SEDE VACANTE 1227

March 18, 1227—March 19, 1227



Honorius III in Consistory Background

Honorius III had been elected, no doubt, by cardinals who were eager to continue the policies of Innocent III and to consolidate the gains which he had made in terms of international influence, papal finance, and the codification of Canon Law. Cencius Savelli had been the leading assistant of Innocent throughout his reign as papal chamberlain and author of the Liber Censuum. He had also served as tutor of the young Frederick II. He was also a committed supporter of the crusading movement and the realization of the program of reform promulgated by the IV Lateran Council. His temperament, moreover, was much less confrontational than Innocent's had been, and might be expected to produce more harmonious working among the monarchs of Europe in pursuing the Church's goals.

In the pursuit of these goals, he negotiated a peace between France and Aragon, intervened between the child-King Henry III of England and the opportunistic Philip Augustus of France. He was able to launch the Fifth Crusade, as the Lateran Council had demanded, but Cardinal Pelagius Galvani was not a success as Papal Legate or as supreme commander, a post which he claimed in his arrogance (and the absence of a European monarch to take command), despite his complete incompetence. Frederick II, who had obtained the Imperial Coronation from Honorius (November 22, 1220), was extremely reluctant to cooperate with the crusade, however, preferring to campaign in southern Italy and Sicily to consolidate his inheritance. The more successful he was at this, the more threatening his power became to the Papacy, his immediate neighbor to the north. The Pope had to fear Frederick's designs to reconquer imperial territories in central and northern Italy, which could well turn the Papacy into a client of the Emperor, rather than the opposite (as Innocent had envisioned). Honorius sent Cardinal Ugo dei Conti to Lombardy as his legate (1221), and he had considerable success in arranging truces between Guelfs and Ghibellines.

Honorius, always anxious for peace, had allowed Frederick to get away with his repeated postponements in fulfilling his commitment to take the cross, though he did get Frederick to sign the treaty of S. Germano, in which Frederick acknowledged that he faced excommunication if he did not leave on Crusade by the Summer of 1227. The removal of Frederick and his army from the Italian scene for a time, perhaps years, would ease the threat to the papal territories and the independence of the Holy See. A new pope with a firm hand and determination was needed to make Frederick fulfil his commitments. Here was the beginning of a quarter-century of disasters for the Church.

Death of Pope Honorius III

During the winter of 1126-1127, the Fucine Lake froze over, and people were able to walk across it along with their animals and supplies. In January, 1227, there was a severe famine in Rome. Honorius sent his agents to Sicily to find supplies for himself and the Roman Curia. He appointed Henricus de Morra, the Magister Iustitiarius, to carry out this assignment.

Honorius III (Cencio Savelli) died at the age of 79, on March 18, 1127, according to Pope Gregory IX (Ugo dei Conti di Segni) in his electoral manifesto [MGH Epistolae I, no. 343; Potthast 7864] at the Lateran Palace. There is no indication as to the cause of his death. He was interred in the Basilica Liberiana (S. Maria Maggiore), near the relics of the Holy Manger of Bethlehem (Adinolfi, Roma nell' età di mezzo I, p. 209). He had been Archpriest of that Basilica before his election to the Papacy. The Holy See was vacant for only two days.

The Cardinals

Panvinio (Epitome, pp. 154-155) counts 17 cardinals "qui electioni PP. Gregorii IX. interfuerunt," five cardinal-bishops, six cardinal-priests, and six cardinal-deacons. Ciaconius-Olduin (II, columns 65-67) lists 19 cardinals "vivi quando Gregorius Papa IX. creatus est." Bartholomaeus S. Pudentianae is allowed, though he was not yet a Cardinal. Gregorius Theodolus is allowed, though he was probably dead. Oliver Saxo is omitted, though he was certainly alive. He died in 1227 [Ughelli I, 169]. No contemporary source states the number of cardinals, the number who were present at the election, or the names of those present at the election.

List of Cardinals alive at the Death of Honorius III:

  1. Niccolò de Chiaramonte, OCist., Bishop of Tusculum [Frascati]. Successor of Niccolo de Romanis (1205-1219).
  2. Guido Pierleone [Romanus—not Urbevetanus—of the family that included Anacletus II (Petrus Petri Leonis).  Giovanni Pierleone had been Senator of Rome in 1196; Hugo Pierleone had been Bishop of Tusculum ca. 1164-1166 (Cappelletti, Chiese d'Italia I, 631), and Uguccione Pierleone Deacon of S. Angelo and Cardinal Priest of S. Clemente]. Guido was Bishop of Praeneste [Penestrinus (Palestrina)] (1221-1228), formerly Cardinal Deacon of S. Nicola in Carcere Tulliano (1205-1221) Vice-Chancellor S. R. E. His nephew, Giovanni, was Papal Subdeacon (Cardinal Guido died on April 25, 1228, as a notice in the Kalendaria of the Church of Piacenza states: VII. Kal. Majj 1228. Obiit Guido Petri Leonis Praenestinus Episcopus, qui dedit huic Ecclesiae etc.] [Cardella I.2, 199, says that he was not at the Election of Gregory IX]
  3. Hugo (Hugolinus) dei Conti di Segni (1145 [or 1170]-1241); his mother belonged to one of the leading families of Anagni. Bishop of Ostia e Velletri (1206-1227).Cardinal Deacon of S. Eustachio from 1198-1206, the first of Innocent III's creature. Chaplain of Innocent III [Baronius-Theiner 20, sub anno 1216, no. 14, p. 354; Muratori, Rerum Italicarum Scriptores III, p. 575].   Archpriest of the Vatican Basilica.   "liberalium atque utriusque juris peritia eminenter instructus, fluvius eloquentiae Tullianae, sacrae paginae diligens observator et doctor" (Liber Censuum, in Baronius-Theiner, sub anno 1227, no. 13, p. 530; Muratori, III. 1, p. 575) He helped St. Francis of Assisi write the Rule for the Third Order of Franciscans (Cuthbert, Life of St. Francis of Assisi, p. 337). Made Protector of the Franciscans by Honorius III at the request of St. Francis ["First Life of St. Francis", ch. V (99)]. He was Apostolic Legate in Ferrara in 1219 [Levi, Registri p. 1, no. i (June 29, 1219); 6, no. iii (July 12, 1219)]. On December 25, 1120, he laid the Interdict on the city of Parma, because of their fight with their bishop and clergy; the Interdict was finally lifted on July 10, 1120. In 1221 he was on a special legation pro subsidio Terrae Sanctae [Levi, p. 8, no. v (Florence, April 1, 1221)]. He also did business in Piacenza, Modena, Brescia, Cremona, Milan, Lodi, Verona, Padua, Treviso, Reggio, S. Maria de Reno (Bologna), Vercelli, Novara, and Bologna. He was back in Anagni on March 14, 1222, when he assigned the responsibility for the defense of Ostia to domino Riccardo comiti, with Cardinals Stephanus of XII Apostolorum and Rainerius Capocci of S. Maria in Cosmedin as witnesses [Levi, Registri, p. 143, no. cxvi].
  4. Pelagius Galvanus, OSB.[Portuguese], Bishop of Albano (1212-1230), formerly Cardinal Deacon of S. Lucia in Septisolio (1205-1210) and then Cardinal Priest of S. Caecilia (1210-1212). Master in theology (Paris) He had given Frederick II the crusading cross [Muratori, III, p. 576] He was Papal Legate on the Fifth Crusade (from September, 1220). Honorius III refers to his pleas for financial assistance in a letter to Cardinal Hugo dei Conti, who was raising money for the Holy Land in 1221 [Levi, Registri, pp. 140-141, no. cxiii (August 11, 1221)]. He was Papal Legate in Liguria, one of whose judicial decisions was confirmed by Honorius III on February 6, 1127 [Pressutti, Regesta II, no. 6227 and 6229, pp. 477-478]; and another judgment taken in concert with Cardinal Rainerius Capocci of S. Maria in Cosmedin confirmed on February 27, 1127 [Pressutti, Regesta II, no. 6264, p. 483].
  5. Conrad von Urach, OCist. (aged ca. 57), son of Graf Egino, the Count of Seyn, ; and Agnes, daughter of Herzog Berthold V, Duke of Zähringen. His great-uncle Rudolf of Zähringen, had been Bishop of Liège [Schreckenstein, 322-323].. Conrad was Bishop of Porto e Santa Rufina (1219-1227). Formerly Prior and then Abbot of Villers (Brabant) (by 1200), Abbot of Clairvaux (1214), Abbot of Citeaux and Abbot General of the Cistercians (1217-1219). Legate in France in 1216/17, against the Albigensians (1220-1224) [Honorius III, Lib. VIII, ep. 381; Bouquet, Recueil des historiens de la Gaule 19, 751-752], Spain, and Germany (1224-1226). On December 10, 1225, he celebrated a Council at Mainz [not at Cologne] which included representatives from the ecclesiastical provinces of Mainz, Cologne Trier, Bremen and Magdeburg. (died September 29, 1227, anno milleno biscenteno trino nono) [Schreckenstein, 366, gives the date as September 30].

  6. Leone Brancaleone, Cardinal Priest in the title of S. Croce in Gerusalemme (1202-ca. 1230), formerly Cardinal Deacon of S. Lucia in Septasolio (1200-1202) Legate in Bulgaria 1204. Legate in Germany 1207, 1209. Legate in Hungary
  7. Guala (Wala) Bicherius (Bicchieri) [Vercelli], Cardinal Priest in the title of Ss. Silvestro e Martino ai Monti (1211-1227), formerly Cardinal Deacon of S. Maria in Porticu (1205-1211). former Canon of the Cathedral of S. Eusebio in Vercelli, Bishop of Vercelli (1182-1184). Legate in France, 1208. Legate in England from May 20, 1216 to September, 1218. Doctor in utroque iure (Bologna) (died 1227. A codicil to his Will is dated May 31, 1227: Lampugnani, p. 84, His executor was Cardinal Stefano de Ceccano.)
  8. Joannes (Giovanni) de Columna (Colonna) [Romanus], second son of Oddone Colonna, Signore di Colonna, Monteporzio, Zagarolo, Gallicano e Palestrina. Cardinal Priest of S. Prassede (1216-1244) Apostolicae Sedis Legatus in Constantinople in 1221 [Pressutti, Regesta I, no. 3105, p. 508]. Papal Legate on the V. Crusade, 1223. Rector of the Duchy of Spoleto [Pressutti, Regesta Honorii Papae III II, no. 6258, p. 482 (February 26, 1127)]. (died on February 9, 1245: 'Matthew of Westminster', Flores Historiarum II, p. 270 ed. Luard) [Eggs, Purpura Docta I, 138-140]
  9. (Magister) Tommaso de Ebulo ("de Episcopo"), Capuanus (da Capua), Cardinal Priest of S. Sabina (1216-1243), previously Cardinal Deacon of S. Maria in Via Lata in 1216 under Innocent III. Major Penitentiarius.. A. Paravicini Bagliani, Cardinali di curia e "familiae" cardinalizie I (Padova: Antenore 1972), p. 13, states correctly that he had died in 1239, between August 18 and August 22. The dismally inaccurate list in the Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1929 [so too Eggs, 134], which is followed by Salvador Miranda, has him dying on August 22, 1243.   Ryccardus de S. Germano states, sub anno 1239 [MGH 19, 378]: Aput Anagniam Thomas Capuanus Sancte Sabine presbyter cardinalis 15 Kal. Septembris [August 18] obiit. He was the author of a manual of style for the Papal Chancellery called Summa Dictaminis or Dictator Epistularis [Simon Frideric Hahn, Collectio monumentorum veterum et recentium ineditorum Tomus I (Brunsvigae 1724), pp. 279-385]. The name "de Episcopo" is first found in Olduin, Athenaeum Romanum [Maleczzek, 201 n. 562]
  10. Stefano di Ceccano, OCist.[Fossanova], title of Ss. XII Apostoli. Formerly Cardinal Deacon of S. Angelo in Pescheria. S.R.E. Camerarius. Abbot of Fossanova. Chamberlain of Innocent III   "Cardinale di Fossanova"

  11. Ottaviano dei Conti di Segni, Cardinal Deacon of Ss. Sergio e Bacco (1205-1231), once Innocent III's Deaconry. Cousin of Innocent III. Cardinal Protodeacon. (died January 29, 1231, according to the "Liber Anniversariorum della Basilica Vaticana", in Egidi, p. 168, n. 2; p. 285)
  12. Rainerius Capocci, OCist. [Viterbiensis], Cardinal Deacon of S. Maria in Cosmedin (1216-1250). On June 1, 1221, he was present when St. Francis celebrated a capitulum generale at S. Maria de Portiuncula (Analecta Franciscana I, p. 6). In 1222 appointed papal Rector of the Patrimony and Spoleto. In 1243 he lead the Guelfs of Rome against Frederick II (died 1250).
  13. Romanus Bonaventura, Cardinal Deacon of S. Angelo in Pescheria (1216-1236), later Cardinal Bishop of Porto (1236-1243). Archpriest of the Liberian Basilica (but at dates unknown). Legate to France in 1226, persuaded Louis IX to launch a 'sacred war' against the Albigensians [Horoy, Honorii III opera omnia 5, Lib. IX., nos. xcviii, cxliv, cxlv; Lib. X, xiii]; Honorius also wrote to Henry III of England, and mentioned that he was sending Cardinal Romanus to deal with the heretics [Epp. X, ccli]. Cardinal Romanus was forbidden to excommunicate either King Henry or his brother Richard [Rymer Foedera I, 293]. . Sent as Legate to England immediately after the election of 1227 (Calendar of Papal Registers I, p. 118: May 27, 1227). (died 1243)
  14. Stefano de Normandis (dei Conti), Cardinal Deacon of S. Adriano (1216-1228) later Cardinal Priest of S. Maria in Trastevere (1228-1254) Nephew of Innocent III (dei Conti) [Moroni, Dizionario storico-ecclesiastica 48, 110-111] (died December 8, 1254). He died on December 9, according to the Liber Annualium of S. Spirito in Sasso [Pietro Egidi, Necrologi e libri affini della Provincia Romana Volume I (Roma 1908), p. 162].
  15. Egidius [Hispanus] (Gil Torres), Cardinal Deacon of SS. Cosmae et Damiani (December 1216-1255) Legate in Scotland in 1220 to collect funds for crusade decreed by Lateran Council of 1215 (died 1255). [Cardella I. 2, 235; Eubel I, p. 5, p. 487] [Cardinal Aegidius is claimed as Portuguese by Dom Thomas ab Incarnatione, Historia Ecclesiae Lusitanae IV (Coimbra 1763), p. 274-275, the Cardinal's father Julianus having been Chancellor to Kings Aofonso II, Sancho II and Alfonso III]
  16. Petrus Capuanus (Pietro Capuano, of the Counts of Capua), Cardinal Deacon of S. Giorgio in Velabro. Nephew of Petrus Capuanus, Cardinal Priest of S. Marcello. Honorius III confirms one of his judicial decisions in Hungary on February 12, 1227 [Pressutti, Regesta II, no. 6232, p. 478]

Cardinals not present at Election:

  1. Stephen Langton, Cardinal Priest in the title of S. Crisogono. Professor (Doctor) of Theology (Paris), Canon of Notre Dame de Paris, Chancellor of Paris. Archbishop of Canterbury (1207-1228). Conspirator against King John of England, he led the coup that forced John to issue the Magna Carta (June 15, 1215), which was annulled by Innocent III (August 15, 1215: Rymer I, p. 135). Panvinio, Epitome, takes no notice of him at all in regard to the Election of 1227. On January 28, 1227, Pope Honorius issued a monition and mandate, performance of which is to be seen to by the Cardinal Archbishop (Calendar of Papal Registers I, p. 115); on April 28, 1227, Pope Gregory issues a mandate to the Cardinal Archbishop to carry out a mandate of Honorius III (Calendar of Papal Registers I, p. 117; Potthast 7888). These documents suggest that the Cardinal was in England during the Sede Vacante, not in Italy.
  2. Oliver Saxo, "von Paderborn", Bishop of Sabina. In January, 1226 he was sent south to the Emperor Frederick II, who was preparing a crusade [Ryccardus de S. Germano] (died September 11, 1227) [He subscribed bulls until August 9, 1227; his successor as Bishop of Sabina, Cardinal Joannes Halgrin, began subscribing on September 23, 1227]

F. Ughelli prints (Ciaconius-Olduin II, 62-63) a text (written between 1219 and 1221) which indicates a blood relationship among three of the cardinals; it reads as follows:

Miseratione Divina Petrus Sabinensis Episcopus (1216-1221), Nicolaus Tusculanus Episcopus (1219-1227) de Claramonte nuncupatus, et Stephanus [de Ceccano] tituli Basilicae duodecim Apostolorum (1213-1227) Sacrosanctae Romana Ecclesiae Cardinales, universis christifidelibus tam praesentibus quam futuris praesentes nostras literas inspecturis, salutem in Domino sempiternam. Notum facimus, et testamur, quod potentissimus et magnificus Princeps et Dominus D. Federicus de Claramonte consanguinis noster, miles creatus nuper a sanctissimo in Christo Patre et Domino nostro D. Honorio divina providentia Papa Tertio, etc.

 

Election of Ugo dei Conti

The Election took place at the Septemsolia (Septasolium. The "septem" creeps into the name due to the name of the street, "Septem Viae"), the Deaconry of S. Lucia in Septasolio, at the eastern base of the Palatine hill, across the street from the Monastery of S. Andrew and S. Gregory, which had been founded by Pope Gregory I on his family property. The Monastery of S. Andrew and S. Gregory owned the surviving part of the Septizodium, from which the area and buildings took their name, and had been given property adjacent to it in A.D. 975. At the time of the Election of 1227, there was no Cardinal Deacon of S. Lucia. It was in this same place that Pope Innocent III was elected in 1198, on the day of the funeral of Celestine III, in an equally short Sede Vacante.

Gregory IX (Ugo dei Conti di Segni) was elected on Saturday, March 19, the second day after the death of Pope Honorius III (in the account of the 'Cardinal of Aragon'), or (in another account, that of Bernardus Guidonis) on March 20, the ninth day after the Feast of S. Gregory (which was on March 12), which was the day before the Feast of St. Benedict, which is on March 21. The difference is apparently in the meaning of "second day"; the Romans count inclusively, others exclusively. At Rome "second day after " meant "day after" (e.g. ii kal. aprilis = March 31). In the "Vita Gregorii Papae IX, ex Cardinali Aragonio " [Muratori, Rerum Italicarum Scriptores III, p. 575] we find:

Qui tandem defuncto piae recordationis Honorio III. sexta Feria, hebdomada vero majoris Quadragesimae quinta, de communi et impraemeditate Fratrum concordia, non minus electione canonica quam inspiratione Divina, lacrymabili et clamosa contradictione recusans, inter votivas eligentium manus pia vestium laceratione quassatus, in domo Beati Gregorii Gregorius ejus imitator assumitur apud Setpemsolia Summi Pontificis solium , Fratrum instantia devictus, ascends. Demum vero Romanis exultantibus Populis, ac Clero jubilante pare gaudio, irruentibus etiam cathervatim utriusque sexus hominibus, Pontificali decoratus infula, in Lateranensi Palatio magnifice cathedratur.

The phraseology of the testimonium could well suggest that Cardinal dei Conti was elected per viam inspirationis rather than by voting or by compromise. In addition, Pope Gregory himself, in his Electoral Manifesto, says: post aliquantulum tractatum de substitucione pontificis omnes pariter ad imbecillitatem nostram quasi divinitus inspirati oculos direxerunt. There was the traditional Mass of the Holy Spirit. Discussions began and went on for a little while, when everyone at the same time as though divinely inspired directed their eyes toward his imbecillity. It is perhaps too much weight to put on two little words, pariter and quasi, to suggest that Gregory himself thought his election was due to divine intervention by the Holy Spirit. It is too similar to the usual papal rhetoric suitable to such occasions, however the election was accomplished.

Election of Conrad von Urach, O. Cist.

There is another story, retailed in a monastic life of Cardinal Conrad von Urach, O.Cist., once Abbot of Villers, which the writer claims he heard what Cardinal Conrad himself had said (or does he mean that he had heard that Conrad had said?):

Eo tempore mortuo domno papa, cardinales consentire non valentes in electionem, compromiserunt in duos cardinales, et in hunc reverendum patrem; ipse electus ab hiis duobus, "absit," inquit, "quod dicatur quod ego elegerim me in papam", et sic alius electus est. Cum autem morti appropinquaret hic homo Dei, audi(i) quid dixerit. 

The Cardinals were not able to agree on an election. They therefore entered into a compomise, granting the power to elect to two cardinals and Cardinal Conrad von Urach. He was elected by the other two, but he refused the election. And so someone else was elected. The monk-author tells another story he heard from Abbot William of Villers that Cardinal von Urach was able to light candles by pointing at them. This is hagiography, not biography. The story of Conrad von Urach's election to the Papacy, and his Great Refusal, is obviously incompatible with what is known from official sources, and must be rejected. It has a number of parallels, however, with other monkish tales of thirteenth-century phantom popes from the religious orders, which must also be rejected—Saint Bonaventura, General of the Franciscans; St. Philip Benizi, the General of the Servites; Cardinal Vicedomino de' Vicedomini, a Franciscan tertiary; and Fra Giovanni da Vercelli, the sixth Master General of the Order of Preachers. Cardinal von Urach had been Abbot General of the Cistercians.

On different lines, Ferdinand Gregorovius [History of Rome in the Middle Ages V. 1, p. 143] believed that the Cardinals had elected Cardinal Hugo dei Conti precisely because he was the temperamental opposite of his predecessor, in other words that there was rational calculation involved. He bases this on the "Life of Gregory IX", where the remark occurs: Gregorius IX. papa velut fulgur meridianus egreditur. The context of the remark, however, does not justify Gregorovius' interpretation as it is applied to the Election. It was only a general introductory statement in the biography of Pope Gregory, remarking on the difference between Gregory and the other popes of his time.

Investiture and Coronation

Gregory IX was invested with the pallium on Quadragesima Sunday, March 21 1227, the day after the Feast of St. Benedict:

Sequenti vero Dominica die, scilicet Sanctissimi Benedicti Benedictus Pater Praelatorum comitatus obsequiis, assistente innumerabili multitudine Romanorum, in Principis Apostolorum Basilica venerandus Princeps magnifico susceptus tripudio, ex Apostolicae Sedis more suscepit pallium, plenae potestatis insigne. Sicque Missarum peractis solemniis Summus Pontifex gemmis corcumrectus et auro ad Palatium Lateranense procedit.

On Easter Sunday, April 11, he wore the tripudium at S. Maria Maggiore:

Die vero Resurrectionis Dominicae subsequentis Missarum mysteriis in Virginis Gloriosae Basilica solemniter celebratis, revertitur cum tripudio coronatus.

On Easter Tuesday, there was a Solemn Mass at St. Peter's, after which, wearing the double tiara, the Pope and his Court made a procession through the City of Rome:

feria quidem secunda in Albis in praedicta Petri Basilica Divinis Missarum Officiis reverenter expeltis, duplici diademate coronatus, sub fulgoris specie in Cherubim transfiguratus aspectum, inter purpuratam venerabilium Cardinalium, Clericorum et praelatorum comitivam innumeram, insignibus Papalibus praecedentibus equo in phaleris pretiosis evectus per almae Urbis miranda moenia pater Urbis et Orbis deducitur admirandus.

In June the new Pope left Rome and went to Anagni. From there he sent nuntii to the Emperor with a request that food be sent to him by men of the Kingdom of Sicily. He assigned Henricus de Morra, the Magister Justitiarius, to carry this out. The Emperor summoned all of the justiciars of his kingdom to come to Sicily so that they could give him an accounting of all of their income. In the meantime, in preparation for his sailing for the Holy Land, he imposed a general tax on the Kingdom.




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Gioanni Lampugnani, Sulla vita di Guala Bicchieri, patrizio vercellese (Vercelli 1842). A. Parravicini Bagliani, Cardinali di curia e "familiae" cardinaliste, dal 1227 al 1254 Volume II (Padua 1972)

W. H. Bliss (editor), Calendar of Entries in the Papal Registers relating to Great Britain and Ireland. Papal Letters. Volume I (London 1893). W.W. Shirley (editor), Royal and Other Historical Letters illustrative of the Reign of Henry III Volume II. 1236-1272 (London: Longmans 1866).   Abbot Francis Aidan Gasquet, Henry the Third and the Chruch (London 1905). C. R. Cheney and M. G. Cheney, The Letters of Pope Innocent III (1198-1216) concerning England and Wales: a Calendar with an appendix of texts (Oxford:Clarendon 1967).

On the Annibaldi: Fedele Savio, SJ, "Gli Annibaldi di Roma nel secolo XIII," Studi e documenti di storia e diritto 17 (1896) 353-363. Francis Roth, OESA, "Il Cardinale Riccardo Annibaldi, Primo Prottetore dell' Ordine Agostiniano," Augustiniana 2 (1952) 26-60. M. Dikmans, "D' Innocent III à Boniface VIII. Histoire des Conti et des Annibaldi," Bulletin de l' Institut historique belge de Rome 45 (1975) 19-211.

On Cardinal Konrad von Urach: R. von Schreckenstein, "Konrad von Urach, Bischof von Porto und S. Rufina als Cardinallegat in Deutschland 1224-1226," Forschungen zur deutschen Geschichte 7. 1 (Gottingen 1867), 321-393. Falko Neininger, Konrad von Urach (Paderborn: Schöningh 1994) [Quellen und Forschungen aus dem Gebiet der Geschichte, 17]

Conradus Eubel, OFM Conv., Hierarchia Catholici Medii Aevi...ab anno 1198 usque ad annum 1431 perducta editio altera (Monasterii 1193) 7-8.  

Christian Huelsen, Das Septizonium des Septimius Severus (Berlin:Georg Reimer 1886). Rodolfo Lanciani, Storia degli scavi di Roma Volume Quattro (Roma: Ermanno Loescher 1909)..Th. Dombart, Das palatinische Septizonium zu Rom (München: Beck 1922).

Joseph Felten, Papst Gregor IX. (Freiburg i.B. 1886).


August 13, 2013 2:38 PM

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