle chiese di Roma VIII, p. 505 no. 1173].
- Savo Millini (aged 56) [Romanus], Cardinal Priest of S. Pietro in Vincoli (1689-1701). Bishop of Nepi e Sutri (1694-1701). Bishop of Orvieto (1681-1694). Nuncio to Spain (1675-1681) and titular Archbishop of Caesarea Marittima (1675-1681). Doctor in utroque iure, Rome (La Sapienza). He died on February 10, 1701, and was buried in S. Maria del Popolo [V. Forcella, Inscrizioni delle chiese di Roma 1, p. 394 no. 1503].
- Marcello Durazzo (aged 67) [Genoa], son of Cesare Durazzo, Doge of Genoa, grandson of Pietro, Doge of Genoa, great-grandson of Jacobus, Doge of Genoa. Cardinal Priest of S. Prisca (1689-1701). Doctor in utroque iure, Perugia. Protonotary Apostolic de numero participantium. Pro-Legate in Bologna, under Cardinal Carafa. Governor of Fano, then Ancona, then Viterbo, the Perugia. Apostolic Visitor and Governor of Loreto (1672) Pro-Legate in Avignon (1672-1673). Apostolic Nuncio to Portugal, for which office he was made titular bishop of Chalcedon; he served there for twelve years. He was offered the Bishopric of Elvora by the King, but he refused. In 1685 he was reassigned as Nuncio to Spain. He was named cardinal in 1686, and granted the Bishopric of Carpentras (1688-1691). He returned to Rome for the Conclave of 1689, but arrived too late to participate. He was then named Bishop of Spoleto by Innocent XII, and then granted the Legateship of Bologna for five years (1695). Archbishop-Bishop of Faenza (1697-1710) [Ughelli-Colet, Italia sacra 2, 513]. (died at Faenza on April 27, 1710).
- Marcantonio Barbarigo (aged 60) [born in Venice, of a senatorial family; a relative of S. Gregory Barbadigo], Cardinal Priest of S. Marco (1697-1706), and before that of S. Susanna (1686-1697). Canon of Pavia, appointed by Bishop Gregory Barbadigo. Bishop of Corfu in 1678, where he entered into a contest for power with Admiral Barbone Morosini; his appeals both to Venice and to Pope Innocent XI were ignored. Bishop of Montefiascone e Corneto (July 7, 1687—May 26, 1706) [Ughelli-Colet I, 990]. Doctor in utroque iure, Padua. (died May 26, 1706)
- Etienne Le Camus (aged 68) [Poitiers], Cardinal Priest of S. Maria degli Angeli (1691-1707). Doctor of Theology, Paris (Sorbonne). Almoner to the King of France. Bishop of Grenoble (1671-1707) [Gallia christiana 16, 256-257]. He opposed the Gallican Articles in 1682, bringing upon himself the enmity of Louis XIV. But, in consideration of his defense of the rights of the Church and the Papacy, Innocent XI named him cardinal in 1686— but without consulting Louis XIV [Michaud, Louis XIV et Innocent XI III, pp. 124-125; Cardella VII, 280]. He was appointed to the Congregations of Bishops and Regulars, the Council, and the Propaganda. (died September 12, 1707).
- Pier Matteo Petrucci, Orat.(aged 64), Cardinal Priest of S. Marcello (1687-1701) (died July 5, 1701). Doctor in utroque iure, Macerata.
- Leandro Colloredo, Orat.(aged 61) [born in the Castel de Colloredo, in the diocese of Gorizio in Friuli], Cardinal Priest of SS. Nereo ed Achilleo. Major Penitentiary (1688-1709). He had earlier been Examiner of Bishops, Consultor of the Holy Office. He died on January 11, 1709 and was buried at S. Maria in Vallicella [V. Forcella Inscrizione delle chiese di Roma 4, p. 169, no. 413].
- Giovanni Francesco Negroni (aged 70), Cardinal Priest of S. Maria in Ara Coeli (died January 1, 1713). legate in Bologna.
- Bandino Panciatici (aged 71), Cardinal Priest of S. Pancrazio (died April 21, 1718). Relative of Clement IX. Pro-Datary of Innocent XI. Doctor in law, Pisa. Under the authority of Pope Innocent XII, he opened the Holy Door at S. Paolo fuori le mura for the Jubilee of 1700 [V. Forcella, Inscrizioni delle chiese di Roma XII, p. 20, no. 34].
- Giacomo Cantelmo Stuardo (aged 55), son of Fabrizio Duca di Populo; related to James II of England. Cardinal Priest of SS. Marcellino e Pietro (died December 11, 1702). Archbishop of Naples (1691-1702) [Ughelli-Colet Italia sacra 6, 202-209].
- Ferdinando d'Adda (aged 50), Cardinal Priest of S. Balbina (died January 27, 1719) Legate in Bologna, appointed on November 1, 1698 [Capello, Studi e documenti 14 (1893), 180]. Degree in law, Bologna.
- Toussaint de Forbin-Janson (69), Cardinal Priest of S. Callisto (1690-1713) (died March 24, 1713). Bishop of Beauvais. A supporter of the Gallican Articles of 1682. Former French Ambassador in Poland, where he helped procure the election of King John Sobieski. Appointed cardinal in 1690 after fourteen years of papal refusals of nominations of both Louis XIV and John Sobieski [Michaud, Louis XIV et Innocent XI III, pp. 94-134]. French Ambassador at Rome. Member of the Order of the Holy Spirit.
- Giovanni Battista Rubini (aged 58) [Venetus], Cardinal Priest of S. Lorenzo in Panisperna. Grandnephew of Pope Alexander VIII (Ottoboni). Doctor in utroque iure, Padua. Secretary (a secretis) of Alexander VIII. Bishop of Vincenza (1684-1702) [Ughelli-Colet V, 1071]. Legate in Urbino (1684-1700). He died on February 17, 1707. His memorial inscription is in S. Marco [V. Forcella, Inscrizioni delle chiese di Roma IV, p. 361 no. 858].
- Francesco del Giudice (aged 52) [Neapolitanus], of the Dukes of Giovennazo and Princes of Cellamare. Cardinal Priest of S. Sabina (only since March 30, 1700). Previously Cardinal Priest of S. Maria del Popolo (1690-1700) . He had started his ecclesiastical career as Protonotary Apostolic. Vice-Legate of Bologna. Governor of Fano. Cleric of the Apostolic Camera. President of the Annona in the Apostolic Camera. Made cardinal on the recommendation of Carlos II, King of Spain, by Pope Alexander VIII in 1690. [Eggs, Supplementum novum Purpurae Doctae (Augustae Vindelicorum 1729), 614-616]. As cardinal he was Secretary of the SC of the Holy Office. Protector of Spain before the Holy See. (died October 10, 1725).
- Giovanni Battista Costaguti (aged 64), Cardinal Priest of S. Anastasia (died March 8, 1704).
- Giovanni Francesco Albani (aged 51), Cardinal Priest of S. Silvestro in Capite (died March 19, 1721) Doctor in utroque iure, Urbino. Named a Canon of S. Lorenzo in Damaso at the age of twenty-one. Entered the Curia at the age of twenty-eight and named Referendarius utriusque Signaturae. He was also made a Consultor at the Consistorial Congregation. He was then appointed governor of Reate; next Sabina, and finally Orvieto. He returned to Rome to become Vicar to Cardinal Carlo Barberini, Archpriest of the Vatican Basilica. On the death of Cardinal Johann Walter Sluse (July 7, 1687), Albani was named Secretary of Apostolic Briefs (brevi segreti); Alexander VIII continued the appointment. He was named Cardinal Deacon of S. Adriano in February, 1690, and named a member of no less than eight Sacred Congregations. He was deeply involved as a papal advisor in the disputes that arose with Louis XIV over the Gallican Articles and the regalian rights.
- Giacomo Antonio Morigia, (aged 67), CRSP (Barnabites). Cardinal Priest of S. Cecilia (1699-1708). Bishop of S. Miniato (1681-1683), ordered to accept by Innocent XI, as an act of obedience. Archbishop of Florence (1683-1699), appointed at the recommendation of the Grand Duke of Tuscany, Cosimo III. Archpriest of the Liberian Basilica (S. Maria Maggiore) (1697-1708) [V. Forcella, Inscrizioni delle chiese di Roma XI, p. 85 no. 165]. Innocent XII is said to have hoped that Morigia would be his successor [Guarnacci I, 408]. In 1701 the new Pope, Clement XI, appointed him Bishop of Pavia [Ticinum] (1701-1708) [Gams, 801]. (died October 8, 1708).
- Sebastiano Antonio Tanara (aged 50) [Bononiensis], son of Giovanni Niccolo Tanara, Marchese della Serra and Senator of Bologna, and Laurentia Ghislieri. Nephew of Cardinal Gaspare Carpegna, the Vicar-General of Rome. Cardinal Priest of Ss. Quattro Coronati (1696-1715). Doctor in utroque iure, Bologna. He began his career on the staff of Nunciatures in Paris, the Netherlands, Britain and Germany. Clement X appointed him a Protonotary Apostolic de numero participantium. In 1675 he was sent as Internuncio to Bruxelles. He secretly negotiated with James II of England, in his repudiation of the Church of England and admission into the Catholic Church. In 1687 Innocent XI named him Nuncio in Cologne. Alexander VIII sent him as Nuncio to Portugal. Innocent XII sent him as Nuncio to Portugal (1690-1692), and then Nuncio to Vienna (1692-1695). He became a cardinal in 1695, and was given the Abbey of Nonantola (1695-1724) (of which he actually performed a visitation three times, in 1709, 1712, and 1722). He died on May 5, 1724, and was buried at S. Maria della Vittoria [V. Forcella, Inscrizioni delle chiese di Roma IX, p. 69, no. 136 and p. 70 no. 138].
- Giacomo Boncompagni (aged 48) [Sora, his family's feudal property], son of Ugo, Duca di Sora, and Maria Ruffo, daughter of the Duke of Bagnara. He was a great-great grandnephew (atnepos) of Pope Gregory XIII, grand-nephew of Cardinal Francesco Boncompagni, and nephew of Cardinal Gerolamo Boncompagni (who was Archbishop of Bologna, 1651-1684). Cardinal Priest of S. Maria in Via (1696-1724). Doctor in utroque iure, Rome (La Sapienza). He was appointed to the governorate of Orvieto by Innocent XI. Alexander VIII made him vice-Governor of Fermo. Archbishop of Bologna (1690-1731). He was appointed Legatus a latere by Innocent XII to preside over the marriage of Joseph, King of the Romans, and Wilhelmina Amalia of Brunswick (died March 24, 1731, as Bishop of Albano).
- Taddeo Luigi del Verme (aged 59) [Piacenza], son of Giacomo del Verme and Octavia Lupi, Marchioness of Soragne. Cardinal Priest of SS. Bonifacio ed Alessio (1696-1717). He came to Rome in 1665 at the age of 24, and was patronized by two of his relatives, Cardinal Girolamo Farnese (1657-1668) and Cardinal Mario Alberizzi (1675-1680). Doctor in utroque iure, Rome (La Sapienza). On the death of his elder brother, he became Bailli of Piacenza, but soon passed the honor and responsibility to his younger brother. In 1673, he went to Vienna, where his relative, Msgr. Alberizzi, was serving as Nuncio; when Alberizzi fell ill, most of the business of the Legation devolved on Verme. When the Bishop of Parma died in 1677, the Duke of Parma offered the position to Verme, but he refused. At the command of Innocent XI, however, he became Bishop of Fano (1688-1696). Bishop of Imola (1696-1701). Bishop of Ferrara (1701-1717) He died in Ferrara on January 12, 1717, and was buried in the Cathedral before the high altar.
- Baldassare Cenci (aged 52) [Romanus], Cardinal Priest of S. Pietro in Montorio (1697-1709). Doctor in utroque iure, Rome (La Sapienza). Referendary of the two Signatures. He was named pro-Legate in Avignon (1685-1691) by Innocent XI [Gallia christiana I, 849]. When supporters of the Gallican Articles of 1682 invaded Avignon, he retreated to Nice. When Alexander VIII became Pope and Avignon was returned to the Papacy, he returned to the city. Innocent XII named him Prefect of the Pontifical Household (1691-1697). Archbishop of Fermo (1697-1709). (died May 26, 1709).
- Tommaso Maria Ferrari, OP (aged 51) [Manduriensis], Cardinal Priest of S. Clemente (1696-1716). Regent of Studies in the Dominican house in Bologna. Magister Sacri Palatii (1688-1695). He died on August 20, 1716, at the age of sixty-nine, at the Monastery of S. Sabina on the Aventine, where he was interred: [V. Forcella, Inscrizioni delle chiese di Roma VII, p.318, no. 654].
- Giuseppe Sacripante (aged 58) [Nerni], Cardinal Priest of S. Maria in Traspontina (1696-1727). Prefect of the Congregation of the Clergy (1695-1700). Before becoming cardinal, he had been Vice-Datary of Innocent XI. Prefect of the SC de Propaganda fide (1704-1727) [V. Forcella, Inscrizioni delle chiese di Roma X, p. 105, no. 188]. (died January 4, 1727) .
- Enrico Noris, OESA (aged 69) [born at Verona, of an Irish family, one of whose ancestors was a soldier in the defense of Cyprus; his father, Alessandro, wrote a history of German Wars], Cardinal Priest of S. Agostino (1696-1704). His baptismal name was Hieronymus (Girolamo).
At the age of fifteen he was sent to study with the Jesuits at Rimini; he studied philosophy and became a serious student of the works of S. Augustine. He decided to join the Order of the Hermits of Saint Augustine. During his novitiate he attracted the favorable attention of the Father Assistant for Italy, Fr. Celestino Bruni, who recommended him to the Prior General of the Order, Fr. Fulgenzio Petrelli. After his novitiate in Rimini and his solemn profession, he was called to Rome by the Father General. He lived at the Convent of S. Agostino, in the company of a number of scholars in history, both secular and ecclesiastical, and had the opportunity to study at the Angelicum, deepening his appreciation of S. Augustine. He came to profit from the company of Fr. Christian Lupus, OESA, who became Professor of Ecclesiastical History at the Louvain [the Life by the Ballerini brothers, in the Berti edition, xx; Clarorum Venetorum ad Ant. Magliabechium nonnullosque alios Epistolae Tomus primus (Florentiae 1745), 196-199 (August 12, 1673); and letter vii, pp. 17-20 and 23]. At the age of 26, Noris began writing his History of Pelagianism. Having attained proficiency in Theology, his Order assigned him to teach in their houses at Pesaro (he was Reggente dello studio Agostiniano, prima in Pisauro, dipoi in Perugia, ove otenne la consueta laurea del Magistero, e finalmente in Padova, in the words of Bianchini, in Crescembi I, 203), then Perugia (Theologicae scholae praeficitur, primum Pisauri, deinde Perusiae, as Zazzerio puts it), which he did for five years. He then returned to Rome, where he attained the rank of Magister, pro exatlantis laboribus. He then worked at Padua [Inde Pataviam ... digressus, acceptam tradendae Theologiae provinciam ibidem jubetur persequi—language which some have unjustifiably turned into a professorship at the University], where he also finished the Historia Pelagiana, et Dissertatio de synodo V. oecumenico (Padua 1673), and published the Vindiciae Augustinianae (Padua 1673). The permission to print the work, issued by the Prior General of the Augustinians, Hieronymus Valvasoris, on June 22, 1672, calls Noris, nostri instituti Magistri, ac Regentis—in other words, he was Head Master in the Augustinian College. The books were denounced to the Inquisition, where, however, he came to the (favorable) attention of the Assessor Msgr. Girolamo Casante (who became a cardinal on June 12, 1673); Noris and Casanate already knew each other. Casanate had made suggestions to Noris about his work on the bishops of Africa for his History of Pelagianism [Clarorum Venetorum ad Ant. Magliabechium nonnullosque alios Epistolae Tomus primus (Florentiae 1745), p. 2 (Padua, February 25, 1673)]. Noris was exonerated of the charges of heresy [Crescimbeni, 203]. This did not mean, however, that the charges against the two works were forgotten. They are still listed in the Bibliothèque Janseniste, ou Catalogue alphabetique des principaux livres jansenistes, ou suspects de Jansenisme, of 1722, with the note: Que cette Histoire de l'Heresie Pelagienne composée par le Cardinal de Noris a été par trois fois deferée au Saint Siege et qu'elle n'a jamais été condamnée.
Father Noris was back in Rome by July 2, 1673 [Clarorum Venetorum ad Ant. Magliabechium, p. 6]. With all of his troubles with the Inquisition, however, Noris, was actually appointed Qualificator at the Holy Office by Clement X (1670-1676)—a clear papal rebuke to his critics. This appointment as Qualificator came before August 12, 1673 [Clarorum Venetorum ad Ant. Magliabechium nonnullosque alios Epistolae Tomus primus (Florentiae 1745), 197-198; for his work see pp. 21-22, and 197]. He was not happy in Rome, however, expressing complaints over the 'bad air', and seeking permission to get back to Padua. On July 22, he wrote to Magliabecci, "Ho parlato alli Cardinali Barberino, Albizzi, Bona, Casanata, et altri, che sono della Congregazione del S. Ufizio, e nel sentire la prodiga offerta di 360 piastre, ne anco hanno aperta bocca per impedire con ragioni il trasferimi costa. Anzi Ottoboni disse essere mie funzioni, per potermi liberare da Roma, ove per forza fui fermato, non piacendomi consumare il tempo in formare consulti, consurare gran tomi, e scrivere literas illiteratissimas a tanti Frati, che per loro negozi mi rubano due intiere giornate della settimana." He was thus back in Pisa, but a correspondent in 1673 and 1674 of Cardinal Giovanni Bona, who was Consultor at the SC of the Index and the SC of the Inquisition, giving reports to the Consultor on various books [Robertus Sala, Iohannis Bona...Epistolae selectae (Torino 1755), 298; 300-307; cf. Clarorum Venetorum ad Ant. Magliabechium, ep. xv, p. 37]. In fact, Cardinal Bona and Msgr. Falconieri had been the Revisors of his book when it was under examination [Clarorum Venetorum ad Ant. Magliabechium, p. 83].
In 1674, on the recommendation of his friend Antonio Magliabecci, the Ducal Librarian, he was appointed court Theologian by Grand Duke Cosimo III of Tuscany. He was also appointed Professor in Ecclesiastical History at Pisa [according to Bianchini, in Crescembi I, 204; the Life by the Ballerini brothers, however, says he held the title of Doctor, and that the appointment was to a cathedra, xxi; Zazzerio calls him Professor, xiii; on the title page of his de cruce stationali (Romae 1694), Giovanni Ciampini terms him in Pisana Academia Professor].
There he enjoyed the company of Jacobus Gronovius, who had been appointed Professor of Literae Humaniores at Pisa around the same time [Guarnacci I, 450]. Noris admitted, however, that Gronovius was a more engaging teacher and enjoyed much larger classes. It was also in 1674 that Noris was first attacked by Fr. Francesco Macedo, O.Min., to which Noris replied in his Adventoria, which led to a war of pamphlets [See Noris, Opera omnia theologica II (1759), 553 ff., for the texts]. In 1675, he was elected to Queen Christina of Sweden's Arcadian Academy, with the name Eucrate Agoretico; fellow members were Cardinal Vincenzo Maria Orsini, the future Pope Benedict XIII, under the name Teofilo Samio; and Cardinal Domenico Tarugi (1695-1696), elected in 1691 under the name Egerio Daseo [his "Vita" in Crescimbeni II, 255-271].
At the same time Noris published on numismatics, epigraphy, and chronology, and he continued answering his critics on the matter of Pelagianism and Saint Augustine. In April of 1676 he was the subject of acrimonious debate at the Holy Office: Cardinal Francesco Albizzi (1654-1684) wanted his Vindiciae banned completely; Cardinal Colonna (1673-1691) vehemently resisted Albizzi [Noris to Magliabechi (May 4, 1676), quoted in Valery (ed.), Correspondence inédite de Mabillon et de Montfaucon avec l' Italie III (Paris 1847), p. 229 n. 3]. Albizzi was an expert on Jansenism, and suspected Noris' Augustinianism as being, at the least, an aid and comfort to the enemy. Noris' powerful friends, however, continued to protect him. He was offered the Bishopric of Pistoia, but he refused (This would have been after the death of Bishop Francesco Renuccini on March 2, 1678). In December, 1691, he was offered the post of Coadjutor of the papal Sacristan Msgr. Ladrù [Clarorum Venetorum ad Ant. Magliabechium, p. 155 (May 31, 1692)], which he refused, having no desire to become a prelate [Pélissier, 49].
In 1692, after eighteen years in Florence, he was brought back to Rome by Innocent XI and made sub-Librarian of the Vatican Library [Clarorum Venetorum ad Ant. Magliabechium, ep. lxxxi, p. 158-159 (July 26, 1692)], in succession to Emmanuel de Schelstrate (died April 5, 1692). From Paris Dom In 1694 Noris was Vaticanae Bibliothecae Praefectus. His books were denounced again to the Inquisition, due apparently to the efforts of Father Diaz [Clarorum Venetorum ad Ant. Magliabechium, p. 153]; forty-six propositions drawn from his published works were denounced. After an extensive examination by a special commission of five theologians, appointed by the Pope, motu proprio, Noris was again completely vindicated [Clarorum Venetorum ad Ant. Magliabechium, ep. lxxxiv, pp. 163-165 (March 6, 1694); Pélissier, 50]. (This never stopped the Spanish, however; the Spanish Inquisition continued to harass Noris long after he was dead.) He wrote again in defense of S. Augustine and published the 4th edition of his Pelagian history. In September, 1694, the Pope made him Consultor at the Roman Inquisition, an honor which was by no means to Noris' taste: contro tutte le mie ripugnanze [Clarorum Venetorum ad Ant. Magliabechium, ep. lxxxviii, pp. 271-272; Pélissier, 51].
He was raised to the cardinalate on December 12, 1695. Two days earlier, as he noted the festivities surrounding the occasion, his book on the Pelagians had been denounced to the Inquisition in Spain [Pélissier, 52; and see Clarorum Venetorum ad Ant. Magliabechium, lxxxxv p. 181-182 (December 17, 1695)]. In January, 1696, the Datary assigned him the Badia d' Anghiari to supplement his income; he resigned the position in August, 1697. His own Republic of Venice offered him a pension of 6000 scudi (as they regularly did for any cardinal of the Serene Republic), but Noris declined to become obligated [Pélissier, 52].
In February, 1696, he was appointed one of the Examiners of Bishops. On July 4, 1698, Estiennot wrote to Mabillon [Valery (ed.), Correspondence inédite de Mabillon et de Montfaucon avec l' Italie III (Paris 1847), 9] about the latest news in Rome, "Son Eminence Noris vous aime et vous estime. Mais ce pauvre seigneur est accablé; il a preque tous les jours des congrégations ordinaires ou extraordinaires. Il faut par conséquent qu'il travaille. Il aime la congrégation et l'a fait voir dans sa réponse aux Scruples d'un docteur de Sorbonne [Responsio ad scrupulos doctoris Sorbonici]." The two Benedictines considered Noris to be one of 'our friends': "Vous pouvez toujours sur ma parole," Mabillon writes to Estiannot, "dire à nos amis, c'est à dire à leurs Emin. Casanata, Colloredo, d'Aguirre, et Noris, que cette pièce est approuvée ici de tous les Savans et de M. de Paris même....' [V. Thuiller (editor), Ouvrages posthumes de D. Jean Mabillon et de D. Thierri Ruinart I (Paris 1724), p. 508 (February 25, 1697)].
In 1700, Cardinal Noris, Cardinal Casanate, and Cardinal Ferrari, OP, were appointed by Clement XI to examine the question of Chinese rites, which had been a problem for the Jesuits for years [Valery (ed.), Correspondence inédite de Mabillon et de Montfaucon avec l' Italie III (Paris 1847), pp. 106-107 and n. 5; letter of Montfaucon to Gattola, October 23, 1700]. These three cardinals were favorable to the Jesuits, and therefore the Jesuit view would receive a friendly hearing. But on March 3, 1700, Cardinal Casanate died. Noris was appointed Librarian and Archivist of the Holy Roman Church (1700-1704) in succession to Cardinal Casanate — and granted an annual pension of 5585 scudi by Pope Clement XI from the Pope's own personal income. Noris died on February 23, 1704, and was buried in his titular church, S. Agostino, where his bust and memorial inscription are to be seen [V. Forcella Inscrizione delle chiese di Roma 5, p. 100, no. 300]. His funeral was attended by Justus Fontantini, a fellow member of the Arcadian Academy, who sent a brief description to Magliabecchi [Clarorum Venetorum ad Ant. Magliabechium, p. 249 (March 1, 1704)]: Lunedì fu sepolto a S. Agostino il Cardin. Noris, e tutta Roma concorse all' esequie. Abbiamo perduto un grand' Uomo, e al Vescovo di S. Asaf spiacerà, che non possa leggere la sua Cronologia. Povero Noris! Adesso vedrà il Macedo, V. Alloix, l' Ammato, il Garnerio, e gli altri suoi Aversarii, e si riderà de i contrasti di questo Mondo.
A "Vita" of Cardinal Noris by Hieronymus Zazzerio, OESA, precedes the 1708 edition of his Historia Pelagiana (Patavii 1708); it is reprinted in J. L. Berti, OESA, Henrici Norisii Opera Omnia Theologica Tomus Primus (Venice 1769), xii-xviii. A second, by Msgr. Francesco Bianchini, also of 1708, was published by Giovan Mario Crescimbeni, Le vite degli Arcadi illustri Parte prima (Roma: Antonio de' Rossi 1708), 199-222. A third life, by Pietro and Hieronymo Ballerini, first published in 1738, can be found at pp. xix-xxxiv in the Berti edition. See also M. Guarnacci, I, 447-454; Moroni, Dizionario storico-ecclesiastica 49 (Venezia 1848), 103-105; Pélissier, Studi e documenti di storia e diritto 11 (1890), 25-64; 253-332.
Noris had a strong dislike of Louis XIV [Pélissier, 41]. He was apparently hostile to the Gallican Articles and Gallicanism [Valery (ed.), Correspondence inédite de Mabillon et de Montfaucon avec l' Italie I (Paris 1847), p. 296-297—if the unsigned letter produced and attributed to him by Fr. Schelstrate was actually his]. There was some belief that Noris was campaigning for the papacy—at least according to Cardinal Gabrielli, an opponent of Noris at the Holy Office.
- Giorgio Cornaro (aged 42) [Venetus], brother of Giovanni Cornaro, Doge of Venice. Cardinal Priest of SS. XII Apostoli (appointed on July 22, 1697; died August 10, 1722). Archbishop-Bishop of Padua (1697-1722) [Gams, 798]. Doctor in utroque iure, Pavia..
- Pierre-Armand du Cambout de Coislin (aged 63), brother of Duke Armand de Coislin, Peer of France and Lieutenant-General. Cardinal Priest of Santissima Trinità al Monte Pincio (appointed on July 22, 1697). He became First Almoner of the King of France in the place of the Cardinal de Bouillon, who was in disfavor. (died February 5, 1706). Bishop of Orléans (1666-1706) [Gams, 594]. . Doctor of Theology, Paris (Sorbonne).
- Fabrizio Paolucci (aged 48) [Forli], Cardinal Priest of Ss. Giovanni e Paolo (appointed on July 22, 1697; died June 13, 1726). Appointed Bishop of Macerata by Innocent XII (1697-1698) [Ughelli-Colet, Italia sacra II (1717), 746]. Administrator of the Diocese of Fermo. Nuncio in Cologne. Apostolic Legate estraordinary in Poland in 1697. Bishop of Ferrara (1697-1701) [Ughelli-Colet, Italia sacra II (1717), 563-564]. Doctor in utroque iure, Rome (La Sapienza). [appointed Secretary of State by the new pope, Clement XI (Albani)].
- Niccolò Radulovich (aged 73) [Polymniani, Apulia], son of Francesco, the third Marchese of Polymniani. Cardinal Priest of S. Bartolomeo all’Isola (November 14, 1699-October 27, 1702). Archbishop of Chieti (1659-1702) [Ughelli-Colet, Italia sacra VI, 770-771]. Secretary of the SC of Bishops and Regulars. He had earlier pamphletized against the Comte de Lavardan, the French Orator before the Holy See (who was recalled in 1689).
- Giuseppe Archinto (aged 49) [Mediolanensis], Cardinal Priest without titulus (appointed November 14, 1699). Doctor in utroque iure (Ingolstadt) Appointed protonotarius e numero participantium by Innocent XI. Vice-Legate in Bologna. Apostolic nuncio in Tuscany. Alexander VIII appointed him Apostolic Legate to the Venetian Republic. Innocent XII appointed him Nuncio to Spain (1696-1700). Archbishop of Milan (May 18, 1699-1712). (died April 9, 1712). [Ughelli-Colet, Italia Sacra IV, 280].
- Andrea Santacroce (aged 44) [Romanus]. Cardinal Priest of S. Maria del Popolo (appointed November 14, 1699). Nuncio in Vienna (1696). Nuncio in Poland. Bishop of Viterbo e Toscanella (January 24, 1700-May 10, 1712). (died May 10, 1712).
- Marcello d'Aste (aged 43) [born at Aversa in the Kingdom of Naples], son of Maurizio Baron of Acerna, of the Barons d'Aste; and Donna Vicenza Caraffa. Cardinal Priest of S. Martino ai Monti (appointed November 14, 1699; died June 11, 1709). Auditor of Pope Alexander VIII (1689-1691). Canon of the Vatican Basilica. Consultor of the Holy Inquisition. Voting member of the Signature of Grace. Nuncio in Switzerland (1692-1694). Archbishop-Bishop of Ancona and Numana (from February 3, 1700) [Ughelli-Colet Italia sacra I, 342; Gams, 666]. Legate in Urbino. Secretary of the SC of Bishops and Regulars. He was also a member of the Arcadian Academy, under the name Candido Petrofacio [See his biography, by Ab. Carlo Doni, in Crescimbeni, III, 253-270].
- Daniello Marco Delfino (aged 47) [Venetus], Cardinal Priest of S. Susanna (1699-1704) (died August 5, 1704). Utriusque signaturae Referendarius. Vice-Legate in Avignon (April 8, 1692–February 26, 1696) [Gallia christiana I (1716) 849] . Apostolic Nuncio to Louis XIV. Archbishop-Bishop of Brescia (1698-1704) [Ughelli-Colet Italia sacra IV, 566-567].
- Sperello Sperelli (aged 61) [Assisi-Perugia], nephew of Alexander Sperelli, Bishop of Iguvium. Cardinal-Priest of S. Giovanni a Porta Latina (appointed November 14, 1699; died March 22, 1710). Consultor of the Holy Inquisition, and then First Assessor (appointed by Innocent XI, June 1698). Vice-governor of the City of Rome. Bishop of Interamna (Terni) (1684-1698, succeeded by his brother Cesare Sperelli). Utriusque iuris Doctor. He was a member of the Arcadian Academy, under the name of Euthemius Chalidius (from September 1677) [See his biography by Giacinto Vincioli, in Crescimbeni, Volume III (1714), pp. 129-141].
- Giovanni Maria Gabrielli, O.Cist. (aged 46) [Città di Castello, Tifernas], Cardinal Priest of S. Pudenziana (1700-1711). (died September 17, 1711). Abbot General of the Cistercian Order. Began his monastic career at the Monastery of S. Pudenziana in Rome, studying philosophy and theology at the Istituto di S. Bernardo. His studies occupied twenty years. He is said to have been offered a bishopric several times by Innocent XI (1676-1689); if true, and if Innocent were observing minimum age requirements of Canon Law, these offers would have come after 1679. He was one of the Inquisitors at the Holy Office between 1697 and 1699, when he was reviewed Fenelon's book on quietism, Maximes des saintes [V. Verlaque, "Lettres de Louis XIV au Cardinal de Bouillon," Collection des documents inédits sur l'histoire de la France. Mélanges historiques IV (Paris 1882), pp. 718 (February 4, 1698), 723 (May 6, 1698)] [The statement in "G-Catholic" that Gabrielli was Abbot General of the Cistercians from 1670-1692 is impossible. He could not have been elected at the age of 16. Perhaps 1690-1692?]. He was also Prefect of Studies at the College of the Propaganda at the time of his promotion to the Cardinalate in November of 1699; it is said that he was recommended to Innocent XII by Msgr. Carlo Agostino Fabroni, the Secretary of Memorials of Innocent XII, and Secretary of the SC de Propaganda, who became a Cardinal himself in 1706. He died on September 17, 1711, at the age of 58, as his funeral inscription in S. Bernardo alle Terme indicates [V. Forcella, Inscrizioni delle chiese di Roma IX, p. 183, no. 365]. His praecordia were entombed at S. Pudenziana [V. Forcella, Inscrizioni delle chiese di Roma XI, p. 143, no. 279]. His nephew, the poet Prudenza Gabrielli Capizucchi (1654-1709), was a member of the Arcadian Academy from 1695 [Crescimbeni, Notizie III, 14-17].
- Louis-Antoine de Noailles (aged 49), Duke of S. Clodoald, Peer of France, Member of the Order of the Holy Spirit, Provisor of the Sorbonne. Son of Anne Duc de Noailles and Louise Boyer, Lady-in-Waiting to Queen Anne d'Autriche. Cardinal Priest without titulus (appointed November 14, 1699). He was given the title of Cardinal Priest of S. Maria sopra Minerva. Doctor of Theology (Paris, March 14, 1676) [Eggs, Supplementum novum Purpurae Doctae (Augustae Vindelicorum 1729), 619]. Bishop of Cahors (1679-1680) [Gallia christiana I, 153]. Bishop of Chalôns-sur-Marne (1680-1695) [Gallia christiana 9, 901], which See made him an Ecclesiastical Peer of France; he participated in the Assembly of the Clergy in 1682, out of which came the Gallican Articles. Archbishop of Paris (1695-1729) [Gallia christiana 7 (1744), 188-191]. He was named Cardinal by Innocent XII in 1700, on the nomination of Louis XIV. He was given the title of S. Maria sopra Minerva by Clement XI on January 3, 1701. Archbishop of Paris (1695-1729) [Gallia christiana 7, 188-191]. (died May 4, 1729). He was the official French Ambassador to the Conclave of 1700. Cardinal de Janson was the Chargé d'affaires de France.
- Johannes Philip von Lamberg (aged 48), Cardinal Priest without title (appointed November 14, 1699). He was assigned the title of S. Silvestro in Capite by Clement XI. Bishop of Passau (from May 23, 1689) (died October 21, 1712). [created cardinal at the request of Emperor Leopold I]
- Benedetto Pamphili (aged 47), O.S.Io.Hieros., Cardinal Deacon of S. Maria in Via Lata Prior of the Roman house of the O.S.Io.Hieros. Archpriest of the Liberian Basilica, appointed by Innocent XII (1694—ca.1697). Archpriest of the Lateran Basilica. He opened and closed the Holy Door at the Lateran in 1700 [V. Forcella, Inscrizioni delle chiese di Roma VIII, p. 73 no. 195); he was still Archpriest in 1729 [Forcella, p. 77, nos. 209-210]; he was succeeded by Cardinal Pietro Ottoboni in 1730 [Forcella, p. 79, no. 214]. Cardinal Protodeacon. He had been Legate in Bologna under Alexander VIII. Grand-nephew of Innocent X (Pamphili). He was a member of the Arcadian Academy [Crescimbeni II, 255]. (died March 22, 1730).
- Fulvio Astalli (aged 45), Cardinal Deacon of Ss. Cosma e Damiano (died January 14, 1721). legate in Ferrara.
- Francesco Maria de' Medici (aged 39), son of Grand Duke Ferdinando II and Vittoria della Rovere. Brother of the Grand Duke of Tuscany, who was married to an Austrian Archduchess. Cardinal Deacon of S. Maria in Domnica (died February 3, 1711). Protector of Austria (Conjectures politiques, 49). In an inscription of 1711 in S. Giovanni dei Fiorentini, he is named as Protector of Germany, France and Spain [ V. Forcella, Inscrizioni delle chiese di Roma VII, p. 36 no. 86]. He was also Protector of the Servites and the Vallombrosians. [See also: D. Moreni, Vita del principe Francesco de' Medici, già cardinale di S. Chiesa (Firenze 1887)].
- Pietro Ottoboni (aged 33), Cardinal Deacon of S. Lorenzo in Damaso (died February 29, 1740) Vice-Chancellor of the Holy Roman Church (1689-1740) and Legate in Avignon. Protector of France. Grand-nephew of Alexander VIII.
- Carlo Bichi (aged 62) [Siena], nephew of Cardinal Alessandro Bichi. Cardinal-Deacon of S. Agata alla Suburra. His uncle obtained for him the Abbey of Majoris Monasterii in Tours. He entered the curia in the reign of Alexander VII. He was appointed a cleric of the Apostolic Chamber by Clement IX. Innocent XI promoted him to the post of Auditor General of the Apostolic Camera. It was Alexander VIII who promoted him to the cardinalate on February 13, 1690. He died on November 7, 1718, at the age of 80, and was buried in S. Agata.
- Giuseppe Renato Imperiali (aged 49) [Genoa, but born in the family feudal estate of Francovilla in the Kingdom of Naples]. His father Michele Imperiale was Prince of Francovilla, and his mother Birgitta Grimaldi was sister of the Prince of Monaco. Cardinal-Deacon of S. Giorgio in Velabro (Died January 15, 1737). Legate in Ferrara.
- Luigi Omodei (aged 43) [Mediolanensis], brother of Carlo Omodei, Viceroy of Valencia; nephew of Cardinal Luigi Omodei (1652-1685). He was born in Madrid, where he spent his first thirty years. At the request of his uncle, Cardinal Marescotti brought him to Rome at the conclusion of his Spanish legation. He was made a Cleric of the Apostolic Chamber by Innocent XI. Again, due to the influence of his uncle, who was a friend of Innocent XII, he was made Cardinal Deacon of S. Maria in Portico (1690-1706) He was a member of six congregations, none of them of first rank of importance. (died August 18, 1706). Faineant.
- Francesco Barberini (aged 37), Cardinal-Deacon of S. Angelo in Pescheria (died August 17, 1738). Grandnephew of Pope Urban VIII. Nephew of Cardinal Carlo Barberini. Legate in the Romagna. Protector of Poland.
- Lorenzo Altieri (aged 29), son of Gaspare Paluzzo Albertoni, Prefect General S.R.E., who was adopted by Clement X (Altieri); his mother was Laura Catherina Aliteri, niece of Clement X. He was also related through marriage to Alexander VIII. Cardinal Deacon of S. Maria in Aquiro, created on November 13, 1690, at the age of 19. His uncle Cardinal Paluzzo Paluzzi Altieri took him in hand. But he was nonetheless a disappointment, being sacked from his governorship of Urbino in 1698 [P. Valery (ed.), Correspondence inédite de Mabillon et de Montfaucon avec l' Italie III (Paris 1847), no. cccviii, p. 11-12]. He died on August 3, 1741, at the age of 70, and was buried in S. Maria in Porticu [V. Forcella, Inscrizioni delle chiese di Roma V, p. 382, no. 1048]. Legate in Urbino (1696).
- Giambattista Spinola (aged 54), Cardinal Deacon of S. Cesareo in Palatio (died March 19, 1719). Camerlengo of the Holy Roman Church. Before being named cardinal, he had been Governor of Rome. As Camerlengo he was also Chancellor of the University of Rome; on his important achievements in reviving a tired institution, see F. Renazzi, Storia dell' Universita degli studi di Roma, detta communemente La Sapienza Volume IV (Roma 1806), Libro v, capo 1. Member of the Arcadian Academy from 1709.
- Henri Albert de la Grange d'Arquien (aged 87), Marquis d'Arquien. Cardinal-Deacon of S. Nicola in Carcere Tulliano. Married twice. Father of seven children, including Maria Sobieska, former Queen of Poland. Innocent XII (Pignatelli), when Legate in Poland (1660-1668), had performed the marriage of King John and Queen Maria (1665). Cardinal Henri had been Captain of the Guard of Monsieur (brother of Louis XIV). Member of the Order of the Holy Spirit. He was appointed a cardinal in 1695, at the request of the King of Poland, but was not given a Deaconry until he appeared in Rome in 1699 along with his daughter, the widow of King John. He died on May 24, 1707, at the age of 105 (! according to his memorial inscription; he was only 93), and was buried in S. Luigi dei Francesi. His inscription is given by V. Forcella, in Inscrizioni delle chiese di Roma III, p. 49 no. 128. [medal at right]
- Vincenzo Grimani (aged 47) [Venetian, though born in Mantua], son of Antonio Grimani and Elena Gonzaga, sister of the Marquis of Mantua. Cardinal-Deacon of S. Eustachio (appointed on July 22, 1697-September 26, 1710). He had been a secret intermediary between the Duke of Savoy, in whose territory a number of the properties and benefices of the Grimani family were situated, and the Emperor. The cardinalate was his reward. He invariably supported and aided imperial interests, and became Viceroy of Naples on behalf of the Emperor. [nominated by the Emperor]. He died in Naples on September 26, 1710 [Guarnacci I, 489-492].
Cardinals not attending:
- Luis Manuel Fernández de Portocarrero (aged 65), son of Don Luis, first Marques de Almenara, and Dona Leonor de Guzman. Suburbicarian Bishop of Palestrina, Archbishop of Toledo (1678-1709). (died September 14, 1709) Spanish Minister of State. Leader of the pro-French faction in the struggle for the succession of Carlos II (who died on November 3, 1700, at the age of 38).
- Pierre de Bonzi (aged 59) [Florence], son of Conte Francesco Bonzi, senator of Florence, who was attached to Marie de Medicis; and Christina Riario. Conte Francesco was Resident of the French King in Mantua. Pierre's uncle Clément was made Bishop of Beziers (1632-1659) through Queen Marie's influence [Gallia christiana 6, 375-376]. His great-uncle was Cardinal Jean de Bonzi (1611-1621), who had once been Almoner to the Queen of France. In 1659 Pierre succeeded his uncle Clément as Bishop of Beziers (1659-1671) [Gallia christiana 6, 376]. Grand Duke Ferdinand II of Tuscany made Pierre resident agent at the French court, where he arranged the marriage of Marguerite Louise, daughter of Gaston, Duke of Orleans, and Cosimo III (1661). In 1662 he was sent by the King of France as ambassador to Venice. In 1665 Louis XIV, satisfied with his work, appointed him Ambassador to Poland. He returned in 1669, and was made Ambassador Extraordinary to Spain. In 1670 he became Almoner to the Queen of France. Bishop of Toulouse (1671-1673) [Gallia christiana 13, 70]. In 1672 he was named a Cardinal by Innocent X, , on the nomination of the King of Poland, and in 1676 granted the title of S. Onofrio (1676-1689). Archbishop of Narbonne (1673-1703) [Gallia christiana 6, 123; Michaud, Louis XIV et Innocent XI III, 139-147]. In 1689 he opted for the title of S. Eusebio (1689–1703). (died July 11, 1703; buried in the Cathedral of Narbonne)
- Urbano Sacchetti (aged 60) [Florentinus, but born in Rome], son of Marchese Matteo Sacchetti and Cassandra Ricasoli de Ruccellai; nephew of Cardinal Giulio Cesare Sacchetti (1626-1663). Doctorate (Pisa). Referendary of the Two Signatures. Protonotary Apostolic de numero participantium. President of the Apostolic Camera. President of Highways. Commissary General. Auditor General of the Apostolic Camera (appointed by Innocent XI). Appointed Cardinal Deacon of S. Nicola in carcere (1681). Cardinal Priest of S. Bernardo alle Terme Bishop of Viterbo e Toscanella (1683-1699) [Gams, 736; Guarnacci I, 177-180]. (died April 6, 1705; buried in S. Giovanni dei Fiorentini).
- Leopold Charles von Kollonitsch (aged 69) [German], Cardinal Priest of S. Girolamo dei Schiavoni/Croati (1689-1707), on the recommendation of the German Emperor. Archbishop of Esztergom (1695-1707). Archbishop of Kalocsa (1690-1695). Bishop of Györ, then Administrator of the Diocese of Györ (1686-1695) [Gams, 371]. Bishop of Wiener Neustadt (1670-1686). Bishop of Nitra (1666-1670) [Gams, 376]. Knight of Malta. (died at Vienna, on January 20, 1707)
- Augustyn Michal Stefan Radziejowski (aged 54) [born in the County of Radziejicowice, his family's fief], Cardinal Priest of S. Maria della Pace (1686-1705). He had studied at the Sorbonne, but took his doctorate in Rome. Returning to Poland, he became a Canon in the Cathedral of Crakow. With the support of King John III [Johann Wolfgang Jaeger, Historia ecclesiastica cum parallelismo profanae. Tomus II, pars 2 (Hamburg 1717), Lib. 5, cap.5, p. 292], his maternal uncle, he became Latin rite BIshop of Kiev, then of Ermland (Warmia) in Prussia (1679-1687) [Gams, 359], and finally Archbishop of Gniezno and Primate of Poland (1687-1705) [Gams, 348]. He was also named Grand Chancellor of the Kingdom of Poland. He presided over the election of the successor of his uncle John (died June 17, 1696), and supported the French candidate [See Oeuvres de Louis XIV Tome VI (Paris 1806), Pièces historiques, no. 13, pp. 514-516 (Prince de Conti to Cardinal Radziejowski (July 1697); Guarnacci I, 224], who, despite Cardinal Michael's manipulations, lost to Augustus of Saxony. He began to conspire against the new King with the King of Sweden, which brought a rebuke from Clement XI. [See Johann Wolfgang Jaeger, Historia ecclesiastica cum parallelismo profanae. Tomus II, pars 2 (Hamburg 1717), Lib. 6, cap. 4, p. 151; Lib. 7, cap. 9, pp. 158-160; Lib. 8, cap. III, p. 173-175; K. Waliszewski, Marysienka: Marie de la Grange d'Arquien, 266-270]. (died October 11, 1705). In 1700 a war between Poland and Sweden was in progress.
- Pedro de Salazar (aged 70), of the Order of Our Lady of Mercy. Cardinal-Priest of S. Croce in Gerusalemme. Bishop of Córdoba (1686-1706). Bishop of Salamanca (1681-1686). (died in Cordoba on August 15, 1706).
- Wilhelm Egon von Fürstenberg (aged 70), Cardinal Priest of S. Onofrio (died April 10, 1704). Bishop of Strasbourg [had received permission from Louis XIV not to participate: Conjectures politiques, 43)].
- Luiz de Sousa (69) [Lisbon], educated at the Court of Spain. Doctor of Canon Law. Appointed Canon of the Cathedral of Braganza. Chaplain of the King of Portugal. Patriarch of Lisbon, Portugal (1676-1702). Secretary of State of the King of Portugal. Cardinal Priest without titulus (appointed on July 22, 1697), at the request of the King of Portugal. (died January 3, 1702)
- Francisco Antonio de Borja-Centelles y Ponce de León (aged 41), son of Don Francisco, ninth Duke of Gandia, and Dona Maria Ponce de Leon. Archdeacon of Calatrava and Canon prebendary of Toledo, on the nomination of Carlos II. Cardinal Priest, at the request of Carlos II, without titulus (November 14, 1699). Member of the Supreme Council of Aragon. Bishop of Calahorra (1701-1702). Bishop-elect of Burgos (1702). (died in Madrid on April 3, 1702)
Popes Innocent XI (Odescalchi of Milan) and Innocent XII (Pignatelli of Naples) did not engage in nepotism, and consequently there was no obvious claimant to leadership among their creature. This gave those cardinals an opportunity to redistribute themselves according to their own wishes and needs.
The French faction was composed of seven Cardinals: César d'Estrées, Pierre de Bonzi (who was a Florentine, and who, in the event, did not attend the Conclave), Etienne Le Camus (who claimed to belong to the Zelanti ), Toussaint de Forbin-Janson (strongly anti-Jansenist and pro-Jesuit) [portrait at right], Henri d'Arquien, Pierre-Armand de Coislin, and Louis-Antoine de Noailles (Conjectures politiques, 43). Bouillion, the Dean of the Sacred College, might once have been considered its leader, but he was, in fact, a doubtful adherent, considering the way he had been treated by Louis XIV (Conjectures politiques, 48). The leader of the faction, therefore, was d'Estrées, who had experience with conclaves and who carried "the King's secret".
The Spanish faction was led by Cardinal Francesco de' Medici, assisted by Cardinal del Giudice. The other members were Cardinals Portocarrero (who did not attend), Kollonitsch (who likewise did not attend), Salazar (also absent), Vincenzo Grimani, Johannes Philip von Lamberg, and Francisco Antonio de Borja-Centelles (who also did not attend). Had they made the effort to attend, they might have made a difference. The practical strength of the faction in votes, however, was only four. They could usually count, however, on votes from the Milanese and Neapolitans.
Venice, of course, could claim a number of cardinals in her territory, whom the Signoria expected to vote in Venice's interest: Ottoboni, Barbarigo, Colloredo, Cornaro, Delfino, Grimani, Noris and Rubini. The speculation was that they might unite behind Cardinal Ottoboni and form a formidable faction. Genoa, always in competition with Venice, could boast of five cardinals, Giambattista Spinola senior, Giambattista Spinola iunior, Giovanni Francesco Negroni, Marcello Durazzo, and Giuseppe Renato Imperiali. In any event, the Venetians were usually more friendly to France than to Spain. The Spanish in Milan were too close and too strong for the comfort of the Signoria. Cardinal de' Medici had heard from the Spanish Ambassador, the Duke d' Uzeda, in fact, that although the Venetian Ambassador publicly granted its cardinals freedom of action, in private Venice was demanding of its cardinals that they elect a pope who would stand for Italian liberty, and to that end they were working with the French to frustrate the Spanish (Petruccelli, 421).
The Duke of Savoy, who was one of the pretenders to the Spanish throne, attempted to keep a low profile in the pre-conclave maneuvers. On October 5, however, his minister in Rome, Count Maurizio Graneri, wrote to him, "We would like to give the exclusiva to Panciatini." Savoy, however, did not have the acknowledged privilege of casting a veto. That belonged solely to the Emperor and the Kings of France and Spain. The Duke's contact inside the Conclave was Cardinal Carlo Barberini, who was favoring Cardinal Albani (dispatch of del Bene to the Grand Duke of Tuscany, Cosimo III, October 9: Petruccelli, 419).
Cosimo III had been ruling Florence and the Grand Duchy of Tuscany since 1670. He had been influential in earlier conclaves, but he was coming more and more under the influence of religious attitudes and was less interested in pursuing Machiavellian designs. He had given his initial instructions to his brother, Cardinal Francesco Maria de'Medici. It was said that as soon as the Conclave was over, the Cardinal was going to resign so that he could marry and perpetuate the Medici line. Cosimo wrote to him on the 15th of October that the French were putting pressure on him to support Cardinal Durazzo [portrait at left] and offering to veto anybody that Cosimo did not like; he asked his brother for information about Durazzo, and the Cardinal replied on the 18th that Cardinal Spinola had the worst things to say about Durazzo who (he said) was filled with the "mal francese". Durazzo was being aided with money provided by Vienna through the Duke of Modena and Cardinal D'Adda. Cardinal de Medici claimed, however, that he had twenty votes besides the Germans to exclude Durazzo. [Petruccelli, 419-420]. The Grand Duke told him to tell Janson (the French leader) that he would support the candidates desired by the King of France: Spada, Morigia and Sperelli.
The creature of Clement X (Altieri) were represented: Carpegna, Nerli, Orsini, Marescotti, and Spada, but Cardinal Lorenzo Altieri was not a sufficiently strong character as to be a leader and form a faction, and in any case Spada was associated with the Zelanti.
The creature of Alexander VIII (Ottoboni, a Venetian) were more strongly organized, behind Cardinal Pietro Ottoboni. They included Cardinals Panciatici, Pantelmi, Costaguti, Bichi, Imperiali (who considered himself one of the Zelanti), Omodei, Albani, Barberini and Altieri. Omodei and Ottoboni seem, however, to have had a personal enmity, and therefore Omodei's vote would depend on what was being asked of him.
Early Favorites and a Veto
Cardinal Galeazzo Marescotti was an early favorite, despite his age (73). He was a Roman, and was highly experienced in papal government. He was highly regarded and influential among the Curial Congregations (Cardella, VII, 230-231). When Marescotti had been Nuncio in Poland (1668-1670) he had (according to Louis XIV, or rather Madame de Maintenon) worked against the interests of France, favoring the cause of the Duke of Lorraine for the Polish throne, and then the (successful) bid of John Sobieski. The French expected that he would favor the Spanish. The Venetians were not favorable to his candidacy either. The French faction, therefore, successfully organized a Veto (exclusiva) to block him.
Other 'soggeti papabili' were Cardinals Bandino Panciatici, Leandro Colloredo and Giambattista Spinola (who came within ten votes of success).
View of the Conclave, with the stove for burning ballots in the corner
Histoire des conclaves 3rd ed. (1703)
Election of Cardinal Albani
On November 19, the day that the news of the death of King Charles II of Spain (on November 1) reached the conclave through Msgr. Francesco Acquaviva, the Papal Nuncio in Spain [Polidori, p. 44], the Cardinals settled down to a serious election. The crisis was at hand. They unanimously elected Giovanni Francesco Cardinal Albani, the influential advisor of Alexander VIII and Innocent XII. At his desperate request, Albani was given three days to consider his response. At the end of the grace period, another vote was taken. Of the 58 cardinals, he had received 57 votes. Finally, on November 23, Cardinal Albani consented to his election, taking the name Clement XI. On the same day (or on the 30th, according to Moroni; and Cancellieri, Storia de solenni Possessi, 325) he was consecrated a bishop, having only become a priest in September.
The coronation took place on December 8. Cardinal Pamphili, the Protodeacon, placed the crown on the Pope's head. On Sunday, April 8, 1701, the new pope took possession of the Lateran Basilica. Cardinal Pamfili, the Archpriest of the Lateran Basilica, presided.
Cardinal Paolucci was named Secretary of State, a position which he held for twenty-one years [Polidori, Liber I, LV, p. 54].
See: Conjectures politiques sur le Conclave de MDCC & sur ce qui s'est passé à Rome pendant la maladie, et aprés la mort du Pape Innocent XII. pour l' election d' un successeur (A Parme: Chez Innocent Treize, MDCC). Neu-eröffnetes Conclave, in welchem eine kurze historische Nachricht von dem Leben und Absterben Pabsts Clementis XI. (Leipzig: Augustus Martini 1721) 6-12. Picot, Mémoires pour servir a l'histoire ecclésiastique, pendant le dix-huitième siècle seconde édition Tome I (Paris 1815) xxxvi-xl.
Petrus Polidori, de vita et rebus gestis Clementis undecimi pontificis maximi Libri sex (Urbini 1727), Liber I, pp. 43-48.
Gabriel Hanotaux (editor), Recueil des instructions données aux ambassadeurs et ministres de France depuis les traités de Westphalie jusqu'à la Révolution Française, II, Rome (1688-1723), (Paris 1911).
Mario Guarnacci, Vitae et res gestae Pontificum Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalium Tomus primus (Romae: typis Bernabo & Lazzarini 1751). Lorenzo Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa Tomo Settimo (Roma 1793); Tomo Ottavo (Roma 1794).
Paolo Campello della Spina, "Pontificato di Innocenzo XII. Diario del Conte Gio: Battista Campello," Studi e documenti di storia e diritto 8 (Roma 1887) 167-198; 9 (1888) 57-90; 10 (1889) 185-206, 449-464; 11 (1890), 90-112; 12 (1891), 379-391; 14 (1893), 179-189.
Giuseppe de Novaes, Elementi della storia de' Sommi Pontefici Volume 12 (Roma 1822), 9-13. G. Moroni, Dizionario di erudizione storico-ecclesiastica Vol. XIV (Venezia 1842) 60-61. Alexis François Artaud de Montor, Histoire des souverains Pontifes Romains, Volume VI (Paris 1851), pp. 239-242. Francesco Petruccelli della Gattina, Histoire diplomatique des conclaves Volume III (Paris 1865) 411-458. Ludwig Wahrmund, Das Ausschliessungs-recht (jus exclusivae) (Wien 1888) 178-184. P. Blet, "Louis XIV et le Saint Siège," XVIIe Siècle, no. 123 (1979), pp. 137—154.
Giovan Mario Crescimbeni, Le vite degli Arcadi illustri Parte prima (Roma: Antonio de' Rossi 1708); Parte Seconda (1710); Parte Terza (1714); Parte Quarta (1727); Parte Quinta (1750). [Ludovico Antonio Muratori was also an Arcadian, under the name of Leucoto Gateate]. Robertus Sala, Iohannis Bona...Epistolae selectae (Torino 1755). P. Valery (ed.), Correspondence inédite de Mabillon et de Montfaucon avec l' Italie (Paris 1847) 3 volumes. Léon G. Pélissier, "Le card. Henri de Noris et sa correspondence," Studi e documenti di storia e diritto 11 (1890), 25-64; 253-332. There is another collection of 104 of his letters to Antonio Magliabechi, written between 1673 and 1700, in Clarorum Venetorum ad Ant. Magliabechium nonnullosque alios Epistolae Tomus primus (Florentiae 1745), pp. 1-193; and a few others to other personalities, pp. 194-210.
E. de Barthelemy, Le Cardinal de Noailles, Évêque de Chalôns, Archévêque de Paris, d' après sa correspondence inédite (1651-1728) (Paris: Léon Techener 1886).
Camillo Contarini, Istoria della guerra di Leopoldo I Imperadore e de' Principi collegati contro il Turco, dall' anno 1683. fino al Pace Parte seconda (Venezia: Hertz e Bortoli 1750).
L.M. De Palma (editor), Studi su Antonio Pignatelli papa Innocenzo XII (Lecce 1992). S. Tabacchi, "Cardinali zelanti e fazioni cardinalizie tra fine Seicento e inizio Settecento," G. Signorotto & M.A. Visceglia (editors), La corte di Roma tra Cinque e Seicento. "Teatro" della politica europea (Roma 1998), pp. 139-165.