(April 27, 1605—May 16, 1605)

SS Peter and Paul

giulio (scudo)



The two patron saints of the Roman church, Peter with a book and keys, Paul with a sword..

Arms of Card.inal Aldobrandini


Arms of Pietro Card. Aldobrandini, Camerlengo of the Holy Roman Church (1599-1621), surmounted by the Ombrellone, crossed keys.

Berman, p. 132 #1638.

Born in Rome in 1571, PIETRO CARD. ALDOBRANDINI, the son of Pietro Aldobrandini and of Flaminia Ferracci, was nephew of Pope Clement VIII (1592-1605). He obtained a doctorate in Civil and Canon Law, and was named Protonotary Apostolic. He was created a cardinal deacon in 1593, and along with his cousin Cardinal Cincio took over the affairs of the papal government. On December 20, 1599 he was appointed Cardinal Chamberlain of the Holy Roman Church for life. He acted as Legate for the Pope to Henri IV of France, first to regularize his situation with the Church, and then to finalize the marriage of the king with Catherine de' Medici (1600-1601). He became Archbishop of Ravenna in 1604, and in 1620 was promoted Bishop of the Suburbicarian See of Sabina. He died on the day after the conclusion of the Conclave of 1621.


The Secretary of the College of Cardinals was Muzio Riccerio

The Marshal of the Conclave was Paolo Savelli, Prince of Albano, Duke of Castel Gandolfo [Moroni, Dizionario storico-ecclesiastica 42, 283; 61, 301].

The Governor of the Conclave was Msgr. Orazio Spinola, Archbishop of Genoa (d. 1616). He was made a referendary by Sixtus V, Vice-Legate of Bologna by Clement VIII. After the Conclave Paul V made him Vice-Legate of Ferrara.  He was named a cardinal by Pope Paul V in 1606, with the title of St.Biagio

The Governor of the City of Rome was Msgr. Benedictus Ala of Cremona, Referendary of the Tribunal of the Two Signatures [Cancellieri, Storia de' solenni possessi, p. 173].  He later became Bishop of Urbino (1610-1620).

The Captain General was Don Giovanni Giorgio Aldobrandini.

The Papal Master of Ceremonies was Msgr. Paolo Alaleone, who left a diary of the proceedings [Vincenzo Forcella, Catalogo dei manoscritti relativi alla storia di Roma I (Roma 1879), p. 291 no. 828 (ms. Vat. Lat. 9246)]. He was assisted by Msgr. Guido Ascanio Praevostus, and by Msgr. Giovanni Paolo Mucanzio, who also left a diary covering the period from Gregory XIV to Paul V [Gauchat, 8 n. 1; Gattico, pp. 343-348; Bullarium Romanum (Turin edition) Volume XI, p. 212;  V. Forcella Catalogo dei manoscritti relativi alla storia di Roma I (Roma 1879), p. 44, no. 156].

The Venetian Ambassador was Agostino Nani.  The French Ambassador was Philippe de Béthune, brother of Sully. The Spanish Ambassador was the Marquis de Villena. The Tuscan ambassador was Cavaliere Belisario Vinta.

. .


Death of Pope Leo XI

Pope Leo XI (de' Medici) ruled for only twenty-seven days, April 1 to April 27, 1605. He had caught a chill while taking possession of his cathedral, the Lateran Basilica, on April 17.  A fever appeared on the evening of the 18th, which was at first regarded as transitory. But it grew worse, and he died ten days later, on Wednesday April 27.  Muratori reports a story, which he attributes to Cardinal Jacques Davy du Perron and to Giovanni Nicolò Doglioni, that Pope Leo was poisoned by a rose given him in the Lateran Basilica [Annali d'Italia 26 (Firenze 1827) sub anno 1605, p. 56].  In the "Life of Cardinal de Joyeuse", Antoine Aubery says [L' histoire du Cardinal duc de Joyeuse (1664), p. 95]:  

Il ne suffisoit pas aux Espagnols de s'estre opposez ouvertement à l' élection de Leon XI. tandis qu'elle estoit à faire, s'ils ne la combattoient encore secrettement aprés qu'elle fut faite, et n'ayant sceu empescher avec tous leurs efforts qu'il ne fût Pape, ils resolurent d' empécher par leurs menées qu'il ne le fust pas long-temps, et luy abregerent effectivement le Pontificat avec la vie: au moins, s'il faut adjoûter foy aux menaces de leurs gens mesmes.  Lesquels s'estans vantez qu'ils s'en déferoient au plûtost par poison, le Cardinal de Ioyeuse, comme s'il eût eu interest particulier de conserver celuy qui estoit aucunement son ouvrage, ne manqua pas d'en faire donner advis à sa Sainteté.  Quoy qu'il en soit, la mort precipitée de ce Pape donna incontinent lieu à un second Conclave, et fut par consequent un nouveau sujet de fatigue à nostre Cardinal.

Doglioni himself actually says [Del Compendio historico, Parte nona (Venice 1622), sub anno 1605, p. 14]: non anto furono scorsi 26. giorni dal dì della creation sua, che assalito da febre ardente con la morte pose fine al Pontificato.  Furono alcuni, che credevano, et sparsero fama, che egli fosse col veleno stato levato dal mondo; ma essendo aperto, et ben da Medici considerate le sue interiora si scoprì, che veramente egli per morte naturale era arrivato a quel punto.

The last hours of Leo XI are recorded in a ms. in the Borghese Library, Liber 720, folia 95-96 [quoted by Gauchat, Hierarchia catholica IV, p. 8, n.4]:

Vespere diei 18 Spr. Sum. Pont. nimia gravedine oppressus, levi febricula laborare coepit, quae ab initio non laethalis, sed ephimera iudicata fuit. Tamen in lectulo iacens, S. S. laboravit sub incerta spe salutis decem dies et tandem 27 Aprilis, omnibus Ecclesiae sacramentis receptis, parum ante horam duodecimam placide et pacifice animam Deo reddidit.

He had lived 68 years, ten months and 25 days.  He was buried in the Basilica of S. Peter on Saturday, April 30, 1605.  The Funeral Oration was pronounced by Pompeo Ugoni  [Novaes, Intruduzione I, p. 263].  The Novendiales concluded with a Requiem Mass on Friday, May 6, 1605.

The news of the death of the Pope reached the French Court and King Henri IV on May 5, 1605 [Champollion, Mémoires et registre-journal de Henri IV, 384].  The King was informed that the Pope had died of pleurisy [Letter of Cardinal du Perron to Henri IV, written on the day of the Pope's death, April 27: Les ambassades et negotiations de l' Illustrissime et Reverendissime Cardinal du Perron (1633), p. 573; Letter of Henri IV to Ambassador de Beaumont, May 8, 1605:   Recueil des lettres missives de Henri IV Tome VI, p. 423].


The Cardinals

An official list of the Cardinals and their Conclavists is attached to the Bull   Romanum decet pontificem, issued by Pope Paul V on July 31, 1605 [Bullarium Romanum 11 (Augusta Taurinorum 1867), pp. 212-215].  Cardinal Girolamo Agucci [Bononiensis], a supporter of Cardinal Aldobrandini, died on the same day as the Pope; his conclavists from the earlier conclave of 1605 are included in the grant [p. 215].  Gauchat, Hierarchia catholica IV, p. 9, n.2:  In conclavi erant 61 cardinales [simul cum electo]....


Cardinals attending:

  1. Tolomeo Galli di Como (aged 77) [Novocomensis], Suburbicarian Bishop of Ostia–Velletri, dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals.(died February 3, 1607)
  2. Domenico Pinelli (aged 63) [Genoa],  his mother was the daughter of Benedetto Giorgio Spinola. Suburbicarian Bishop of Porto e Santa Rufina   (June 1, 1605). ex-Professor of Law at Padua
  3. Girolamo Bernerio, OP (aged 65) [Corregio], S.T.M.  Suburbicarian Bishop of Albano [1603-1607].  Former Inquisitor of Genoa. Prior of S. Sabina in Rome.  Bishop of Ascoli Piceno (1586-1604)   (died 1611)   "Aesculanus"   "Ascoli"  [A. Tournon, Histoire des hommes illustres de l' Ordre de St, Dominique V (Paris 1749), 1-11].  He was a follower of Cardinal Montalto.
  4. François de Joyeuse (aged 42) [French], son of Guillaume de Joyeuse, Marechal de la France, and Maria de Batarnay; brother of Anne, duc de Joyeuse, Peer and Admiral of France, Governor of the Duchy of Normandy.  Suburbicarian Bishop of Sabina.    Former Archbishop of Narbonne (1582-1589) [Gallia christiana 6, 117-118].  Archbishop of Toulouse (1589-1604) [Eubel III, 315; Gauchat IV, 340].   Archbishop of Rouen (1604–1615) [Gallia christiana 11, 103-107; Aubery, L' histoire du Cardinal duc de Joyeuse  (Paris 1654) 249-264].  He presided over the declaration of the nullity of the marriage of Henri IV and Marguerite de Valois in 1599.   Protector of France before the Holy See (1587-1589; 1596-1615) (died 1615).  When he had been at Marseille in November, 1604, on his way to Rome,  he received a package of materials from the King which contained instructions for a future conclave. He was in Rome by November 29, 1604.  On April 8, he had fallen ill [Recueil des lettres missives de Henri IV Tome VI, p. 407].
  5. Agostino Valier (aged 73) [Venetus], Suburbicarian Bishop of Palestrina,  formerly Cardinal Priest of San Marco.   Bishop of Verona (1565-1606).   (died 1606)  A partisan of France.
  6. Antonio Maria Galli (aged 51) [Auximanus, Osimo], Suburbicarian Bishop of Tusculum (Frascati).   He started his career as a Domestic Prelate, and became personal Treasurer of Sixtus V. Bishop of Perugia (November 5, 1586-–1591).  Created cardinal by Sixtus V on November 16, 1586, with the titulus of S. Agnete in Agone (1587-1600).   Cardinal Legate of the Romagna (1590) to deal with banditi; he got the city of Ravenna to organize a company of cavalry.  Bishop of Osimo (1591-1620).  He held a synod in Osimo in 1593.  In 1600 he opted for the titulus of Santa Prassede (1600-1605).  He was promoted to the See of Tusculum on June 1, 1605.   He died in Rome on March 30, 1620.

  7. Antonio Maria Sauli (aged 64) [Genoa], Cardinal Priest of S. Maria in Trastevere (1603–1607).   Doctorate in law (Padua).    (died 1623, as Bishop of Ostia).   His brother had been Doge of Genoa.  He was a cousin of Cardinal Visconti's mother. Former Bishop of Genoa (1585-1591) [Ughelli-Colet, Italia sacra IV, 901-902].  He had strongly opposed the election of Clement VIII, and was therefore unacceptable to the Aldobrandini faction.  He was closely connected with the Montalto faction, and was the choice of all who wanted to see the Aldobrandini put in their places.  Aldobrandini even alleged that everything that had been done against him in the March conclave had been instigated by Sauli.
  8. Giovanni Evangelista Pallotta (aged 63) [Cosentinus], Cardinal Priest of S. Lorenzo in Lucina (1603–1611).    Archpriest of the Vatican Basilica.   Pro-Datary.    (died 1623, as Bishop of Porto)
  9. Mariano Pierbenedetti (aged 66) [Camerino], Cardinal Priest of SS. Marcellino e Pietro (died 1611) "Camerino"
  10. Gregorio Petrocchini del Montelparo, OESA (aged 70), Cardinal Priest of S. Agostino (1590–1608)  Former Prior-General of the Hermits of S. Augustine (1587–1591)   (died 1612)   "Montelparo"  [The candidate of the Duca de Lerma, but not of the Spanish Council]
  11. Paolo Emilio Sfondrato (aged 45) [Milan], son of  Paolo Sfondrato and Sigismonda d' Este. Cardinal Priest of S. Cecilia  [1591-1618] (died 1618). Legate in Bologna and the Romangna. Nephew of Gregory XIV.   "Montepulciano"
  12. .
  13. Benedetto Giustiniani (aged 60) [Genoa], Cardinal Priest of Santa Prisca (died 1621)
  14. Francesco Maria Bourbon del Monte Santa Maria (aged 55), of the Marchesi del Santa Maria. Cardinal Priest of Santa Maria in Aracoeli (died 1627). Prefect of the SC of the Council of Trent.  He was trying to sell his services at the papal court to the Grand Duke of Tuscany [Petruccelli, II, 455].
  15. Ottavio Paravicini (aged 52) [Romanus], Cardinal Priest of SS. Bonifacio ed Alessio (1592–1611)   (died 1611).
  16. Ottavio d'Aquaviva d'Aragona (aged 45) [Neapolitanus], son of the 10th Duke of Atri. Cardinal Priest of SS. Giovanni e Paolo [1602-June 5, 1605] (died 1612). Doctor in utroque iure, Perugia
  17. Flaminio Piatti (aged 52) [Milan], Cardinal Priest of S. Maria della Pace (1600–1613).   (died November 1, 1613).
  18. Federico Borromeo (aged 40) [Milan], Cardinal Priest of Santa Maria degli Angeli (died 1618) Archbishop of Milan (1595–1631). Doctorate in law, Pavia
  19. Giovanni Antonio Facchinetti de Nuce (aged 30) [Bononiensis], son of Cesare, Marchese Vianini. Cardinal Priest of Santi Quattro Coronati (1592–1606).  Grand-nephew of Innocent IX. (died 1606).
  20. Pietro Aldobrandini (aged 33), Cardinal Priest of S. Pancrazio (died February 10, 1621), previously, at the age of 22, Cardinal Deacon of S. Nicolo in Carcere (1593–1604). nipote of Pope Clement VIII. Educated by the Oratorians. Doctor in utroque iure. Consistorial Advocate.  Prefect of the Castel S. Angelo.  Major Penitentiary (1602-1605). Cardinal Camerlengo (1599-1621). (died February 10, 1621)
  21. Giovanni Francesco Blandrate di San Giorgio (aged 60) [Casale di Monferrato], Cardinal Priest of S. Clemente (1596–1605). Bishop of Faenza (1603–1605).    (died July 16, 1605)
  22. Francesco Maria Tarugi, Orat. (aged 80) [Polizianus], Cardinal Priest of S. Maria sopra Minerva (1602–1608).   Archbishop of Avignon (1593-1597) [Gallia christiana I (1716), 835].  Archbishop of Siena (1597–1607).  Founder of the Oratory in Naples. Nephew of Julius III   (died 1608)  He and Cardinal Baronius were buried in the same tomb in S. Maria in Vallicella.
  23. Ottavio Bandini (aged 46) [Florentinus], Cardinal Priest of S. Sabina (1596–1615).  He was born in Florence (October 25, 1558), and educated at Florence, Paris, Salamanca and Pisa (where he obtained a law degree, Doctor in utroque iure). He served as a lawyer and administrator in the Papal States from 1572. Gregory XIII made him a Protonotary Apostolic. Sixtus V made him governor of Fermo in 1586, and in 1590 he was Presidente delle Marche. At the Conclave of 1590 he was Governor of the Conclave and Prefect of the Borgo. Gregory XIV wanted to appoint him Datary in 1590, but the Olivares objected.  Clement VIII made him Governor of Bologna in 1592.   He became Archbishop of Fermo in 1595  (1595–1606). Bandini was named Cardinal on June 5, 1596, and assigned the titulus of S. Sabina on June 21, 1596. In 1598 the Cardinal was sent to Picenum as legate to restore order in the face of brigands.   In 1621 he was promoted to be Cardinal Bishop of Palestrina, which he exchanged for Porto and Santa Rufina in 1624. He became Dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals and Bishop of Ostia on September 7, 1626. He died in Rome on August 1, 1629 at the age of 72.  His funeral took place at S. Agostino, and he was buried in S. Silvestro al Quirinale.  He participated in the two Conclaves of 1605, and those of 1621 and 1623.
  24. Anne d'Escars de Givry, OSB (aged 59) [France, born in Paris], of the family of the Counts of Limoges, son of Jacques de Perusse, Seigneur d'Escars; and Françoise de Longuy, Dame de Givry, whose first husband had been Philippe Chabot, Comte de Brion and Admiral of France;   Anne was also nephew of Claude de Longuy. Cardinal Priest of S. Susanna (1604–1612).  He took the Benedictine habit at the monastery of S. Benigne de Dijon, at the age of eight, and later became its Vicar-General on behalf of the Cardinal de Châtillon, and then Abbot (1570); at the time of his appointment he was in Rome.  He was already abbot of Poithières, Barberi, Champagne (diocese of Mans), and Molesmes. Out of a loathing of protestantism he became one of the most zealous leaders of the League.   Bishop of Lisieux (1584-1599).  In October 1592 he is attested as being in Rome, as agent for the League, along with Pierre Desportes-Baudouin, the secretary of the Duc de Mayenne [Chalambert, Histoire de la Ligue (Paris 1898) p. 259]; he did not believe that Henri IV's return to Catholicism was sincere. He was one of the co-consecrators of the Bishop of Evreux, Jacques Davy du Perron, on December 27, 1595, at the church of S. Luigi degli Francesi [Amelot de la Houssaie (ed.), Letres du Cardinal d'Ossat  I (Paris 1698), letre no. XCLIII (January 16, 1596), p. 197].  He returned to France, finally convinced on Henri's sincerity after the reconciliation on September 17, 1595.  In 1596 he was formally reconciled with the King, through the good offices of the Papal Nuncio, Cardinal de' Medici.  Clement VIII made him a cardinal on June 1,1596, on his own initiative, which caused some embarassment with Henri IV.  Coadjutor of Langres (1603–1608), for Charles d'Escars (d. 1614).  Bishop of Metz (1608-1612) [Gallia christiana XIII, 800-801].  Co-Protector of France, on the nomination of Henri IV.    He died on April 19, 1612, in his house at Vic-sur-Seille, where he had spent the last twenty months of his life; he was buried in his cathedral of Metz.   
  25. Camillo Borghese (aged 52) [Romanus], son of Marcantonio Borghese of Siena and of Flaminia Astalli of Rome.  Auditor of the Rota.  Nuncio in Spain. Cardinal Priest of San Crisogono (died 1621).  Secretary of the Universal Inquisition (1602-1605), Vicar-General of Rome (1603-1605).
  26. Cesare Baronio, Orat. (aged 66) [Sora], Cardinal Priest of SS. Nereo ed Achilleo (1596–1607). Superior General of the Oratorians (1593-1596).  Confessor of Pope Clement VIII.  Bibliothecarius S. R. E. (1597-1607).    (died 1607)   To be excluded, by command of King Philip III of Spain.
  27. Lorenzo Bianchetti (aged 59) [Bologna], Cardinal Priest of S. Lorenzo in Panisperna (1596–1612).  His brother Lodovico was Pope Gregory XIII's Maestro di Camera.  Auditor of the Rota (ca. 1572-1596).   Assistant to Cardinal Caetani in his legateship in France in 1589 .  (died 1612). Doctor of Law, Bologna
  28. Francisco Guzman de Ávila (aged 56 ?), Cardinal Priest of S. Croce in Gerusalemme (1599–1606).   (died 1606). Cardinal Protector of Spain.  Spoke for Spain in the Conclave (along with Zapata)
  29. Francesco Mantica (aged 71) [Udine], son of Andrea Mantica and Fontina de Fontanabona.   Cardinal Priest of San Tommaso in Parione.  He studied at Bologna and Padua, where he was the student of Tiberio Deciani.  In 1560 he lectured on the Institutes of Justinian at Padua, in 1564 on Canon Law, and in 1566 on Civil Law. Doctor in utroque iure, Padua.  Under Sixtus V, in 1586, he was named Auditor of the Sacred Roman Rota for the Venetians; he took his seat on December 10, 1586 [E. Cerchiari, Capellani Papae et Apostolicae Sedis ...Sacra Romana Rota  II (Romae 1920), pp. 116-117].  He was created cardinal on June 5, 1596, and assigned the titulus of S. Tommaso in Parione on January 24, 1597.   He died on Wednesday night, January 29, 1614; his funeral took place the next day, and he was buried at S. Maria del Popolo.  He was the author of De coniecturis ultimarum voluntatum libri XII (1587), and Lucubrationes Vaticanae, seu de tacitis et ambiguis conventionibus libri XXVII.
  30. Pompeio Arrigoni (aged 53) [Milan, or Como; Romanus], Cardinal Priest of S. Balbina (1597–1616). Formerly Cardinal Deacon of S. Maria in Aquiro. Doctor in utroque iure, Padua.  Auditor of the Rota.  (died 1616)
  31. Bonifacio Bevilacqua Aldobrandini (aged 34) [Ferrara], Cardinal Priest of S. Girolamo dei Schiavoni/Illyrici (died 1627) Legate in Perugia and Umbria. Prefect of the Council of the Index. law degree, Padua.
  32. Alfonso Visconti (aged 53) [Milan], Cardinal Priest of S. Sisto (1600–1608).    Archbishop of Spoleto (1601–1608). Doctor in utroque iure, Pavia   (died 1608).
  33. Domenico Toschi (aged 70) [Castellarano in the diocese of Reggio], son of Giambattista Toschi, a notary and procurator, and and Onesta Bardiani. From 1545-1551 he lived in Reggio with his uncle Giovanni, a scholar and poet, where he was educated.  He travelled to Rome and entered the service of Msgr. Giambattista Brugnolo, nephew of Msgr. Filippo Archinto, the Vicar General of Rome.  After some financial reverses and a year back in Reggio with his uncle, he acquired the post of chamberlain and scriptor of Msgr. Archinto. When Archinto was sent as Nuncio to Venice, Toschi accompanied him as his Auditor; and when Archinto was named Archbishop of Milan in 1556, Toschi accompanied him there as well; problems with the Imperial governor, however, caused Archinto to withdraw, and he returned to Rome.  As Toschi was passing through Pavia, he met Sigismondo d'Este, Marchese di San Martino e Castellarano, Governor of Pavia, who appointed him his Auditor (Private Secretary); the post allowed him to study law at the University of Pavia.  He received his doctoral degree on April 17, 1562. He continued to serve the d'Este until 1566, when he returned to Rome and became Procurator of Sig. Angiolo Cesi and client of Cardinal Pier Donato Cesi.  His 39 months in Bologna made his fortune.  In 1575 he became a Procurator of the Sacred Roman Rota.  When Cardinal Cesi was named Legate in Bologna, Toschi went with him as his Auditor. He was Cardinal Cesi's Conclavist in 1585.  When Cardinal Salviati became Legate in Bologna in 1585, he was granted permission by Cardinal Cesi to take Toschi with him.  In 1586, he was acting governor of the city between the end of Cardinal Salviati's appointment and the arrival of Cardinal Caetani.  In September of 1586 he returned to Rome, only to find Cardinal Cesi dying.  Toschi returned to the practice of Law.  But in 1587, when Cardinal Ferdinando de' Medici became Grand Duke of Tuscany, he appointed Toschi as Auditor of the Office of Consiglieri in Florence. In 1592 the new pope, Clement VIII summoned him to Rome and appointed him Auditor of the Consultà.  Bishop of Tivoli (1595). Governor of Rome.  Cardinal Priest of San Onofrio [1604-1610].    [G. Tiraboschi, Biblioteca modenese V (Modena 1784), pp. 277-282].  He died in 1620, and was buried in S. Pietro in Montorio [V. Forcella, Inscrizioni delle chiesa di Roma V, p. 271, no. 759].
  34. Paolo Emilio Zacchia (aged 51)  [Liguria], Cardinal Priest of S. Marcello (1599–1605).  Bishop of Montefiascone and Corneto (1601–1605).  Cardinal du Perron was told by the Grand Duke of Tuscany and by his Ambassador,  Belisario Vinta, that San Marcello was strongly Spanish  in loyalty [de Ligny, Les ambassades et negotiations de l' Illustrissime et Reverendissime Cardinal du Perron, p. 540].  He was the favorite, however, of Aldobrandini and of the Duke of Savoy [Petruccelli II, p. 420].     Recipient of 2,000 ecus from the Duke of Savoy.  (died May 31, 1605).
  35. Franz von Dietrichstein (aged 34) [Moravia], Cardinal Priest of S. Silvestro in Capite (1599–1623).  (died 1636) Archbishop of Olomouc (1599–1636) (cf. Histoire des conclaves, 325-326)
  36. Roberto Bellarmino, SJ (aged 62) [Politianus, a subject of the Grand Duke of Tuscany]; his mother was the sister of Cardinal Cervini, who became Pope Marcellus II.  Cardinal Priest of S. Maria in Via (1599–1605).  He had joined the Jesuits at the age of 18. He was educated at various Jesuit houses of study, including the new Collegio Romano, and then at Padua and Louvain.  He preached publicly in Louvain against the Lutherans with great success.  He was ordained in Ghent in 1570 by Bishop Cornelius Jansen ab Hulst (1565-1576).  He then taught at the Collegio Romano in Rome for eleven years. In 1590 he was a member of Cardinal Enrico Caetani's legation to the French League of the Guises. He was Rector of the Collegio Romano from 1592 to 1594.  He then served for three years as Provincial of the Neapolitan province of the Jesuits (1594-1597).  In 1597 Clement VIII named him Consultor of the Holy Inquisition and Examiner of Bishops.  On March 3, 1599 he was named a cardinal.  He was appointed Archbishop of Capua in 1602, and was granted the pallium, but after three years and three diocesan synods, he resigned following the Conclaves of 1605.  (died 1621)  His ambition for the papacy shows in a number of letters written at the time of the Conclaves, in which he imagines his election and then imagines reasons why he should reject election.  To one of his Conclavists, Pietro Guidotti, who wanted him to visit Cardinal Aldobrandini, he remarked, "Ah, vous voulez me faire pape, et moi pour le devenir je ne consentirais pas même à sortir de cette chambre, ni même à me lever d'ici." [cf. Couderc, 15-18].  See also his autobiography, in Dollinger and Reusch, p. 43.
  37. François d'Escoubleau de Sourdis (aged 30) [France], son of François, Lord of Sourdis; his mother was aunt of Gabrielle d'Estrées, who procured the cardinalate for him. Cardinal Priest of Ss. XII Apostoli (1600–1606).  Archbishop of Bordeaux (1599–1628).   (died 1628).
  38. Séraphin Olivier Razali (aged 67)  [Born in Lyon, brought up in Bologna, his mother's home; he is alleged to have been the bastard son of the Chancellor of France, by Jacques-Auguste de Thou Histoire, Book 131; he was actually the (posthumous) son of Pierre Olivier, a bourgeois of Lyon. Rozali or Razali, or Razzali was his step-father's name],  Cardinal Priest of S. Salvatore in Lauro (1604-1609).  He studied humanities in Tournon, but in due course obtained the Doctorate in utroque iure, Bologna.  He became praelector in Law at the University. In 1562, he occupied a chair in law at Bologna.  He was appointed to the College of Civil Judges.  After two years in that post, Pius IV brought him to Rome in 1564 and made him Auditor of the Rota for France, a post he held for nearly 40 years. Dean 1590 to August, 1602, and thereafter Auditor again until June 9, 1604.  In 1573, he was sent to Paris by Gregory XIII, bearing the Golden Rose, to congratulate Henri d'Anjou on his election to the throne of Poland  [de Thou, Histoire 57. 1].  Sixtus V sent him to Paris again in 1589, with instructions on how to solve the French accession crisis; he failed.  Henri IV named him Bishop of Rennes in 1600, but he never took possession of the See; Amelot de la Houssiae conjectures that he did not want to have to take up residence in Brittany.  In December, 1596, Pope Clement VIII awarded the Abbey of S. Nicolas des Prez near Verdun to Razali, but King Henri had already awarded the benefice to Arnaud d' Ossat, Bishop of Rennes;  Msgr. d' Ossat, in a letter to King Henri, begged the King to allow the abbey to go to Msgr. Razali, and wrote at length about Razali's services and qualities [Amelot de la Houssaie (ed.), Letres du Cardinal d'Ossat  II (Amsterdam 1708), letre no. XCIV, pp. 349-352].  When Ossat resigned his see of Rennes in 1600 (He had never taken possession) for the See of Bayeux, he requested that the See of Rennes be given to his friend Razali [Amelot de la Houssaie (ed.), Letres du Cardinal d'Ossat  III (Amsterdam 1708), letre no. CCXXIV, pp. 530-545]. Razali resigned the appointment to the See of Rennes on August 26, 1602, and was instead appointed Latin Patriarch of Alexandria (1602-1604), until his promotion to the cardinalate.  On June 9, 1604 he was appointed a cardinal by Clement VIII, on the recommendation of Henri IV, and assigned the titulus of S. Salvatore in Lauro. 
            His famous remark to Clement VIII (if it is in fact his)  about losing England by the excommunication of Henry VIII by Clement VII shows Séraphin's tenuous grasp on historical facts;  England had returned to the Roman Church under Mary I, but was lost by Pius V's excommunication of Elizabeth I.  He was suffering from 'gout' during the Sede Vacante  [Letter of Cardinal Joyeuse to Henri IV:  Aubery, Histoire du Cardinal de Ioyeuse, p. 55]. [Prosper Marchand, Dictionnaire historique II (The Hague 1759),107-111].  He died in Rome on February 10, 1609 (as recorded in the Acta Consistorialia), and was buried in the Church of Santissima Trinità al Monte Pincio.
  39. Domenico Ginnasi (aged 53) [Castel Bolognese, Diocese of Imola; or Rome].  Trained as a jurist at Bologna; Doctor in utroque iure (1572). Cardinal Priest without titulus. After the Election made Cardinal Priest of S. Pancrazio (1605-1606).  Archbishop of Manfredonia (1586-1607), resigning the See in favor of his nephew. Nuncio in Spain (1600–June 1605)    (died 1639).  'Excluded' by the Grand Duke of Tuscany.
  40. Antonio Zapata y Cisneros (aged 54) [Madrid],  member of the family of the Lords of Baraja. Cardinal Priest without title.  After the Election made Cardinal Priest of S. Matteo in Merulana  (1605-1606).  (died 1635)  Former Canon of Toledo,  Inquisitor of Toledo, Bishop of Cadiz (1587-1596), Bishop of Pamplona (1596-1600), Archbishop of Burgos (1600-1604).  Spoke for Spain in the Conclave (along with de Avila).
  41. Filippo Spinelli (aged 39) [Neapolitanus], of the family of the Dukes of Seminaria.  Cardinal Priest of S. Bartolomeo all’Isola (1604-1616)    Bishop of Policastro (1592-1605). Former Nuncio in Vienna (1598-1603).  (died 1616).
  42. Carlo Conti (aged 48) [Romanus], son of Torquato Conti, duke of Poli; and Violante Farnese.  Doctor in utroque iure, Perugia.   Referendary of the Apostolic Signatura. Bishop of Ancona (1585–1615), in succession to Alessandro Farnese. Governor of Perugia (1594), then of Umbria (1595). Under Clement VIII he was governor of the Marches. Pro-Legate of Avignon (1599-1604) [Gallia christiana  I (1716), 846].  Created cardinal on June 9, 1604, Cardinal Priest without title during both Conclaves of 1605.  He was granted the title of S. Crisogono on June 1, 1605, which he held until August 17;  and that of S. Clemente from 1605-1613.  He held the title of S. Prisca from 1613 to his death in 1615. He died on December 3, 1615, and was buried in S. Lorenzo in Lucina. 
  43. Carlo Gaudenzio Madruzzo (aged 43), grand-nephew of Cardinal Cristoforo Madruzzo.  Cardinal Priest, on the nomination of Emperor Rudolf II; Cardinal without title.  After the Election made Cardinal Priest of S. Tommaso in Parione  Prince-Bishop of Trento (1600–1629). Doctor in utroque iure, Pavia    (died 1629)
  44. Jacques Davy du Perron (aged 48) [St. Loud, Normandy], member of the House of Perron de Creteville, but his parents were Huguenots. He was appointed Bishop of Evreux by Henri IV in 1595, and consecrated by Cardinal de Ioyeuse.  Cardinal Priest of S. Agnese in Agone (1605-1618).  (died 1618).   Bishop of Evreux (1592–1606).  He had left Fontainebleau on October 29, 1604, with orders to visit Florence [Recueil des lettres missives de Henri IV   IV, p. 328].  He came towards Rome in November, 1604 [Siri, Memorie recondite, 326]. En route,  he stopped in Florence and had conversations about candidates with the Grand Duke [de Ligny,   Les ambassades et negotiations de l' Illustrissime et Reverendissime Cardinal du Perron, p. 540].  He made his solemn entry into Rome on December 18, 1604 [Burigny,  Vie du Cardinal du Perron, p. 220-221].   "Je fus principalement envoyé à Rome pour le fait d' Angleterre, pour aviser aux moins d'amener le Roi d' Angleterre à la Religion Catholique."   Baccio Giovannini (Tuscan ambassador in France) to the Grand Duke of Tuscany (June 2, 1605):  "E. Duperron scrive le più frivole e le più inette cose, come appunto fanno i ragazzi che vanno alla scuola; e il Re mostra le sue lettere come oracoli!" [A. Desjardins, Négociations diplomatiques de la France avec la Toscane  Tome V (Paris 1875) 553]. 
  45. Innocenzo del Bufalo Cancellieri (aged 39) [Romanus], Cardinal Priest of S. Tommaso in Parione (1604-1605), then of S. Marcello.  Doctor in utroque iure (Rome).  Abbreviator de parco maiori in the Camera Apostolica. Referendarius utriusque signaturae.   Bishop of Camerino (1601–1606). Nuncio to France (1601-1604).  (died 1610).
  46. Giovanni Delfino (aged 60) [Venetus], Cardinal Priest of S. Matteo in Merulana (1604-1605), then of S. Marco. Former Venetian Ambassador before the Holy See. Bishop of Vicenza (1603–1606).    (died 1622).
  47. Giacomo Sannesio (aged ca. 45) [Picenum], Cardinal Priest of S. Stefano al Monte Celio (1604–1621).    (died 1621).
  48. Erminio Valenti (Erminius de Valentibus de Trivio) (aged 41) [Trevi, in the diocese of Spoleto], son of Attilio Valenti and Lavinia Greggi. Cardinal Priest of S. Maria in Traspontina (1604–1618).  Secretary of Cardinal Pietro Aldobrandino (nephew of Clement VIII).  Protonotary Apostolic de numero participantium.  Canon of the Vatican Basilica.  He helped to negotiate the peace between Henri IV of France and Carlo of Savoia (1600-1601).   On June 9, 1604, Clement VIII named him a cardinal (September 12, 1602).   He was made Bishop of Faenza by Paul V on August 3, 1605, and was consecrated by Cardinal Aldobrandino on September 18.   (died 1618; buried in the church of S. Maria delle Lagrime in Trevi).
  49. Girolamo Pamphili (aged ca. 60) [Romanus], Cardinal Priest of S. Biagio dell’Anello (1604–1610).  A colleague of Clement VIII as Auditor of the Rota.   Dean of the Sacred Roman Rota  (1604-1610).  A friend of Filippo Neri  (died 1610).
  50. Ferdinando Taverna (aged 47) [Milan],  son of Senator Cesare Taverna. Degree in law (Pavia).  Governor of Rome; he made himself hated by the Romans because of his execution of Onofrio Santacroce, Marchese d'Oriolo (decapitated on the Ponte S. Angelo in 1601).  Cardinal Priest of S. Eusebio (1604–1619).   He was the original owner of the Villa Borgese at Frascati, which he presented to Paul V.  Legate of the Marches (July 5, 1605).    Bishop of Novara (1615-1619)  He died at Novara on August 29, 1619, and was buried in the Cathedral.
  51. Anselmo Marzato, OFM Cap (aged 62)  [Monopoli]; his father's family were from Sorrento, his mother, Cornelia de' Tolomei, was from Siena.  His father was Governor of Monopoli when Anselmo (his baptismal name was Claudio) was born. He joined the Capuccini  of the Province of Otranto.  He completed his studies in Rome where he was made Lector in Philosophy and Theology in his Order. He also earned a reputation in various towns of Italy and France as a preacher.  He was elected Provincial of the Roman Province.  He was elected Definitor General in the General Chapter of 1592, after which he was promoted to the post of Procurator General of the Order.  Clement VIII appointed Marzato Preacher of the Apostolic Palace, a position he held for nine years.  He was also appointed a Consultor at the Holy Office, and Theologian of the SC de auxiliis.  When Cardinal Aldobrando was sent as Legate to France in 1599, Father Marzato was sent along with him as his Theologian.  Clement VIII created him a cardinal in the Consistory of June 9, 1604, and named him Cardinal Priest of S. Pietro in Montorio (1604–1607).  He became ill during the second Conclave of 1605, and on medical advice, was transferred to the Capuchin Convent in Frascati (Tusculum),  On February 12, 1607, Pope Paul V named him Archbishop of Chieti.  He died at Tusculum on August 17, 1607 (according to the Acta Consistorialia); his body was transferred to Rome and buried in his church of S. Pietro in Montorio.   "Cardinal of Monopoli", his birthplace.

  52. Francesco Sforza di Santa Fiora (aged 42) [Romanus], Cardinal Deacon of Santa Maria in Via Lata [1588-1617] (died 1624) Cardinal Protodeacon
  53. Alessandro Damasceni Peretti de Montalto (aged 33) [Romanus], Cardinal Deacon of S. Lorenzo in Damaso (1589–1620).  (died 1623) Grand-nephew of Sixtus V. Vice-Chancellor of the S. R. E. (1589–1623)
  54. Odoardo Farnese (aged 31), son of Alessandro, Duke of Parma and Piacenza, and Maria of Portugal. Cardinal Deacon of S. Eustachio (1595–1617) (died 1626). Great-grandson of Pope Paul III. Of the Spanish faction, and no friend of the Aldobrandini.
  55. Bartolomeo Cesi (aged 39), son of Angelo Cesi, Lord of Monticelli, San Polo, Acquasparta, Porcaria, Civitella Cesi, Poggio Cesi and Marcellina, and brother of Don Federico Cesi, 1st Duke of Acquasparta and 1st Prince of San Polo e Sant'Angelo. His mother was Beatrice Caetani, daughter of the Duke of Sermoneta.   Doctor in utroque iure (Perugia, 1587). Referendary of the Two Signatures. Domestic Prelate of Clement VIII. Protonotary Apostolic de numero participantium  (1586), Cleric of the Apostolic Camera (1589).  Treasurer General S. R. E. (1589).  Cardinal Deacon of S. Maria in Portico (1596–1611).  Governor of Tivoli (1597-1605).  Governor of Benevento (1605). (died 1621) Doctor in utroque iure, Perugia.
  56. Andrea Baroni Peretti Montalto (aged 32), Cardinal Deacon of S. Angelo in Pescheria (1600–1617). (died 1629, as Bishop of Frascati) cousin of Pope Sixtus V
  57. Alessandro d'Este (aged 36) [Modena], Cardinal Deacon of S. Maria Nuova (1600–1621). (died 1624). Brother of the Duke of Modena.  He was in the pay of Henri IV of France.
  58. Cinzio Passeri Aldobrandini (aged 54) [Senigallia], son of Aurelio Passeri and Elisabetta Aldobrandini [Cardella VI, p. 11], sister of Clement VIII. Cardinal Deacon of S. Giorgio in Velabro [1598-June 1, 1605] Nephew of Pope Clement VIII.  Named Major Penitentiary by Leo XI a few days after his election (1605-1610).    (died January 1, 1610, buried in S. Pietro in Vincoli)  [V. Forcella, Inscrizioni delle chiese di Rome IV, p. 85 no. 192].
  59. Giovanni Battista Deti (aged 25) [Florence], Cardinal Deacon of S. Maria in Cosmedin (1599–1614). (died 1630, as Bishop of Ostia).
  60. Silvestro Aldobrandini (aged 17) [Romanus], Cardinal Deacon of S. Cesareo in Palatio (died 1612) Grand-nephew of Clement VIII. Prior of the Order of St. John of Jerusalem [Cardella, VI, 85-86]
  61. Giovanni Doria (aged 32) [Genoa], son of the Prince Giovanni of Melfi. Cardinal Deacon without Deaconry. He studied in Spain, and was created Cardinal at the request of King Philip II.   After the Election, assigned S. Adriano al Foro (1605–1623).   (died 1642).
  62. Carlo Emmanuele Pio di Carpi (aged 20) [Ferrara], Cardinal Deacon of S. Nicola in Carcere (1604–1623).    (died 1641 as Bishop of Ostia).

Cardinals absent:

  1. Ascanio Colonna (aged 44), Cardinal Priest of S. Pudenziana (died 1608). Prior of the Sovereign Order of Malta, Venice.  Doctor in utroque iure (Alcala). Archpriest of the Lateran Basilica. He was Legate in Spain. His absence from the Election of Leo XI is noted by Olduin, in Ciaconius-Olduin IV, p. 371.  He presided at the ceremonies of the possessio  of Paul V on November 6, 1605 [Cancellieri, Storia de' solenni possessi, p. 170]. Olduin, in Ciaconius-Olduin IV, p. 171, marks him as present for the Conclave of Paul V.
  2. Pierre de Gondi (aged 72) [French], Cardinal Priest of S. Silvestro in Capite (1588–1616).  ex-Archbishop of Paris. Doctor in utroque iure, Paris [cf. Les ambassades et negotiations de l' Illustrissime et Reverendissime Cardinal du Perron, p. 574-575 (April 27, 1605)]    (died 1616)
  3. Charles III de Lorraine-Vaudemont, Cardinal Priest of S. Agata dei Goti [1591-1607].  Bishop of Metz. [cf. Les ambassades et negotiations de l' Illustrissime et Reverendissime Cardinal du Perron, p. 574-575 (April 27, 1605)]
  4. Fernando Niño de Guevara (aged 64) [Toledo, Spain], of the Counts of Onnate. Cardinal Priest of S. Martino ai Monti [1598-1609].   Archbishop of Seville (1601–1609).  (died 1609)
  5. Bernardo de Rojas y Sandoval (aged 58), Cardinal Priest of S. Anastasia (1601–1618). (died 1618).   Archbishop of Toledo (1599-1618).
  6. Bernard Maciejowski (57), Cardinal Priest of S. Giovanni a Porta Latina (1605–1608).  Cantor of Gniesen. Canon of Krakow.  Dean of Warsaw.  Latin-rite Bishop of Luck (Poland) (1587-1600).  He acted as papal Legate to the Synod of Brest, convoked by the Metropolitan of Kiev, on December 2, 1594, to discuss the union of Greek and Roman churches.   Archbishop of Krakow (1600-1606).  He was created cardinal on June 9, 1604, and assigned the titulus of S. Giovanni a Porta Latina on January 7, 1605.  (died 1608).



The cardinals were those of the March conclave, with the exception of Cardinal Agucci of Bologna (who had died on April 27), since Leo XI had created no new cardinals. Of the sixty-seven cardinals, sixty-two participated in the final election. After the previous conclave the alliances which had been made began to fall apart.  The French and the Grand Duke of Tuscany had succeeded, and the Spanish had been defeated. The hostilities and disappointments of these important people had not had time to dissipate. 

There were, nonetheless, two active would-be leaders as the second Conclave of 1605 approached, Cardinal Pietro Aldobrandini (nephew of Clement VIII) and Cardinal Andrea Peretti Montalto (grand-nephew of Sixtus V). Aldobrandini's faction, which had been an alliance of disparate interests, had continual problems with staying united.  It is true that he was still the nominal leader of the faction of cardinals created by his uncle, 'the newer cardinals', and he nominally presided over perhaps twenty-six votes, but the ambitions of several of those cardinals diminished the control he had over their votes.  Montalto (though he himself was only 33 years old) was nominal leader of the twenty-three 'older cardinals',  but that leadership in itself did not carry much real support, since there was no unity in the elders. In the earlier conclave he had also represented the interests of the King of Spain [Histoire des Conclaves 3rd ed., p. 275].

One of the big problems of the second Conclave of 1605 was the large number of would-be candidates.  Cardinal Montalto had five members of his faction who were considered 'papabili': Domenico Pinelli (Bishop of Porto), Girolamo Bernerio (Bishop of Albano), Antonio Sauli (the Cardinal Protopriest), Innocenzo del Bufalo (Camerino) and Gregorio Petrocchini del Montelparo (all 'elder cardinals'); nominally he might be able to muster some twenty-one votes. Cardinal Montalto himself, however, had been showing an interest for Cardinal Camillo Borghese.  Cardinal Aldobrandini's faction now included some ten cardinals who were 'papabili': Cesare Baronius, Lorenzo Bianchetti, Ottavio d'Aquaviva d'Aragona, Girolamo Pamphili, Roberto Bellarmin, Domenico Ginnasi, Paolo Emilio Zacchia (San Marcello), Domenico Toschi,  Giovanni Francesco Blandrate di San Giorgio (San Clemente), and Camillo Borghese—though when it came to promoting a candidate for the papacy, Aldobrandini was not keen on any of the first five, least of all Cesare Baronius, whose reputation for severity was off-putting [Histoire des conclaves 3rd ed. I, p. 312-313].  Aldobrandini had apparently drawn some conclusions from his uncle's fervent persecution of heretics.  Clement VIII (Aldobrandini) had presided over the execution of some thirty Roman heretics, the latest and most famous being Giordano Bruno, OP (1600).  Aldobrandini's partiality for Zacchia (San Marcello), however, was the subject of an unpleasant conversation between him and the Imperial Ambassador [Petruccelli, 460].

The five Spanish cardinals, for their part, were not in a position to make a pope.  Their strategy, therefore, was to exclude if possible the most undesirable candidates. These included, from their perspective, Cardinals Innocenzo del Bufalo (Camerino), Cesare Baronio, Séraphin Olivier Razali, and Agostino Valier.  They were also unfriendly toward the prospects of Palotta and Ginnasi.  And the Marquis de Villena had a personal hatred of Aldobrandini because of his conduct in the March conclave, as far as the Instructions of the King of Spain were concerned, which constituted an insult to his King [Petruccelli, II, p. 461].   Villena, apparently, was also considering favorably Cardinal Roberto Bellarmine;  in a report to Spain he remarked, "...En alguna confusion o aprieto tienen peligro de salir Mantica, Belarminio o Verona, y esto es en suma lo que se pudo percebir de la disposicion del Conclave despues que entraron en el, donde quedan bien desavenidos y diferentes en deseos y fines. Sali de alla al amanecer hoy, 9 de Mayo" [Couderc, p. 18. n.3].  The King decided not to oppose his election [Couderc, p, 21].

The Grand Duke of Tuscany, Ferdinand I, took the trouble to mention to the French Cardinals Joyeuse and Perron that he would like to see Borghese elected pope, a wish he had already expressed to the Spanish:  Lerma, Villena and Cardinal Antonio Zapata y Cisneros.

The French cardinals were subject to the will of the King of France.   Henri IV had expressed his preferences in October, 1604, in a memorial to his ambassador and to Cardinal de Joyeuse:  Baronius was his first choice.  The King was also agreeable, however, to Cardinals Valier (Valerio), Sauli, Palotta, Bufalo, and Séraphin Olivier;  he was not opposed to Pompeio Arrigoni and Camillo Borghese.  The King most definitely did not want Como, Bernerio (Ascoli), Lorenzo Bianchetti, or Montelparo; he had no sympathy for Zacchia (S. Marcello) [Couzard, 347-348].  On March 16, he wrote to Ambassador de Béthune, "Partant si nous ne pouvons avoir pour pape Florence ou Baronius, j'aurai très agreable Vérone... Mais je désirerais fort que nous puissons avoir Florence par préférence a tout autre, et si nous sommes exclus et déboutés de Florence, donnons à l'un des deux autres" [Couzard, 349 n.].   The French Cardinals' greatest suspicions were directed toward Tolomeo Galli di Como (the Dean), and also to all of the monks with the exception of Anselmo Marzato, OFM Cap.   The French Ambassador (1601-1605), Philippe de Béthune, also had a special dislike of Cardinal Sauli, because the latter had not returned the favor which the Ambassador had shown him during the March conclave.  On May 3, Cardinal du Perron wrote to King Henri that it was going to be necessary for the French cardinals to show their friendship to Cardinal Aldobrandini by acceeding to his firm demand that they help him in excluding Sauli, even though Sauli had been one of those considered 'acceptable' on King Henri's list. They also promised Cardinal Aldobrandini that they would help him to exclude Lorenzo Bianchetti, d’Ascoli (Girolamo Bernerio, OP), and Montelpero—which was not a problem, since they were also rejected by King Henri. 

By the beginning of the Conclave,  Aldobrandini's faction seemed to have twenty-six votes,  Montalto, the five Spanish, and the 'League' (of elder cardinals) seemed to have twenty-six too.

At the beginning of the conclave, a number of electors were leaning towards Cardinal Domenico Toschi, the Bishop of Tivoli, an experienced soldier, lawyer and administrator, who had been governor of Rome from 1595 to 1599. He was, however, spoken against, more for his manners and his style of speaking than his competence (It may have been simple class prejudice). Cardinal Baronius remarked that this did not suit a Vicar of Christ, and most of Toschi's supporters transferred their votes to (of all people) Baronius himself (to a total of 32).



The conclave began on Sunday, May 8  [Gattico I, 348; Gauchat, p. 9 n. 2].  Fifty-seven cardinals were present [The Histoire des conclaves I, p. 315 says fifty-nine].  Cardinals Madruzzo and Zacchia, who were ill, were certainly not in attendance.  Petruccelli says Pinelli was also ill [II, 461].  The Mass of the Holy Spirit was sung by the Dean of the Sacred College, Tolomeo Galli di Como. The Oratio pro pontifice eligendo was provided by Alessandro Burgi of Modena, Secretary of the Sacred College of Cardinals.  Cardinal Aldobrandini had been ill and confined to bed with a fever and a cough, but he appeared nontheless, out of fear (it was said) that people might attempt to do something in favor of Sauli.  Indeed, it seems as though the friends of Sauli attempted to organize an election "by adoration" then and there   Sauli himself, however, wished to avoid a scene and a scandal, which the friends of Aldobrandini were threatening, and refused to proceed.  He would (they said) bide his time until Aldobrandini had to be absent because of his illness, at which time the plan could proceed without hindrance.  Unfortunately for Sauli, Aldobrandini grew stronger every day.  Domenico Toschi, however, took to his bed with some unspecified illness [Histoire des conclaves, I, p. 315]. At some point Aldobrandini believed that he had entered into an understanding with the French faction that he would see to giving the virtual exclusion (veto by votes) to Cardinals Lorenzo Bianchetti; Girolamo Bernerio, OP; and Gregorio Petrocchini del Montelparo.  In return the French agreed to work for the election of one of Aldobrandini's creature, in particular Blandrate di San Giorgio and Toschi.  The Spanish, it turned out, had no orders to exclude Blandrate.

The First Scrutiny, on the morning of May 9 (voting was still an open matter), was completely inconclusive.  No candidate had a large showing.   Bellarmine received 14 votes (including the results of the accessio; eleven on the scrutiny).  This operation in his behalf was conducted by Sforza (his cousin), Acquaviva and Sfondrato, and was joined by Farnese.  Cardinal Baronius received eight votes.  The rest were widely scattered, many no doubt tributes from one friend to another.  Farnese got one, as did Doria and Pio di Carpo. Montalto got two.  It is said that Cardinal Silvestro Aldobrandini, who was only 17, complained that he had not received a single vote; it is not clear whether he was making a very bad joke, or demonstrating an appallingly high degree of narcissism.  Bellarmine, however, took it seriously (as he did everything), and remarked that cardinals who voted for such young candidates were failing to follow the promptings of their consciences and were committing mortal sins [Histoire des conclaves, p. 277; Petruccelli, II, p. 465].

On the Third Scrutiny [May 11], Cardinal Sauli had thirteen votes, Visconti eleven, and Borgese ten.  The other votes were scattered.

On the Fourth Scrutiny [May 12], Borghese had the largest number of votes, with eleven.  The greatest effort, however, was being made by Montalto and his faction to give the virtual exclusion to Cardinal Blandrate di San Giorgio [Histoire des conclaves, 319].  They included  Montalto, Visconti, Aldobradino (Saint Cesareo), Sfondrati, d'Este and Pio di Carpi [Letter of Monte to the Grand Duke of Tuscany, May 13, 1605: Petruccelli, II, p. 469].

On the Fifth Scrutiny [Friday, May 13], Borghese had eleven, Baronius had eleven, and Camerino [Innocenzo del Bufalo Cancellieri] eight.

The events of Monday, May 16, are the subject of a long and revealing report of the Cardinal de Joyeuse to King Henri IV of France, written on May 19.  The Acta Consistorialia also report the amazing event [Gauchat, p. 9 n.2; Calenzio, p. 689 n. 1]:

Anno MDCV, Feria II, die 16 eiusdem mensis Maii inter rev.mos patres ingens coorta est dissensio; aliis Baronio, aliis Tusco suffragantibus.  Quae demum dissensio circa horam secundam noctis eiusdem diei repente sublata est; primo omnium consensu, deinde vivis suffragantibus ordine ac singillatim in Sum. Pont.cem elegentibus rev.mum Camillum Burghesium natione Romanum, S.R.E. pbr. card.lem qui Pauli V nomen assumpsit.

Two Cardinals were not in the Pauline Chapel for the uproar or the sudden lapse into agreement, Cardinal Zachias and Cardinal Madruzzo, who were confined to bed.  They sent in their votes, however, and happily concurred in the result [Tamen ex his 60 card.bus duo infirmi in lectulo iacebant, scil. Zachias et Madrutius, et ideo ad electionem in sacella Paulina venire non potuerunt, sed consensum praestiterunt, et electionem hilariter approbaverunt].  On the evening of May 16, Cardinal Camillo Borghese, Vicar General of Rome and head of the Holy Inquisition, was unanimously elected pope. He was 53 years of age. The Spanish Ambassador and the Venetian Ambassador, Agostino Nani, were received by the new Pope immediately after the ceremonial recognition in St. Peter's Basilica.  Cardinal Arrigoni was named Datary.

Paul V was crowned in the Vatican Basilica on May 29, the Feast of Pentecost. Cardinal Zacchia, who had been ill during the Conclave, died on May 31. 

Paul V took possession of the Lateran Basilica on November 6.





Alessandro Burgi, Oratio ad Illmos et Rmos Cardinales pro novo Pontifice eligendo, habita in Basilica S. Petri 8. Idus Maji 1605 (Florentiae: Juntas, 1605).  G. Orlandi, Relazione della solenne cavalcata fatta dalla S. di N. S. Paolo V dal suo palazzo di S. Pietro a S. Giovanni in Laterano nel pigliare il possesso di quella sua chiesa, con la descrizione degli apparati ed archi trionfali fatti dal popolo romano (Roma: G. Facciotto 1605).

Conclavi de' Pontifici Romani (Cologne 1692) Volume 1 [augmented edition, by Gregorio Leti]     Histoire des conclaves depuis Clément V, jusqu' à présent [Innocent XII], augmentée... (Cologne: 1694) [translation of the Conclavi de' Pontefici Romani, by Vanel].  Histoire des conclaves, troisième édition, Tome premier (Cologne 1703), pp. 311-340.

Ludwig Wahrmund, Das Ausschliessungs-recht (jus exclusivae) der katholischen Staaten Österreich, Frankreich und Spanien bei den Papstwahlen (Wien 1888), 117-120.

Giuseppe Novaes Elementi della storie de Sommi Pontefice Volume IX terza edizione (Roma 1822) 77-81; 86-89. G. Moroni, Dizionario di erudizione storico-ecclesiastica Volume 38 (Venezia 1846) 49-50. Alexis Francois Artaud de Montor, Histoire des souverains pontifes romains Tome V (Paris 1851), 172-174 (substantially copying Novaes). F. Petruccelli della Gattina, Histoire diplomatique des conclaves   Volume II (Paris: 1864), 452-492.  Leopold von Ranke, History of the Popes, their Church and State  revised edition (translated by E. Fowler) Volume II (New York 1901), pp. 211-224.  T.A. Trollope The Papal Conclaves (London 1876) 262-292.

Claude-Pierre Goujet, Histoire du Pontificat de Paul V. Tome premier (Amsterdam 1765).  Maria Teresa Fattori, Clemente VIII e il Sacro Collegio, 1592-1605: meccanismi istituzionali ed accentramento di governo (Stuttgart: Anton Hiersemann 2004) [Päpste und Papsttum, 33].

Antoine Aubery, L' histoire du Cardinal duc de Joyeuse (Paris: chez Robert Denain, 1664).  Cesar de Ligny (editor),   Les ambassades et negotiations de l' Illustrissime et Reverendissime Cardinal du Perron dernière edition (Paris: chez Pierre Lamy 1633). M. de Burigny,  Vie du Cardinal du Perron, Archevêque de Sens et Grand-Aumônier de France (Paris: De Bure 1768). 

Raymundus Alberici, "De vita et scriptis venerabilis cardinalis Caesare Baronii Libri Duo,"  in  Raymundis Albericius, Ven. Caesaris Baronii S. R.E. Cardinalis  Bibliothecarii Epistolae  Tomus Primus (Romae 1759), 1-112.   Domenico Sarra, Vita del ven. card. Cesare Baronio  (Roma: 1862), 156-168.  Amabel Kerr, The Life of Cesare Cardinal Baronius (London 1898).  Generoso Calenzio,  La vita e gli scritti del Cardinale Cesare Baronio (Roma: Tipografia Vaticana 1907).

E. Timpe,  "Die Kirchenpolitischen Ansichten und Bestrebungen des Kardinals Bellermin,"  Kirchengeschichliche Abhandlungen III (edited by Max Sdralek) (Breslau 1905), 3-133.  Joseph de la Servière, SJ, "Les idées politiques  du Cardinal Bellermin," Revue des questions historiques  41 (1907);  42 (1908), 56-90. [extremely sympathetic].  J. J. I. von Döllinger and Fr. Heinrich Reusch,  Die Selbstbiographie des Cardinals Bellarmine (Bonn 1887) [Latin and German].

Francesco Rivola, Vita di Federico Borromeo, Cardinale del titolo di Santa Maria degli Angeli ed Arcivescovo di Milano (Milano: Giuseppe Gariboldi 1656).

Champollion-Figeac (editors), Nouvelle collection des Mémoires pour servir à l' Histoire de France.  Deuxième partie du tome premier.  Registre-Journal de Henri IV et de Louis XIII (Paris 1837).  Berger de Xivrey (editor), Recueil des lettres missives de Henri IV Tome VI, 1603-1606 (Paris: Imprimerie Impériale 1853).

Pietro Aldobrandino,  La legazione in Francia del Cardinal Pietro Aldobrandino, narrata da lui medesimo (edited by Luigi Fumi) (Citta di  Castello 1903) [1598:  the embassy was led by Cardinal Alessandro de' Medici].  R. Couzard, Une ambassade à Rome sous Henri IV (September 1601–Juin1605), d' après des documents inédits (Tonneins: Georges Ferrier 1900) [Philippe de Béthune].


© 06/15/2008

September 28, 2015 4:35 PM

John Paul Adams, CSUN

Valid HTML 4.01 Transitional
Valid CSS!

| Home | | Papal Portraits Home | | Medals Bibliography | | Other Conclaves | | Conclave Bibliography |