Sede Vacante 1153
July 8, 1153
The first concern of the Cardinal electors would have been the state of the Empire. Conrad III had died on February 15, 1152 at the age of 52 [Jaffé, Conrad III, 206-208]. This was unfortunate for Pope Eugenius, who had been hoping that Conrad would actually carry out his long-promised trip to Italy, which might produce a solution to Eugenius' problems with the Commune of Rome and with the King of Sicily. In June of 1150, after the exchange of several friendly embassies, Eugenius had written to Conrad [Migne PL 180, 1422; JL 9503, from Albano, where the Pope had been since June 19; he did not return to Rome until December, 1152] of his desire that Church and Empire could work together for the good of the Christian community:
desiderium siquidem nostrum est, ut ea inter Ecclesiam et regnum, quae a predecessoribus nostris et tuis statuta sunt, inter nos et majestatem tuam ita Domino auxiliante firmentur
Perhaps around the same time, certainly in 1150, after the Emperor had visited the Pope, Cardinal Guido the Chancellor wrote to Abbot Wibald of Corbey that war against the Emperor's son had narrowly been avoided, and that there was deep concern that the Emperor was meddling with the Emperor Manuel of Constantinople, who was in negotiations to end the schism with the Roman Church [Migne PL 189, 1305]:
Certum est quod post discessum domini Conradi Romanorum regis, nisi dominus papa specialius et districte prohibuisset, adversus filium ejus juniorem regem guerra mota fuisset, et non modica orta turbatio. Nunc autem sicut domino papae et nobis significatum est, et rumores etiam increverunt. Pater ipsius rex Conradus mala pro bonis, quod Deus avertat, reddere nititur, et cum Constantimopolitano imperatore sanctam Romanam Ecclesiam Catholicam omnium matrem graviter, si potuerit, affligere et infestare disponit.
Eugenius was staying in Albano in the second half of 1150 because the City of Rome was in an uproar. The Senators of Rome had tried to enlist Conrad on their side in their disputes with the Pope (Letters of the Roman Senate to Conrad III about affairs in Rome), accusing Cencius Franjipani and the Pierleoni brothers of conspiring with the Pope in favor of Roger of Sicily. They offered Conrad the imperial crown if he would come to Rome and support them. But Conrad was by no means friendly to the Commune. He had heard of their antics from a distance in the Holy Land, and his advisors in Germany (especially Abbot Wibald of Corbie [Corvey]) were well-briefed by the Pope and various Cardinals. Eugene thought that Conrad would bring order to the city in the Papal interest. But Eugenius was not able to maintain himself in the City (The Historia Pontificum says, non ferens dominus papa vexationem Romanorum, Anagniam profectus est). In June he abandoned the City, and in July, 1150, he met with King Roger of Sicily at Ciperani .
The second concern of the Cardinal Electors was the situation of the King of Sicily. Bad as affairs were in Rome, the situation was worse with King Roger. He was the Pope's most important vassal, and yet the Pope refused him the recognition as King of Sicily which had been granted by Anacletus II and admitted by Innocent II. But Roger had been in complete control over all church appointments in his kingdom for a decade, since he had captured Pope Innocent II in 1139, and forced from him papal investiture with the lands of the south (Treaty of Mignano). The Historia Pontificum provides some of the details of the confrontation, in which the King insisted on naming persons whom he wanted to be elected, and the Pope insisted on inhibiting them from being consecrated:
Rex enim aliorum more tirannorum ecclesiam terrae suae redegerat in servitutem, nec alicubi patiebatur electionem libere celebrari, send praenominabat quem eligi oporteret, et ita de officiis ecclesiasticis sicut de palatii sui muneribus disponebat. Ob hanc causam taliter electos inhibuit Romana ecclesia consecrari, adeo quod processerat inhibitio, ut paucae sedes propriis auderent episcopis et fere in omnibus ecclesiis residebant viri a multis annis electi. Nam consecrationis oleum defecit in terra eius, ex quo cepit Innocentium papam. Praeterea legatos ecclesiae Romanae non patiebatur intrare terram suam nisi a se vocatos, aut licentia ante impetrata destinatos, et eos tunc non ecclesiae sed ipse propriis sumptibus exhibebat aut faciebat ab ecclesiis exhiberi.
Apparently Innocent complained, but King Roger replied that it had been the custom since the time of Robert Guiscard, and he had no intention of ceasing [Chronicon Ignoti Monachi Cisterciensis S. Mariae de Ferraria p. 27 ed. Gaudenzi]:
Mcxlij et xiij anno eiusdem Innocentii idem Apostolicus misit eidem regi quod non esset iuris sui pastores eligere ecclesiarum et ab hac presumptione discederet. Cui rex ita respondit, quod a tempore Roberti Guiscardi ducis et ducis Rogerii et Guildemi ducis usque modo hec consuetudo extitit, a qua discedere nullo modo volumus, sed eam tenere firmiter volumus.
This had been an element of contention between him and Pope Celestine during his brief reign (September 26, 1143–March 8, 1144). As Archbishop Romuald of Salerno put it [MGH SS 19, 424], Hic concordiam quae inter Innocentium papam et regem Rogerium facta est, ratam habere noluit, sed eam revocavit in dubium. Roger was delighted, however, with the accession of Lucius II (Gerardus of Bologna, Cardinal Priest of S. Croce), who was a friend of his. Pope Lucius desperately needed help against the Roman Commune, and met with Roger at Ciperano, near Gaeta. An agreement might have been reached between the two, had not the Cardinals been against the idea [Archbishop Romualdus of Salerno, MGH SS 19, 424]. After the meeting, Pope Lucius, who was convalescing from a serious bout of illness, wrote to Peter the Venerable, Abbot of Cluny [Migne PL 179, 905; Watterich II, 280]:
De statu nostro te sollicitum cognoscentes scire te volumus, quia omnipotens Dominus sua nos gratia visitavit, castigans castigavit, sed morti non tradidit. Per ipsius misericordiam convalescimus et pristinam sanitatem in brevi nos recepturos speramus. Ad colloquium Regis Siciliae condescendimus et quia ad honorem Dei et ecclesiae suae firmam pacem cum eo facere non potuimus, instanti tamen ipsius violentia nos cogente, treugam cum eo composuimus.
The failure to reach accord embittered King Roger, who returned to a policy of intense hostility to the Papacy and aggressiveness toward the Patrimony. On his orders, his son invaded Campania and captured and sacked Ferentum [Romualdus of Salerno, MGH SS 19, 424]. Now came Pope Eugenius, forced to flee from the disorders in his city of Rome, and hoping to enlist the help of King Roger in reasserting his control.
Conrad III died on February 15, 1152. Frederick I had been elected King of the Romans at Frankfurt am Main on March 9, 1152 and was crowned at Aachen on March 14. [Simonsfeld, Jahrbücher. des deutschen Reiches unter Friederich I (Leipzig 1908), 15-45]. Frederick had competitors for the crown, however, and opponents in his task of bringing Germany and then the rest of the Empire under his control.
A treaty was struck (The Treaty of Constance) between Eugenius III and Frederick Barbarossa on March 23, 1153 [Monumenta Germaniae Selecta 4 nr. xxvii, pp. 78-81], directed against King Roger of Sicily (Tout, 247-248). Frederick wished, of course, to be crowned Holy Roman Emperor.
The third concern of the Cardinal electors was the Roman Commune. It had been established in the wake of the disastrous later years of the reign of Innocent II, where his arrogance and treachery led to one reversal after another for the Roman Church. Innocent had returned only because of the military support of the Emperor Lothar, who was no friend of the Romans. In 1144, after Innocent's death, a Roman Republic was proclaimed, and the Roman Senate restored or reconstituted. The political leader of this civic advance was Jordanus Petri Leonis (Pierleoni), the brother of the late Pope Anacletus II, whose party had been friendly to the Sicilian monarchy. Jordanus and the Roman citizens had no reason to hold in regard most of the cardinals appointed by Innocent II, many of whom were from Pisa, France, or the regular clergy (9).
The intellectual theorist of the Roman Commune was the celebrated Arnold of Brescia. In 1139, Arnold of Brescia had been condemned to silence by the II Lateran Council because of his advanced views on the relationship between Church and State. In 1141, he and his followers were expelled from Brescia (according to Malvecius, Chronicon Brixianum: Muratori, Rerum Italicarum Scriptores XIV 877). The Council of Sens, at which Abelard disputed with Bernard of Clairvaux, took place in June of 1140 (the Octave of Pentecost). Abelard died at Cluny on April 21, 1142 (Gregorovius IV. 2, 484). After the Council of Sens, Arnold preached in Zurich (Otto of Frising II. 21), where he was protected by the Legate, Cardinal Guido [Brixius, p. 75], a fellow student of Abelard (Gregorovius IV. 2, 485). This was probably Cardinal Guido di Castro Ficelo, rather than Cardinal Guido da Citta di Castello (Celestine II). Arnold was released from his mandate of silence by Pope Eugenius III at Viterbo, and commanded to do penance at the shrines of Rome.
Eugenius III had been trying to free Rome and themselves from the influence of the Roman Republic, now inspired and led by Arnold of Brescia (Cardinal Boso, "Vita Adriani IV papa"; Watterich, pp. 324-326; de Castro, pp. 467-530). The Pope's repeated exiles from the city nullified his efforts to control events, and indeed gave the Commune the opportunity to establish itself firmly in the seats of power. When Eugenius fled to France (1147), Arnold was free to appear publically in Rome and to preach against the temporal jurisdiction of the pope and in favor of apostolic poverty for the clergy. On the Pope's return to Italy, at Brescia, he excommunicated Arnold (letter of Eugenius III, July 15, 1148; Migne, Patrologiae Latinae Cursus Completus 180, column 1358; JL 9281). But Arnold continued to stir up trouble against the papal government in Rome right up to the death of Pope Eugenius.
Death of Eugenius III (Bernardo de Montemago of Pisa)
Pope Eugenius died at Tibur (Tivoli) on July 8, 1153, and his body was transported to the Vatican, accompanied by an immense and demonstrative crowd [Cardinal Boso, "Life of Pope Eugenius," in Watterich II, p. 283; Boso however omits any mention of the last four years of Eugenius' career]:
Defunctus est autem apud Tiburtum VIII Idus Iulii et inde per stratam publicam et mediam Urbem usque in Vaticanum cum totius fere cleri et populi Romani frequentissima turba, maximo luctu et communi atque immensa tristitia departatus est, et in ipsa beati Petri ecclesia coram maiori altari tumulatus.
This friendly attitude on the part of the people of Rome was made possible by the peace which had been entered into by Eugenius and the Senators and People of Rome the previous December 9, and was aided, no doubt, by his open-handed distribution of offices and alms [Romuald of Salerno, Annales, MGH SS 19, 425]. The sincere grief (and rhetorical flamboyance), at least on the part of some, is seen in the letter of Cardinal Hugo of Ostia, O.Cist., to the abbots and monks of Citeaux and Clairvaux [in St. Bernard, Epistles, Migne, PL 182, no. cdlxxxviii], which also confirms the date of death as July 8.
Onuphrio Panvinio provided a list of the thirty-nine cardinals (6 Bishops, 19 Priests, 14 Deacons) who elected Anastasius IV in his Epitome Pontificum Romanorum (Venetiis 1567), pp. 119-120. Ciaconius-Olduin provides a list of thirty-nine cardinals who were living at the time of the Election of Anastasius IV (I, 1052-1053)—not, as Salvador Miranda, alleges, cardinals who took part in the election (Ciaconius-Olduin counts 6 Bishops, 20 Priests, and 13 Deacons). An especially lengthy subscription of April 13, 1153 [JL 9714] (containing twenty-six signatures), is a good place to start for an authentic list of Cardinals and their titles. Eugenius III died less than three months later, on July 8, 1153. Eugenius III was noted for having created three Cistercian cardinals and nine Canons Regular [Zenker, p. 212].
- Conradus, a native Roman from the Suburra region. In ca. 1111-1114 Pope Paschal II had promoted him to be Cardinal Priest of S. Pudenziana [His predecessor, Cardinal Johannes, was still subscribing on April 11, 1111; his earliest subscription is on February 25, 1114 (JL 6371). Brixius, p. 36 nr. 26. S. Miranda is unaware of this fact], and Honorius II had promoted him to the See of Sabina in 1128 [cf. Zenker, p. 46-47]. He had been the Vicar for the city of Rome of Pope Eugenius III while the latter was in France (1147-1149) and again from the Summer of 1150 to December of 1152, when the pope was in exile due to his conflicts with the Commune of Rome. He had been a cardinal for over forty years before his election to the Papacy. [He subscribed on July 12, 1153, according to Brixius, p. 135, but on that day he was already Pope Anastasius]
- Hymarus (Imarus), OSB [Gallus], Bishop of Tusculum (since 1142). Formerly Cluniac monk at S. Martin-des-Champs (Paris) and at Cluny; Prior at Charité-sur-Loire. Abbot of S. Moutier-neuf at Poitiers. Legate in England in 1144 [Baronius-Theiner 18, sub anno 1144, no. 11, p. 624 [Watterich, 454, 461].
- Guarinus [Bononiensis], like Lucius II a Can. Reg. of S. Maria di Reno in Bologna, according to Ciaconius [He is also claimed as a Canon of the Lateran: AA SS Feb. I, 915B, and a Canon of S. Frediano in Lucca: AA SS p. 915F]. Bishop of Palestrina (1144-1158?). He had previously been appointed to the See of Reate [possibly after the death of Bishop Gentilis, ca. 135-137: see Ughelli Italia Sacra I, 1198], but, preferring the life of a hermit, fled into Egypt [Life by Augustinus Ticinensis, AA SS Feb. I, 915D]. Later he was elected Bishop of Pavia after the death of Bishop Peter (1139), but was very unwilling to be consecrated; he was held in custody, but escaped and hid himself until Bishop Alphonsus was elected [Ughelli, Italia Sacra I, 1091]. He is said to have been a monk for more than forty years when Lucius II selected him to be a Cardinal. His latest subscription is on May 27, 1154 [JL 9909].
Acta Sanctorum Februarii Tomus I (Antwerp 1658), pp. 914-916, prints his Vita by Augustinus Ticinensis, a Canon of the Lateran (early 16th century). Not all of Augustinus' material is worthy of belief. [G. Trombelli, Memorie istoriche cocern. le due canoniche di S. Maria di Reno e di S. Salvatore (Bologna 1752), p. 211 notes, for opinions as to Lucius II' s family connections; Ciaconius-Olduin I, columns 1023-1024; Brixius, pp. 51 and 101-102; Zenker, pp. 41-42].
- Hugo (Hughes), O.Cist. [France, Chalons], Bishop of Ostia and Velletri (1151-1155). Former Abbot of Trois-Fontaines. Friend and correspondent of S. Bernard of Clairvaux. He anointed Frederick I at his coronation in Rome in June, 1155. [Cardella I. 2, pp. 70-71]
- Gregorius, (died 1163). Cardinal Priest of S. Maria in Trastevere tituli Calixti (ca. 1138/1140 until after June 25, 1154). In the treaty of January, 1155, between Frederick I and Adrian IV, he is referred to: mediante domino Gregorio tunc Sancte Marie Transtiberim nunc episcopo Sabinensi [MGH Diplomata (Urkunden) Friedrich I, Part I: 1152-1158, no. 98, pp. 165-167]. The words nunc episcopo Sabinensi are an addition in 1155 to the original document of 1153 [found in Doeberl, Monumenta Germaniae Selecta 3-4 nr. xxvii].
- Guido Bellagio [Florentinus], presbiter cardinalis sancti Chrysogoni (1140-1157?) [Cardella I. 2, p. 86]. He could speak French, and had a taste for logic. He is attested as Papal Legate in Lombardy in 1139-1141; Legate in Lombardy in 1146 [Kehr, Italia Pontificia 7. 1, xx]; Legate in the Holy Land, 1147-1151 [Historia Pontificalis, MGH SS 20, 540]; and in Verona in 1157. He last subscribes on June 13, 1157 [JL 10296]. [Brixius p. 43]. He was succeeded by Cardinal Bonadies, whose earliest subscription is on March 14, 1158. [Zenker, 62-64].
- Hubaldus Caccianemici [Bononiensis], presbiter cardinalis tituli Sanctae Crucis in Ierusalem. (subscribed June 28, 1144–September 12, 1170) He was a relative of Pope Lucius II, who gave him his own titular church of S. Croce in Gerusalemme in 1144 [Cardella I. 2, p. 51; Besozzi La storia della basilica di Santa Croce in Gerusalemme (Roma 1750) p. 107]
- Manfredus, Cardinal Priest of S. Sabina (1143-1157).
- Aribertus, presbiter cardinalis tituli sanctae Anastasiae (1143-1158?), a creation of Celestine III. His latest known subscription is on January 25, 1156. [cf. Brixius, p. 97, 135]
[His tomb in SS. Silvestro e Martino is dated 1160; but Aribert was dead before April 16, 1158, when his successor, Cardinal Joannes Neapolitanus, was already in office at S. Anastasia (JL 10401)]
- Hubaldus "Allucingoli", O.Cist. [of Lucca], Cardinal Priest of S. Prassede, February 23, 1141 [Watterich, 333]; some consider him the same Hubaldus as was created Cardinal Deacon of S. Adriano in 1138 [RIS III. 1 p. 442 column 2]). [Future Pope Lucius III, September 1, 1181–November 25, 1185] He had been legate of Innocent II in Lombardy in 1142. [Cardella I. 2, pp. 27-29]
- Iulius (Giulio) [Romanus], Cardinal Priest of S. Marcello, from 1144 until the end of 1158. Later Cardinal Bishop of Palestrina (1158-1164). Vicar of Rome for Pope Alexander III (died in 1164 or 1165) [Cardella I. 2, pp. 42-43; Watterich, pp. 387, 399]
- Guido Dent [Bononiensis], presbyter cardinalis tituli Pastoris (S. Pudenziana) (1145-1157). After the election of Adrian IV, he was going to attend upon the Pope, but was set upon by some of Arnold of Brescia's supporters in an assassination attempt [ad interitum vulnerarunt]. The Pope placed Rome under interdict, which lasted until Wednesday in Holy Week, March 23, 1155 [Cardinal Boso, "Life of Adrian IV", in Watterich II, 324; cf. Baronius-Theiner sub anno 1155, no. 3, where he is called 'Gerardus']. He was not killed, however (as some modern authors report); he appears on June 1, 1155 as a member of the legation sent to Frederick Barbarossa to negotiate about the Imperial coronation and the surrender of Arnold of Brescia to the Pope [JL 10072, 10073]. Pope Hadrian, on the petition of Cardinal Guido, entrusted the Church of S. Pudenziana to the care of the Canons of S. Maria de Reno; the date of the decree is March 17, 1155 [Migne PL 188, column 1399; JL 10020; P. Kehr, Italia pontificia I, p. 59]. Latest subscription: June 15, 1157 [Brixius, pp. 51, 102, 157] According to the Necrology of S. Maria de Reno in Bologna, he died on May 29; if true, he would have survived until 1158 at least. The Necrologio Renano states that he was buried at S. Pudenziana in 1154. This is certainly wrong. Could it have been an incorrect transcription of 1159? [G. Trombelli, Memorie istoriche cocern. le due canoniche di S. Maria di Reno e di S. Salvatore (Bologna 1752), p. 221; 354, 404].
- Bernardus. Cardinal Priest of S. Clemente (1145-1158) Former prior of the Lateran, Archpriest of the Vatican Basilica from 1153: Migne, Patrologiae Latinae 188, col. 1587; Mignanti Istoria della Basilica Vaticana II, p. 333; Eggs Purpura Docta I, 80-83; JL 9984 (6837). Previously Cardinal Deacon. Sent by the new Pope, Adrian IV, to the Emperor Frederick by December 29, 1154, along with Cardinal Cencius, Bishop of Porto, and Cardinal Octavianus of S. Ceciliae [JL 9966 (6827)].
- Jordanus, O.Carth.[Bobone of Rome; or France?: originally a monk of Le Mont-Dieu, in the Diocese of Rheims Zenker, p. 104. The only justification for this appears to be the visit of Cardinal Jordanus to that house, below]. Cardinal Priest in the title of S. Susanna. (from December, 1145; last known subscription June 11, 1154 [Brixius, 140]). Cardinal Deacon S.R.E. in 1145; on March 14, 1145, for example, he signs himself fr. Jordanus diac. card. sanctae Rom. Ecclesiae [JL 8717 (6129)]. He was Eugenius' papal chamberlain [ Historia Pontificalis, MGH SS 20, 541]. In 1152 he was sent by Eugenius III along with Cardinal Octavianus of S. Cecilia to deal with the German Emperor Conrad, but the Emperor died and he dealt with Frederick Barbarossa instead. After his mission, while Cardinal Octavianus returned to Rome, Jordanus visited the monastery of Mons Dei in Normandy. S. Bernard disliked Cardinal Jordanus intensely and wrote a letter [Ep. 290] to Cardinal Hughes of Ostia, complaining of Jordanus' behavior in Germany and France, singling out his cupidity and unsuitable recommendations for ecclesiastical promotions. Bernard, however, was frequently in error about his facts and overzealous in his condemnations—most unsaintly behavior [See the example of William of York in 1144, Epp. 360 (380): Baronius-Theiner 18, sub anno 1144, no. 11, p. 624].
In mid-1154, JL lists only 5 papal documents altogether which were issued between June 11, 1154 and September 15, 1154; there is then a one-month gap until the next signing on October 15, and then only 16 more between September 15 and the death of Anastasius IV on December 3, 1154—most of them standard privilegia for churches or monasteries. Some more examples of bulls can be added, but the point remains. This is a very small data base. One should not assign much significance to the absence of a person's signature under such circumstances in deciding whether a person was present for the Election on December 4, 1154. In Jordanus' case we just do not know. Cardinal Jordanus' successor, Cardinal Hermann, does not appear until April 8, 1166 [Brixius, pp. 62 and 140].
- Octavianus de' Monticelli [Sabinensis, not Tusculanus] (aged 59). Octavianum cardinalem presbyterum, qui de nobilissimo Romanorum descendit sanguine, according to Pope Adrian IV in a remark to Frederick Barbarossa [in Otto of Frising, MGH SS 20, 406]. Cardinal Priest in the titulus sanctae Ceciliae (since 1151), formerly Cardinal Deacon of S. Niccolò in Carcere (1138-1150). Legate to King Roger of Sicily for Popes Celestine II and Lucius II (1143-1145) [Chronicon Ignoti Monachi Cisterciensis S. Mariae de Ferraria p. 27 ed. Gaudenzi]. Legate to the Emperor Conrad for Pope Eugenius III, where he became friends with Duke Frederick of Swabia (who was elected Emperor in 1152). [Cardella I. 2, pp. 23-24]. Sent by the new Pope, Adrian IV, to the Emperor Frederick by December 29, 1154, along with Cardinal Cencius, Bishop of Porto, and Cardinal Bernardus of S. Clemente [JL 9966 (6827)].
- Astaldus [Romanus], presbiter cardinalis tituli sanctae Priscae (1151-1161) Formerly Cardinal Deacon of S. Eustachio (1143-1151) [Cardella I. 2, p. 46]
- Rolando Bandinelli, presbiter cardinalis tituli sancti Marci (1151-1159) et Cancellarius (died August 30, 1181). Former Cardinal Deacon of SS. Cosmae et Damiani (1150-1151). Chancellor, since May of 1153.
- Gerardus, Cardinal Priest of S. Stefano in monte Celio (1151-1158). Subscribes June 16, 1153 [Migne PL 180, 160; JL 9731]; Eugenius III died on July 8, 1153. Subscribes on December 10, 1153 for Anastasius IV [Pflugk-Harttung, Acta pontificum Romanorum inedita I, no. 230, p. 216; JL 9775], and on January 13, 1154 [Migne PL 188, 1025; JL 9816] and February 16 [Migne PL 188, 1038, April 20 [Migne PL 188, 1058; JL 9869], May 20 [Migne PL 188, 1074; JL 9907]
- Johannes Paparo (Giovanni Paparoni), Cardinal Priest of S. Lorenzo in Damaso (1151-1154?); When offered promotion to the rank of Cardinal Priest, he refused, and was suspended from his cardinalate by Pope Eugenius. Gregorius of S. Angelo and the other cardinals persuaded him to submit, and he was ordained. He had already been marked out to be Legate to Scotland and Ireland when his promotion occurred in March, 1151, and the Pope, in one of his stubborn and irrational moods, refused to send anyone who was not a Cardinal Priest [Historia Pontificalis, MGH SS 20, 540]; he is mentioned by S. Bernard as a successful legate in his Epistolae 290 (1152). His latest signature occurs on January 24, 1154 He was formerly Cardinal Deacon of S. Adriano (last signature as Cardinal Deacon on March 2, 1151).
- Iohannes, presbiter cardinalis tituli sanctorum Ioannis et Pauli tit. Pamachii [Forcella, Iscrizioni delle chiese 10, p. 6 no. 4 (December 31, 1157)]. (1151-1180). In June of 1155 he was one of three cardinals (along with Guido of S. Pudenziana and Guido of S. Maria in Porticu) who were sent to King Frederick with papal mandates, which included a demand for the person of Arnold of Brescia (Boso, "Vita Hadriani", in Watterich, p. 325).
- Cencius [Romanus], Cardinal Priest of San Lorenzo in Lucina (1152-1154), and subsequently Bishop of Porto and S. Rufina (1154-1157) [Portuensis episcopus et Silvae Candidae on April 20, 1154, JL 9867)]. He had previously been Cardinal Deacon of S. Maria in Aquiro (1151-1152). Sent by the new Pope, Adrian IV, to the Emperor Frederick before December 29, 1154, along with Cardinal Bernardus of S. Clemente and Cardinal Octavianus of S. Ceciliae [JL 9966 (6827)]. [Zenker, p. 29]
- Henricus Moricotti, O.Cist.[Pisanus], presbiter cardinalis tituli sanctorum Nerei et Achillei (1151-1166). Formerly subdeacon S. R. E. and monk of Clairvaux. Abbot of the monastery of S. Anastasius in Rome [Brixius, 54-55 and 108; Zenker, 96-101]. Under the new Pope, Andrianus IV, he was legate in Sicily (1155), and in Germany (1158).
- Iohannes Mercone [Morrone] [Pisanus], presbiter cardinalis tit. sanctorum Silvestri et Martini titulo Equitii (1152-1161) [Watterich, p. 381]. Former Chancellor of the King of Jerusalem. Former Archbishop of Tyre. Supported the schism against Pope Alexander III from 1159. Named "Bishop of Albano" by Antipope Paschal III (Guido Cremensis) before November 18, 1166.
- Oddo Bonecase [MGH SS 8, 255; Zanker, 159], diaconus cardinalis sancti Georgii ad velum aureum (1132-1161). Protodiaconus. He was sent on a diplomatic mission to France in 1154 [Zenker, 159; E. Ernst, Archiv fur Diplomatik, Schriftgeschichte, Siegel- und Wappenkunde (1987), p. 260]. His latest subscription under Anastasius IV is on May 19, 1154 [JL 9906; Pflugk-Harttung, Acta pontificum Romanorum inedita III, pp. 150-152], and he does not subscribe for Adrianus IV until April 17 1155—a suggestion thereby of the chronological parameters for his mission.
- Rodulfus diaconus cardinalis sanctae Luciae in Saepta solis (Septisolio) (1143-1160).
- Guido Cremensis, Cardinal Deacon of S. Maria in Porticu (until March, 1158) from 1145 [Brixius, 54] or 1151, to 1158 [JL II, p. 102 and 9495, 9686, 10190, 10212, 10256, 10268, 10285, 10392. [Cardella, p.58, wrongly notes his death in 1155!]. Wiederhold, Nachrichten von der k. Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften zu Göttingen . Phil.-hist. Klasse (1907), no. 7, pp. 29-30 (December 26, 1154): Ego Guido Cremensis diac. card. sancte Marie in Porticu. In 1150, in a letter to Abbot Wibald of Corbie [Corvey] [Migne, PL 189, 1292; 1305] he calls himself G(uido) sanctae Romanae ecclesiae diaconus cardinalis et cancellarius. Died September 20, 1168. [Salvador Miranda wrongly considers him to be the Cardinal Deacon of S. Eustachio, created in 1150]. Guido Cremensis was promoted to Cardinal Priest of S. Maria in Trastevere tituli Calixti from S. Maria in Porticu in 1158 (subscribed from March 19, 1158 [JL 10394]).
- Iacinthus "Bobone" (Orsini), son of Petrus Bubo, of the Arenula district of Rome [see R. Brentano, Rome before Avignon (Berkeley 1974), p. 103, for the hostility between the Boboni and the Conti]. Cardinal Deacon of S. Maria in Cosmedin. In July of 1126 he was prior subdiaconorum sacrae basilicae [Sancti Petri] (JL 7266]. In April 1138 Iacinthus he was prior subdiaconum sacri palatii [JL 7890]. He studied in Paris, and heard the lectures of Peter Abelard (ca. 1138-1140). Diaconus Cardinalis sanctae Mariae in Cosmedin (1144-1191). [Cardella I. 2, pp. 47-50]. He was Apostolicae Sedis Legatus in Spain and Portugal (1154-1155) [on Spain: P. Kehr, Nachrichten der K. Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften zu Göttingen, phil.-hist. Klasse (1902), no. 9, pp. 429-430], having left Rome after February 14, 1154, when he subscribed a papal document [Migne PL 188, p. 1037 (JL 9834)]. On September 19, Pope Anastasius, writing to the Archbishop of Braga, mentions Iacinthus as his apostolicae sedis legatus who will enforce his mandates [P. Kehr, Nachrichten der K. Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften zu Göttingen, phil.-hist. Klasse (1902), no. 7, pp. 427-428].
- Iohannes [Neapolitanus], son of Gaderisius of Naples, diaconus cardinalis sanctorum Sergii et Bachi [JL 10299 (June 28, 1157); Cardella I. 2, pp. 84-85; Watterich, p. 475] [Neapolitanus: C. Holdsworth, Rufford Charters (1972) p. 366; Theiner, Codex Diplomaticus (1861), 20] He studied in Paris, and became a canon of S. Victor. It is conjectured that he was made a cardinal at the time of Pope Eugenius' stay in Paris between April and June of 1147. He last appears as a Cardinal Deacon on February 10, 1158 [JL 10378 (7030)], or March 12, 1158 [Brixius, 144]; Joannes presbyter cardinalis S. Anastasiae first appears on April 21, 1158—Joannes Neapolitanus was promoted. The reason for his promotion is reported by A. Hari, "La promozione e probabilmente conessa con la circostanza che Adriano IV, prima di diventare papa, era stato priore della canonica regolare di S. Rufo presso Avignone." That is nothing but a facile guess, for which there is not the slightest justification. Hari also states that Iohannes Neapolitanus was one of the principal architects of the election of Alexander III, for which there is no positive evidence, unless Hari means merely that he was in Rolando Bandinelli's party and voted for him.
- Ildebrandus [Hiltprandus] Crassus [Bononiensis], Cardinal Deacon of S. Eustachio (1152-1156) Later presbiter cardinalis basilicae XII apostolorum (1156-1178) He was papal legate in northern Italy perhaps toward the end of 1153. He appears as rector and procurator of the diocese of Modena on January 13, 1154 (to 1156: Cappelletti, Le chiese d'Italia XV, p. 260]. Documents indicate that he was in residence throughout 1154 [documents cited by Klaus Ganzer, Die Entwicklung des auswärtigen Kardinalats im hohen Mittelalter, 101], though he paid a visit to Rome in December, 1154–February, 1155.
- Gerardus (Gerhard) [Namur: Brixius, pp. 54 and 107; Miranda makes him a member of the Caccianemici family of Bologna], Canon of Lüttich (Liège); diaconus cardinalis sanctae Mariae in Via Lata (1152-1155?). He was apparently a Cardinal Deacon from 1145. He subscribed a bull on November 22, 1153 [Migne PL 188, 999]. His successor, Raimundus, was in office on April 24, 1158 [Migne PL 188, 1564; cf. JL p. 103, where the date of February 24 is given in error, there being no subscriptions on that date].
- Oddo de Brixia, diaconus cardinalis sancti Nicolai in carcere Tulliano (1152-1175). Legate of Adrianus IV in northern Italy
- ? Bernard, O.Cist., a Frenchman from Rennes and a monk of Clairvaux [John of Salisbury, Policraticus V. 13]. He succeeded Cardinal Rolandus at SS. Cosma e Damiano in 1152; Rolandus was promoted Cardinal Priest of S. Marco on March 2, 1151. Bernard's earliest subscription was on December 31 of 1152. his latest on June 13, 1153 . [Zenker, pp. 148-149; cf. Brixius, pp. 53 and 106]. The latest signature may not be significant, since Jaffe indicates that the pope left Rome by June 29, and there were only five more documents issued after June 13 before the death of the pope on July 8, 1153, and Anastasius IV does not appear to begin to issue documents until July 23 (and then only four in July and none in August).
Cardinals not attending the Election of 1154:
- ? Raynaldus, Abbot of Montecassino (died 1166). He is commemorated in the Necrologion Casinense [Muratori, Rerum Italicarum Scriptores VII, 943] in July: " Idibus. Obiit Ven. mem. Dominus Rainaldus presbyter cardinalis et Abbas hujus loci." [July 15].
It is alleged that Rainaldo di Collemezzo Abbot of Montecassino [Cardella I.2, pp. 26-27] was created Cardinal Priest of Marcellino e Pietro by Innocent II in 1140; or maybe created by Anacletus II and welcomed into the faction of Innocent II, who allowed him to keep his title [rejected by Cardella, p. 27]. In fact, it would seem that, as an adherent of King Roger of Sicily and of Anacletus II, Rainaldo would have been one of those excommunicated and deposed by the Lateran Synod of 1139, and he may have been one of those pardoned along with King Roger after the Normans captured Pope Innocent on July 22, 1139; but there is no evidence for such suppositions (cf. Luigi Tosti, La storia della Badia di Monte-Cassino II , pp. 153-168). Innocent II was not uniformly forgiving to all of the supporters of Anacletus: In August he deposed Rossemanus, Archbishop of Benevento, and others, because they had favored Anacletus II (Falco, Chronicon Beneventanum: Watterich, pp. 253-255). And there is no evidence that he was Cardinal of S. Marcellino e Pietro.
In a document of December 12, 1147, however, King Roger of Sicily calls him vir venerabilis Raynaldus S. Romanae Ecclesiae cardinalis, et sacri Cassiniensis coenobii religiosissimus abbas, fidelis noster (Tosti II, pp. 193-194). Rainaldus is called "cardinalis et venerabilis Montis Casini abbas" in other documents (e.g. Tosti, pp. 196-198 [March 1155]). G. A. Loud, The Latin Church in Norman Italy (Cambridge 2007), p. 241, states that Rainaldo "seems to have been an honorary cardinal from 1141, but never an active member of the college." It is a fact that the title 'cardinal' was used in other churches than the Church of Rome, at Ravenna and Compostela for example (e.g. Bulletino dell' "Archivio paleografico italiano" num. 1 (Perugia 1908, p. 75; Ughelli, Italia sacra II, 371: per manum Alberti, diaconi cardinalis Ravennatensis ecclesiae). Pope Urban IV refers to the canons of Ravenna being called "cardinales" in a mandate of June 11, 1264 [Guiraud, Registres d' Urbain IV III (1904), p. 274, no. 1760]. Ciaconius-Olduin (I, 1053) list him as one of the living cardinals in July, 1154, at the time of the Election of Anastasius IV.
- Nicolaus Breakspere [English], Bishop of Albano (since late 1149). From 1152 he had been sent as Papal Legate to Scandanavia He celebrated Easter (March 30) at Luni on his way north [P. Kehr, Nachrichten der K. Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften zu Gottingen, phil.-hist. Klasse (1902), no. 1, pp. 186-187; William of Tyre XVIII. 2] He returned by November, 1154. He began to subscribe papal documents again on November 16, 1154. See Pope Anastasius' two letters of November 28, 1154, certainly based on Nicolaus' report on his return—to the Bishops of Sweden [Migne PL 188, column 1084; JL 9937 (6819); rediens siquidem ad Apostolicam Sedem , Venerabilis Frater Noster Nicolaus Albanensis episcopus eumdem populum Verbum Domini de ore suo libenter recepisse asseruit], and to King Sverrkir of Sweden [Migne PL 188, column 1086; JL 9938 (6820)], and the letter of November 30, 1154 to the Archbishop of Lund [Migne PL 188, column 1081; JL 9941 (6816)] [See Williams, Lives of the English Cardinals I, 99-103; Mackie, Pope Adrian IV, 14-29; Mann, Lives of the Popes IX, pp. 240-245]. He did not attend the Election of Anastasius IV on July 8, 1153.
- Gregory of S. Angelo in Pescheria (1143–April 13, 1154).He had been in Germany as papal legate at the time of the death of Eugenius III on July 8, 1153; he communicated the news by letter to Wibald of Stablo, Abbot of Corbie [Corvey], announced that he has been recalled, and summoned Wibald to a meeting which had been planned to be held on September 29 at Worms [Jaffé, Bibliotheca Germanica I: Monumenta Corbeiensia (Berlin 1864) no. 416, p. 553 (July/August, 1154)]; Gregory was reappointed, along with Cardinal Bernardus of S. Clemente [Migne PL 189, ccclxxxix, columns 1426-1427], and they summon Wibald to a meeting at Würzburg [Jaffé, no.417, pp. 553-554]. Both cardinals stayed at Corbie [Corvey], but apparently returned to Rome by the end of 1153. [Jaffé, nos. 426, 427]. Cardinal Gregory wrote from Rome to Abbot Wibald in February, 1154, that Pope Anastasius had granted Wibald the use of the episcopal ring, which was being brought to him by Cardinal Gerhard [Jaffé, no.431, p. 567; Migne PL 189 no. 404 column 1436]. The Pope's own letter to the Abbot announcing the grant is dated February 7, 1154 [Jaffé, no. 430]. Gregory died in the Spring or Summer of 1154.
- ? Symon (Simon, Simone) Borelli [Sangrino], OSB, Cardinal Deacon of "S. Mariae in Domnica et Sublacensis abbas" (by 1158; d. ca. 1183) [Chronicon Sublacense, p. 248 ed. Mirzio; Cardella I. 2, p. 96; Watterich, 461; Doeberl, MGS IV, p. 150 n.; Ganzer, 102 and n. 4]. He is said by Cardella to be of the Conti di Pietrabondante in the Kingdom of Naples; this statement is labelled as "cose tutte favolose" by P. Egidi, in I monasteri di Subiaco (Roma 1904), p. 106 n.3.
Symon was educated at Subiaco and in France, and joined the pontifical family while Pope Eugenius was there (between March 1147 and May of 1148). Eugenius had heard of the intrusion of a monk Raimo (Rainaldo) into the abbatial Chair at Subiaco, but, accepting the advice of two Cardinals, Octavianus and Gregorius S. Angeli, he authorized his installation. Raimo showed his gratitude and generosity by giving the Castle of Cerretum to Sublimanus, the brother of Cardinal Octavianus. Raimo and his relatives stripped the monastery of much of its wealth for their own benefit, including its castelli. When Pope Eugenius returned to Italy at the end of 1148, he learned of the real character and activities of Abbot Raimo. Raimo was summoned to an interview with the Pope, probably after the Pope returned to the Lateran on November 28, 1149. Eugenius found fault with his activities and severly criticized him. The Pope sent Cardinal Gregory of S. Angelo to Subiaco, who promptly excommunicated the Abbot. Raimo (Rainaldo) was deposed by Eugenius III in 1149 [See the narrative in the original document given in the edition of the Chronicon Sublacense of Mirzio by L. Allodi, p. 242 n.1; P. Egidi, 106]. At the same time Cardinal Gregory took possession of the citadel at Subiaco. The Pope and the monks of Subiaco then elected Symon as the thirty-first Abbot of Subiaco [Chronicon Sublacense, ed. Muratori, RIS 24, columns 943-944; p. 248 ed. Mirzio; Zenker, p. 140].
Not much later, non multo post haec (that is to say, after his election as abbot in 1149), Abbot Simon was appointed Cardinal Deacon of S. Maria in Domnica by Pope Eugenius [cf. Brixius, pp. 59-60 and 117, who attributes his cardinalate to Hadrian IV, not Eugenius III; Zenker, 140 and 197 n. 12. K. Ganzer, Die Entwicklung, p. 102, says "Spätestens in Jahre 1158 wurde Simon zum Kardinaldiakon von S. Maria in Domnica erhoben." Egidi, 106, attributes the date of 1158 to Louis de Mas Latrie; the date of 1158 for the creation has no documentary support whatever and is inaccurate. Ganzer's "spätstens in Jahre 1158 " is an effort to be more cautious, but the evident meaning of the author of the Chronicle is that the promotion was made by Eugenius III]. The second expulsion of Pope Eugenius from Rome in June of 1150, and his retreat to Ferentinum, may have provided the occasion for giving Abbot Symon increased status and responsibility. Cardinals Octavianus was building imperial support in the area, and the Roman Commune and Senate had sent an embassy to summon the Emperor Conrad III to Rome.
Abbot Simon removed the Castle of Cerretum from the possession of Raimo's brother, and gave it in feudal tenure to the brother of Cardinal Gregory [column 944 ed. Muratori; Zenker, 140)—or to the brother of Cardinal Iacinthus (p. 248, ed. Cherubino Mirzio). Before September 28, 1157, Cardinal Symon, Abbot of Subiaco, had been named Rector of the Campagna of Rome and papal vicar in spiritual matters [Fabre-Duchesne (edd.), Liber Censuum I, 588 (where the date usually assigned  is inconsistent with one of the signatories, Albertus de Morra, still being a Cardinal Deacon); cf. Kehr, Italia Pontificia II, p. 95, no
44. The correct date is 1157]. The statement, often seen and often repeated, that Symon became a cardinal in 1158 (or 1159), is incorrect. If Simon actually was a creation of Eugenius III, he would have been eligible to be an elector both in July of 1153 and in December of 1154.
Errata Salvatoris Mirandae
Miranda, basing his list on Ciaconius-Olduin (columns 1052-1053), states that there were thirty-nine cardinals who took part in the Election. His list includes
- Cardinal Theodwin, Bishop of Porto and Silva Candida, but his latest subscription is April 14, 1150 [Migne PL 180,
no. ccclxxx, columns 1411-1413; JL 9380]. One must not conclude too much from that fact. Pope Eugenius
was driven out of Rome again in the middle of June, 1150, and the Curia was peripatetic until the
Pope returned on December 9, 1152. But Cardinal Theodwin had died on March 7, 1151 [Brixius. p. 47
and p. 95, note 85; Zenker, p. 28 n. 106]. The day, March 7, is given in the Necrologio
Renano of S. Maria de Reno in Bologna (ed.
Trombelli 1752), p. 334. The See was vacant until the beginning of 1154. Miranda chooses to follow the Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1928, rather than Brixius and Zenker, and makes Theodwin die in 1153, though conveniently after the Election on July 8. Abbot Wibaldus, Ep. 225 in Migne's edition (Jaffé, Ep..
252, pp. 376-378), demonstrates that Theodwin returned from the East in 1150, went to Germany, and
rejoined King Konrad's court. It is the Historia
Pontificum sub anno 1150 that makes Cardinal Theodwin die in the East, but apparently this was during
a return trip that his death came in 1151. The year 1151 is given by the Annales Palidenses, which
provide a substantial biographical notice [MGH SS 16, 85].
- He lists Cardinal Nicholas Breakspeare as present, though he was absent on his Scandinavian mission.
- He lists Johannes Paparoni twice, once as Cardinal Priest of S. Lorenzo in Damaso and once as Cardinal Deacon of S. Adriano; he had in fact been promoted from S. Adriano to S. Lorenzo in 1151.
- He lists Giovanni Caccianemici of S. Maria Nova (1144-1152), nephew of Pope Lucius II, whose latest subscription was in 1152 [Brixius, pp. 50, 100-101, 143]. He was probably deceased.
Election of Corrado de Suburra
It should be kept in mind that at this time the old regulations on papal elections, promulgated by Nicholas II at the Lateran Synod of 1059 in his bull In Nomine Domini, still applied, where it was the Cardinal Bishops who chose the name of the Candidate and then presented it for a majority vote of the Cardinals and then the approval of the Clergy, Nobility and People of Rome: inprimis cardinales episcopi diligentissima simul consideratione tractantes, mox sibi clericos cardinales adhibeant, sicque reliquus clerus et populus ad consensum novae electionis accedant.
The "Vita Eugenii III Papae" [Ludovico Antonio Muratori, Rerum Italicarum Scriptores III. 1, 439] states:
Eugenius III, natione Tuscus, patria Pisanus, qui primo Bernardus Sancti Anastasii Abbas, sedit annis VIII. mensibus IV. diebus XX, et cessavit Episcopatus ejus diebus III.
The length of the Sede Vacante, three days, is in accord with the minimum time which had to elapse from the death of the pope until the beginning of the Election. Since Eugenius died on July 8, the earliest day on which the Election could begin would have been July 10, which may have been the day of the Election of Anastasius IV. Giuseppe de Novaes [Elementi III, 80] prefers the date of July 9, basing his opinion no doubt on the statement of Bernardus Guidonis that the Sede Vacante lasted two days [Muratori, Rerum Italicarum Scriptores III. 1, 437; this was already mentioned as a possibility by Agostino Olduin in Ciaconius-Olduin I, 1054, which he attributes to Ciaconius]. Such a view, however, would involve uncanonical behavior, and is not to be preferred. Ciaconius-Olduin [I, 1052], though, put the date of the election on the day immediately preceding the coronation, i.e. July 11. No details about the Election itself have been preserved.
The Consecration of Pope Anastasius took place at the Vatican Basilica, with Cardinal Oddo de Bonecase, Cardinal Deacon of S. Giorgio in velabro, taking the leading role. It was probably on Sunday, July 12, 1153. The date is not directly attested, but depends upon the calculation of the length of the reign assigned to Anastasius. It was certainly one year, and four months; but the number of additional days is variously reported as 24 days (consecrated on a Tuesday) or 28 days (consecrated on a Saturday) [Muratori, Rerum Italicarum Scriptores III. 1, 440]. Philip Jaffé [Regesta pontificum II second edition, p. 90] prefers to assign a reign of 1 year, 4 months, and 22 days, based on the fact that popes were usually crowned on a Sunday. This solution was already put forth in Ciaconius-Olduin [I, 1052].
Salvador Miranda states that Anastasius IV created three new cardinals: Gregorius de Suburra (a Cardinal Deacon), Alberto of XX Apostolorum, and Jacopo of S. Callisto (i.e. S. Maria trans Tiberim tit. Calixti). The incumbent at S. Maria trans Tiberim from 1140-1154 was Cardinal Gregorius, who was promoted to the See of Sabina by Anastasius [cf. Brixius, p. 57]; that was the See to which the alleged Gregorius de Suburra was promoted. In fact, Anastasius created no cardinals in his slightly less than seventeen months on the papal throne.
The Chronicon Fossaenovae [Annales Ceccanenses: MGH SS 19, 284] states, "obiit Anastasius papa III non. Decembris [December 3, 1154]. The same date is given in the "Life of Pope Anastasius", written by Cardinal Boso; he died on December 3 [Watterich II, 322], in the palace at the Lateran [Ciaconius-Olduin I, 1054].
Obiit Romae III [IV mss.] nonas decembris. Tumulatus est autem Laterani in ipsa sancti Salvatoris ecclesia, in porphyretico pretioso sepulchro.
Ludovico Antonio Muratori (editor), Rerum Italicarum Scriptores Tomus III, pars 1 (Mediolani 1723). "Vita Hadriani IV" "Vita Eugenii III Papae", "Anastasii IV vita".
Ludovico Antonio Muratori (editor), Rerum Italicarum Scriptores Tomus Sextus (Mediolani 1725): "Caffari, eiusque Continuatorum Alles Genuenses," 241-608; "Ottonis Frisingensis Episcopi, ejusque Continuatoris Radevici Libri de gestis Friderici I Imperatoris," 629-860; "Ottonis de Sancto Blasio Chronicon," 861-912; "Epistola Burchardi Notarii Im peratoris ad Nicolaum Sigebergensium Abbatem de victoria Friderici I. Imp. Aug. et excidio Mediolanensi," 913-916; "Sire Raul, sive Radulphi Mediolanensis auctoris Synchroni de rebus gestis Friderici I in Italia Commentarius," 1167-1195. [Bishop Otto of Frising was the half-brother of Conrad III and the uncle of Frederick Barbarossa.]
Ludovico Antonio Muratori (editor), Rerum Italicarum Scriptores Tomus Vigesimusquartus (Mediolani 1738), "Chronicon Sublacense", columns 927-966.
Philippus Jaffé (editor), Bibliotheca Rerum Germanicarum, I: Monumenta Corbeiensia (Berolini 1864), "Wibaldi Epistolae," pp. 76-616.
Monumenta Germaniae Historica Scriptorum Tomus 20 (Hannoveriae 1868). "Ottonis Episcopi Frisingensis opera", pp. 83-301. [Bishop Otto of Frising was the half-brother of Conrad III and the uncle of Frederick Barbarossa].
Oswaldus Holder-Egger (editor), Gesta Frederici Imperatoris in Lombardia auct(ore) cive Mediolanensi (Hannover 1892). [Annales Mediolanenses Maiores].
Alphonsus Ciaconius [Alfonso Chacon], Vitae et Res Gestae Pontificum Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalium ... ab Augustino Oldoino Societatis Iesu recognitae Tomus Primus (Romae: sumptibus Philippi et Antonii de Rubeis 1677) [Volume I of the 4 volume edition; the Jesuit Olduin does what he can to eliminate the multitude of errors from earlier editions; many still remain]. Lorenzo Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa Tomo primo (Roma: Pagliarini 1793).
Caesaris S. R. E. Cardinalis Baronii, Od. Raynaldi et Jac. Laderchii Annales Ecclesiastici denuo excusi et ad nostra usque tempora perducti ab Augusto Theiner Tomus Decimusnonus 1094-1146 (Barri-Ducis: Ludovicus Guerin 1869). [Baronius-Theiner]
Philippus Jaffé (editor) Regesta Pontificum Romanorum (editionem secundam correctam et auctam auspiciis Guilelmi Wattenbach; curaverunt S. Loewenfeld, F. Kaltenbrunner, P. Ewald) Tomus secundus (Lipsiae: Veit et comp. 1888) [JL].
Giuseppe de Novaes, Elementi della storia de' sommi Pontefici Terza edizione Tomo Terzo (Roma 1821). [a mine of misinformation; many of his attributions are refuted by the Subscriptiones to papal documents]
Johann M. Watterich, (editor), Pontificum Romanorum qui fuerunt inde ab exeunte saeculo IX usque ad finem saeculi XIII vitae ab aequalibus conscriptae Tomus II (Lipsiae 1862). [Watterich]
M. Doeberl (editor), Monumenta Germaniae Selecta 4 (München 1890). [MGS]
Richard Zöpffel Die Papstwahlen und die mit ihnen im nächsten Zusammenhange stehenden Ceremonien (Göttingen 1871). Karl Holder, Die Designation der Nachfolger durch die Päpste (Freiburg: Weith 1892), pp. 65-66. F. Gregorovius, History of Rome in the Middle Ages, Volume IV. 2 second edition, revised (London: George Bell, 1896) [Book VIII chapter 5], pp. 524-571. T. A. Tout, The Empire and The Papacy, 918-1273, Period II (New York: Macmillan 1899). Edmund Curtis, Roger of Sicily and the Normans in Lower Italy (New York 1912). Horace K. Mann, Lives of the Popes in the Middle Ages Vol. IX 1130-1159 (London 1914). 221-231.
Beorges Guibal, Arnaud de Brescia et les Hohenstaufen (Paris 1868). Giovanni di Castro, Arnoldo di Brescia e la rivoluzione romana (Livorno 1875). Adolf Hausrath, Arnold von Brescia (Leipzig 1895). Alfred H. Tarlton, Nicholas Breakspear (Adrian IV.): Englishman and Pope (London 1896). Hermann Reuter, Geschichte Alexanders des Dritten 2nd edition Erster Band (Leipzig 1850). G. B. Siragusa, Il regno di Guglielmo I in Sicilia Parte prima (Palermo 1885). Moritz Meher, Die Wahl Alexanders III. und VIctors III. (Göttingen 1871). Alwin Wetzold, Die Wahl Friedrich I (Görlitz 1872).
P. Classen, "Zur Geschichte Papst Anastasius IV," Quellen und Forschungen aus Italianischen Archiven und Bibliotheken 48 (Roma 1968), 36-63. Johannes Leineweber, Studien zur Geschichte Papst Cölestins III (Jena 1905). J. M. Brixius, Die Mitglieder des Kardinalkollegiums von 1130-1181 (Berlin 1912). Johannes Bachmann, Die papstlichen Legaten in Deutschland und Skandinavien (1125-1159) (Berlin 1913) [Historische Studien E. Ebering, Band 115]. Carl Erdmann, "Papsturkunden in Portugal," Abhandlungen der Gesellschaft der Wissenschaft zu Göttingen. phil.-hist. Klasse. Neue Folge 20, 3. (Berlin 1927). Gerhard Dunken, Die politische Wirksamkeit der papstlichen Legaten in der Zeit des Kampfen zwischen Karsertum und Papsttum in Oberitalien inter Friedrich I (Berlin: E. Ebering 1931) [Historische Studien, Heft 209]. Klaus Ganzer. Die Entwicklung des auswärtigen Kardinalats im hohen Mittelalter (Tübingen 1963). Barbara Zenker, Die Mitglieder des Kardinalkollegiums von 1130 bis 1159 (Würzburg 1964).
"Le sénat romain au douzième siècle," Analecta Iuris Pontificii 12 (Rome 1873), columns 614-618.
On Cardinal Guido Cremensis' career: Studia Gratiana XI (Bologna 1976) pp. 103, 107.
[My special thanks to Mr. Tomasz Karlikowski, Esq., who was kind enough to provide me with materials for this page, and to share with me his notes on the various cardinals who were living at the time of the death of Adrian IV. He also indulged me with additional correspondence on various topics relevant to this page. His interventions saved me from a number of mistakes and improved the final product.]