Sede Vacante 1143
September 24—September 26, 1143
The situation of the King of Sicily was a major concern to the Papacy in September of 1143 [Gregorovius IV. 2, pp. 442-452; E. Curtis, Roger of Sicily and the Normans pp. 197-211]. Bad as affairs were in the city of Rome, the situation was worse with regard to King Roger. He was the Pope's most important vassal, and yet the Pope had refused him the recognition as King of Sicily which had been granted by Anacletus II and admitted by Innocent II. But Roger had been in complete control over all church appointments in his kingdom for some time, since he had captured Pope Innocent II in 1139, and forced from him papal investiture with the lands of the south (Treaty of Mignano). The Historia Pontificum of John of Salisbury provides some of the details of the confrontation, in which the King insisted on naming persons whom he wanted to be elected, and the Pope insisted on inhibiting them from being consecrated:
Rex enim aliorum more tirannorum ecclesiam terrae suae redegerat in servitutem, nec alicubi patiebatur electionem libere celebrari, send praenominabat quem eligi oporteret, et ita de officiis ecclesiasticis sicut de palatii sui muneribus disponebat. Ob hanc causam taliter electos inhibuit Romana ecclesia consecrari, adeo quod processerat inhibitio, ut paucae sedes propriis auderent episcopis et fere in omnibus ecclesiis residebant viri a multis annis electi. Nam consecrationis oleum defecit in terra eius, ex quo cepit Innocentium papam. Praeterea legatos ecclesiae Romanae non patiebatur intrare terram suam nisi a se vocatos, aut licentia ante impetrata destinatos, et eos tunc non ecclesiae sed ipse propriis sumptibus exhibebat aut faciebat ab ecclesiis exhiberi.
Apparently Innocent complained, but King Roger replied that it had been the custom since the time of Robert Guiscard, and he had no intention of ceasing [Chronicon Ignoti Monachi Cisterciensis S. Mariae de Ferraria p. 27 ed. Gaudenzi]:
Mcxlij et xiij anno eiusdem Innocentii idem Apostolicus misit eidem regi quod non esset iuris sui pastores eligere ecclesiarum et ab hac presumptione discederet. Cui rex ita respondit, quod a tempore Roberti Guiscardi ducis et ducis Rogerii et Guildemi ducis usque modo hec consuetudo extitit, a qua discedere nullo modo volumus, sed eam tenere firmiter volumus.
This became an element of contention between him and the newly elected Pope Celestine during his brief reign (September 26, 1143–March 8, 1144). As Romuald of Salerno puts it [MGH SS 19, 424], Hic concordiam quae inter Innocentium papam et regem Rogerium facta est, ratam habere noluit, sed eam revocavit in dubium.
The situation with France in 1142 and 1143 was not a happy one either. Two incidents brought swift action from Innocent II, both of dubious political wisdom. In fairness to Innocent, it should be pointed out that he had already been stimulated to his imprudence by the meddling of Bernard of Clairvaux [Migne PL 182, Epistle 217, 218] in the matter of the divorce of the Count of Vermandois, as Baronius admits [Baronius-Theiner 18, sub anno 1142 no. 2, p. 602], and Theiner further notes [Baronius-Theiner 18, sub anno 1142 no. 2, p. 604]. A legatus a latere, the French Cardinal Ivo of S. Lorenzo in Damaso [Brixius p. 44 and 92; Zenker, pp. 77-78], had been sent to France to deal with the situation (though he did not do much, having left the Curia after January 15, 1142 [JL 8197] and died at Trier in June, 1142 [Gesta Treverorum, in MGH 24, p. 376]. Then, in his arrogance, Innocent excommunicated the French King Louis VII, due to a dispute over the election of a bishop of Bourges.After the death of Archbishop Alberic of Bourges in 1142, Innocent had named Pierre de la Châtre to replace him, and performed the consecration himself in Rome. He had done so without seeking the consent of the King, who believed that his rights were being disrespected—as indeed they were. Neither had the Chapter of Bourges been taken into account. Louis therefore forbade the newly appointed bishop to enter his diocese. When Pierre complained to Innocent, all of the lands which the bishop was forbidden to enter were placed under interdict. The bishop himself was taken in by the Count of Champagne, which gave Louis a pretext to levy war against the Count. Bernard of Clairvaux then took it upon himself to lobby the Cardinals, especially the French Cistercian Cardinal, Etienne of Palestrina, against King Louis, though he was quick to take credit for reconciling Louis with Count Theobald of Champagne [Migne PL 182, no. 224, columns 391-394. (One of Celestine II's early acts was to lift the interdict, which was very unjustly punishing innocent people, and absolve the French king)].
At the same time, he Roman Commune was coalescing in the wake of the disastrous later years of the reign of Innocent II, where his high-handedness and treachery (as it seemed) had led to one reversal after another for the Roman Church [Gregorovius IV. 2, pp. 453-463]. Innocent had been able to return to Rome in the first place only because of the military support of the Emperor Lothar, who was no friend of the Romans. But Lothar died in 1137, and his successor, Conrad, had his hands full in Germany with various rivals [Bernhardi, Konrad III Erster Theil (Leipzig 1883), pp. 15-16]. But Innocent then took it upon himself to get involved in the long standing troubles between the people of Rome and the people of Tibur (Tivoli). His expectation was to be able to control both of them. (He had come to Tibur on May 3, 1142, and fled from Tibur on June 12) Archbishop Romuald of Salerno (Chronicon VII. 27; MGH SS 19, p. 263; A.D. 1142; and see Otto of Frising Chronica VII. 27) provides some of the details:
Dum haec aguntur in Gallia et Germania, Romanus pontifex Innocentius, qui iam per multum temporis Tyburtinos excommunicaverat ac aliis modis presserat, coangustatos ad deditionem, acceptis obsidibus ac iureiurando interposito, coegit. Populus vere Romanus volens, ut eos per obsides et sacramentum ad durissima praecepta, id est ut miris ruptis omnes provincia cederent, cogeret, dum nobilissimus ac liberalissimus sacerdos tam irrationabili et inhumanae petitioni annuere nollet, seditionem movent, ac in ipso impetu in Capitolio venientes, antiquam Urbis dignitatem renovare cupientes, ordinem senatorum, qui iam per multa curricula temporum deperierat, constituunt, et rursum cum Tyburtinis bellum innovant. Causa vero tantae immanitatis fuit, quod in priori anno, dum cum pontifice suo in obsidione praefatae civitatis morarentur, civibus egressis et cum ipsis manum conserventibus, miltis amissis spoliis, turpiter in fugam conversi sunt; idcirco nulla, nisi quam diximus, conventione usque hodie se posse placari asserunt. Verum sapientissimus antistes praevidens, ne forte ecclesia Dei, quae per moltos annos secularem Urbis honorem a Constantino sibi traditum potentissime habuit, hac occasione quandoque perderet, multis modis tam miniis quam muneribus, ne ad effectum res procedet, impedire conatur. Sed invalescente populo, dum proficere non posset, lecto cubans, iuxta quosdam de fituris visione sibi monstrata, in pace quievit, eique Caelestinus vir religione et litterarum scientia praeditus, cuim magna unanimitate electus successit.
So Innocent abused both the Tiburtines (using excommunication as his club) and the Romans (to whom he would not surrender the Tiburtines), and made himself obnoxious to both. But his erstwhile friend, the Emperor Lothar, had died in December of 1137, and his protection was no longer available. Innocent himself died in September of 1143. The brief interlude of Celestine II (September 26, 1143—March 8, 1144) saw some efforts to come to terms with the Romans. At the same time, the friends of Arnold of Brescia (who was himself protected by one of the several Cardinals named Guido, perhaps Guido de Ficeclo) continued their campaign against the secular power of the Church. Innocent had given them plenty of ammunition to wage their campaign with.
Death of Innocent II (Gregory Papareschi)
Cardinal Boso, his biographer, tells us nothing about Innocent's death. He remarks only that he died on September 24 and was buried at the Lateran [Watterich II, 179]:
Defunctus est Romae octavo Kalendis Octobris [September 24, 1143] et in ecclesia Lateranensi honorifice tumulatus in concha porphyretica, miro opere constructa.
Bishop Otto of Frising [Chronica VII. 27] says: Sed invalescente populo, dum proficere non posset, lecto cubans, iuxta quosdam de futuris visione sibi monstrata, in pace quievit.
Onuphrio Panvinio (Epitome, pp. 108-109) provides a list of thirty cardinals who took part in the Election of Celestine II (6 Bishops, 14 Priests, 10 Deacons). Among the Cardinal Priests he includes: Iozelinus of S. Cecilia (who died in 1132, and whose titulus was occupied by Cardinal Goizo); Cardinal Anselmus of S. Lorenzo in Lucina (who last subscribed in 1141: Zenker, p. 123); Cardinal Lucas of SS. Giovanni e Paolo, who was dead and had been succeeded by Hubaldus by January 8, 1142); Martinus of S. Stefano in Celio monte (who had been succeeded by Rainerius by December, 1143) [Zenker, pp. 133-134]; among the Cardinal Deacons he places: Boetius of SS. Vito e Modesto (who last signed in May of 1138). He omits: Adenulfus of Farfa; Ubaldus of S. Maria in Via Lata 91135-December 1143); and Pietro of S. Maria in Aquiro (December 1141 to May 1144).
Ciaconius-Olduin (columns 1011-1012), also provide a list of cardinals who took part in the Election of 1143; it too contains thirty names.
Listed as present are: Raynaldus of Montecassino, and Hubaldus of S. Maria in Via lata (deceased). He apparently believes in the two-Gregories theory at the Deaconry of S. Angelo in Pescheria, and therefore does not list the second Gregory. He does not know that Cardinal Gilbertus, whom he correctly includes, was Deacon of S. Adriano.
Salvador Miranda states that "thirty cardinals took part in the election" (6 Bishops, 12 Priests, 12 Deacons). His list is exactly that of Ciaconius-Olduin. He counts Abbot Rainerius of Montecassino as present, for which there is no evidence whatsoever. Miranda is unaware that Adinulfus of Farfa was the Cardinal Deacon of S. Maria in Cosmedin. He does not list Gregory of S. Angelo in Pescheria, and thus apparently subscribes to the two-Gregories theory.
Cardinals alive at the time of the Election of 1143:
- Conradus, a native Roman from the Suburra region. Between 1111 and 1114 Pope Paschal II promoted him to be Cardinal Priest of S. Pudenziana, and Honorius II had promoted him to the See of Sabina in 1128 [Zenker, p. 46-47]. In 1139 he is found as Vicar of Innocent II for the city of Rome [Kehr, Italia Pontificia I, p. 27 no. 14 (July 18, 1139]. He was the Vicar for the city of Rome for Pope Eugenius III while the latter was in France (1147-1149) and again from the Summer of 1150 to December of 1152, when the pope was in exile due to his conflicts with the Commune of Rome. He had been a cardinal for over forty years before his election to the Papacy.
- Theodwinus [German], Can. Reg. of Saint Augustine, Bishop Silva Candida (Santa Rufina). He had been Apostolicae Sedis Legatus for Innocent II in Germany in 1134-1135 [Bernhardi, pp. 6-7]. He was present in 1138 as Apostolicae Sedis Legatus at the reelection of Conrad as German Emperor, and on March 13, 1138, he crowned him [Albertus de Bezanis, Cronica ed. Holder-Egger (1908), p. 25; Böhmer, Regesta p. 114]. His latest subscription is April 14, 1150 [Migne PL 180, no. ccclxxx, columns 1411-1413; JL 9380]. Cardinal Theodwin died on March 7, 1151 [Brixius. p. 47 and p. 95, note 85; Zenker, p. 28 n. 106]. The See was vacant until the beginning of 1154. Miranda chooses to follow the Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1928, rather than Brixius and Zenker, and makes Theodwin die in 1153, though conveniently after the Election on July 8. Abbot Wibaldus, Ep. 225 in Migne's edition (Jaffé, Ep. 252, pp. 376-378), demonstrates that Theodwin returned from the East in 1150, went to Germany, and rejoined King Konrad's court. It is the Historia Pontificum sub anno 1150 that makes Cardinal Theodwin die in the East, but apparently this was during a return trip that his death came in 1151. The year 1151 is given by the Annales Palidenses, which provide a substantial biographical notice [MGH SS 16, p. 85].
- Alberic, OSB.Clun. [French, Beauvais], Bishop of Ostia (1138-1148). In 1130, he was Abbot of Vezelay, which was under direct papal control. Legate to England and Scotland for Innocent II; held a synod at Carlisle on September 26-28, 1138 (at which the Scottish Church, now that Anacletus II was dead (January, 1138), finally accepted Innocent II: Concilia Scotiae I, xxvi-xxviiii) , and at Westminster on December 13, 1138 [Gervase of Canterbury I (ed. Stubbs), p. 107-109; J. Le Neve, Fasti ecclesiae Anglicanae I, p. 8; Mansi, Sacrorum Conciliorum 21, 510]; he officiated at the consecration of Archbishop Theobald of Canterbury on January 8, 1139. He and the new archbishop then proceeded to Rome so that the Archbishop could receive the pallium. In 1142 he was in Syria and presided over a Council held at Antioch [Mansi, Sacrorum Conciliorum 21, 577-580]. He presided over the Easter celebrations in Jerusalem in 1143; afterwards he held a general council of bishops from the East who had come to Jerusalem for the dedication of a church; thereafter he departed for Acco and then Rome [Mansi, Sacrorum Conciliorum 21, 583-584]. In 1145 he was Legate in France [Baronius-Theiner 18, sub anno 1144, no.3, p. 622; Zenker, 18-19]. He accompanied Eugenius III on his trip to Germany and France in 1147 and 1148, and was present at Trier for Christmas of 1147 [Balderic, Gesta Alberonis, in MGH SS 8, 254-255]. Died in 1148, and was buried in Verdun [Brixius, p. 40 and 85; Zenker, pp. 15-20; R. Manselli, Archivio della Società romana di storia patria 78 (1955), 23-68].
- Stephanus, O.Cist. [French], Bishop of Palestrina (1141-1144). He subscribed on March 6, 1144 [Migne, PL 179, coilumn 816] and March 15, 1144 [Migne PL 179, column 825]. His successor was Cardinal Guarinus, who signs on January 31, 1145 (?) [Brixius, p. 51; Zenker, pp. 41-42]
- Petrus "Papareschi", Bishop of Albano [Brixius, p. 45 and 93; Zenker, p. 36]. Nothing is known about him. He subscribed JL 8742 on April 28, 1145. There is no proof that he was Innocent II's brother or a Papareschi.
- Hymarus (Imarus), OSB [Gallus], Bishop of Tusculum (since 1142). Appointed Legate in England by Lucius II in 1144 and 1145, and then also in France [Baronius-Theiner 18, sub anno 1144, no. 4, p. 622, and no. 11, p. 624 (Watterich, 454, 461)].
- Gerardus "Caccianemici" [Bononiensis], Cardinal Priest of S. Croce in Ierusalem (1123-1144). His connection with the Ursi-Caccianemici family of Bologna has been discounted as errors and interpolations which amount to falsification, and in fact the name "Caccianemici" does not appear until the XIII Century. Gerardus is claimed as a Canon of S. Maria di Reno, but with insufficient documentary evidence; he appears to sign himself as a witness to a diploma of Lothar II in 1126 as a Canon of S. Frediano of Lucca; but he is also claimed as a Canon Regular of the Lateran.
He was made a Cardinal in 1123 by Calixtus II, and Bibliothecarius S. R. E. by Honorius II [Baronius-Theiner 18, sub anno 1144, no.1, p. 617]. In 1125 Honorius II sent him to Germany as Legate, where he worked to achieve the election of Lothar II as Emperor, and again in 1126-1127 he is attested as Apostolicae Sedis Legatus in Germany [J. Bachmann, Die päpstlichen Legaten in Deutschland und Skandinavien (1125-1159), 5-7]. In 1128 he was Rector of Beneventum. He supported Innocent II in the Schism of 1130-1137, and was immediately sent to Germany to assure the support of the German episcopate for his side. He also worked both in Ravenna and Bologna to ensure their adherence to the faction of Innocent. In 1137 he was sent along with Chancellor Aymeric to Salerno to attempt to win over King Roger II, with a notable lack of success. Innocent also ordered him to engage in negotiations with some citizens of Beneventum [Falco of Benevento, Muratori RIS 5, p. 121; Kehr Italia Pontificia 9, p. 37 no. 87 (May 21, 1137)]. He was appointed S.R.E. Cancellarius (1141-1144) by Innocent II in succession to Cardinal Aymeric. He is said to have been "Compater et amicus" of King Roger of Sicily [Romualdus Salernitanus, in Watterich II, p. 280]. Giuliano Milani, "Lucio II" Enciclopedia dei Papa (2000).
- Magister Guido de Castello [Città del Castello, in the Province of Perugia]. Pupil of Abelard. He was a learned canonist. Canon of the Chapter of the Cathedral of S. Florido, which had been reformed by the Prior of S. Frediano in Lucca. Elevated to the Cardinalate as Cardinal Deacon of S. Maria in Via Lata by Honorius II (1124-1130), after March, 1126 (he subscribed as Cardinal Deacon to December, 1133). In the schism of 1130-1138 he supported Innocent II (Gregory Papareschi). Elevated to Cardinal Priest of S. Marco (1133-1143). [Brixius, pp. 34-35 and p. 75 n. 17; Zenker, pp. 83-84]. While Cardinal of S. Marco, Guido was the recipient of the dedication of the book by Benedictus, Canonicus of St. Peter's, on the Roman Ordo called the Liber Pollicitus [Mabillon, Museum Italicum II, p. 118]. Benedictus called him perspicuae scientiae et profundae sapientiae magister.
- Gregorius, (died 1163). Cardinal Priest of S. Maria in Trastevere tituli Calixti (ca. 1138/1140 until after June 25, 1154). Later Bishop of Sabina. In the treaty of January, 1155, between Frederick I and Adrian IV, he is referred to: mediante domino Gregorio tunc Sancte Marie Transtiberim nunc episcopo Sabinensi [MGH Diplomata (Urkunden) Friedrich I, Part I: 1152-1158, no. 98, pp. 165-167]. The words nunc episcopo Sabinensi are an addition in 1155 to the original document of 1153 [Doeberl, Monumenta Germaniae Selecta 3-4 nr. xxvii].
- Guido "Bellagio" [Florentinus], presbiter cardinalis sancti Chrysogoni (1140-1157?) [Cardella I. 2, p. 86]. He could speak French, and had a taste for logic. He was Innocentii II in partibus Langobardiae legatus at Piacenza on September 24, 1139 [Kehr, Italia Pontificia 5, p. 463 no. 12] Apost. sedis Legatus in tota Langobardia, along with Cardinal Hubaldus, attested in July-October, 1144 [Kehr, Italia Pontificia VI, xxviii; p. 80, etc.]. Legate in Piacenza in 1146; Legate in the Holy Land, 1147-1151 [Historia Pontificalis, MGH SS 20, 540]; and in Verona in 1157. He last subscribes on June 13, 1157 [JL 10296]. [Brixius p. 43].
- Ranierus, Cardinal Priest of SS. Prisca et Aquila. (subscribes April 3, 1140 to May 7, 1146). Previously Cardinal Deacon without Deaconry (1140) [JL 8076, 8085].
- ? Goizo, Cardinal Priest of S. Cecilia, subscribes from March 12, 1140 to April 15, 1144 [Nachrichten von der k. Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften zu Göttingen . Phil.-hist. Klasse (1896), pp. 298-300]. He was previously a Cardinal Deacon [JL 8077, 8086] [Zenker, pp. 65-66 nr. 2]. On August 31, 1143 and September 2, 1143, Goizo was in Venice as Legate of Innocent II [Kehr, Italia Pontificia 7. 1, p. 102 no. 247; 7. 2, p. 173 no. 1].
- Petrus, Cardinal Priest of S. Pudenziana tit. Pastoris (1140-1144). Archpriest of the Vatican Basilica (by August 12, 1144)
- Tommaso [Mediolanensis], Can. Reg. of S. Maria de Crescenzago, title of S. Vitale.(subscribed April 11, 1141 to October 1146). He may have been a Cardinal Deacon (from 1140) [JL 8089; JL 8130], though his Deaconry is unknown [Brixius, p. 47 no. 50, and p. 96 note 86; Zenker, p. 114].
Cardinal Deacon Thomas' subscription, JL 8130 can be found in Migne, PL 179, 536-537(erroneously dated March 3, 1130; it was Innocent II's Year XII and Indiction IV, which would have been 1141): Ego Thomas sanctae Romanae Ecclesiae diaconus cardinalis.
- Hubaldus, Cardinal Priest of SS. Ioannes et Pauli tit. Pammachi (1141—1149). He was papal legate in Poland and Denmark in 1145; his name is absent from subscriptions from February 19, 1144 to October 9, 1145, and thus it is possible that he missed the Election Lucius II on March 12, 1144. On March 2, 1145 he was at Gniezno [Maleczynski, Studia nad dokumentem polskim (Wroclaw 1971) 55-76; I owe the knowledge of this reference to the generosity of Tomasz Karlikowski]
- Petrus Pisanus, Cardinal Priest of S. Susanna (by January 24, 1118). He was previously Cardinal Deacon of S. Adriano (1113-ca. 1116/1117). His latest subscription is on February 29, 1144 [Pflugk-Harttung, Acta... inedita II, nr. 377, p. 335, who forgets the leap-year; JL 8505]; there is a possibility he was dead by March 12, 1144.
- ? Hubaldus "Allucingoli", O.Cist. [of Lucca], Cardinal Priest of S. Prassede, February 23, 1141 [Watterich, 333]; some consider him the same Hubaldus as was created Cardinal Deacon of S. Adriano in 1138 [RIS III. 1 p. 442 column 2]; he first subscribed on January 25, 1139 [JL 7947]. He had been legate of Innocent II in Lombardy in 1142-1143. On August 13, 1142 he settled a case between Parma and Reggio [Kehr Italia Pontificia 5, p. 418 no. 16]. On November 17, 1142, he settled a case involving the Canons of S. Frediano at Lucca [Kehr, Italia Pontificia 3, p. 411 no. 5]. [Cardella I. 2, pp. 27-29] On August 1, 1143, he decided a case at Piacenza [Kehr, Italia Pontificia VI.1, p. 181 no. 36]. He might have been in Tuscany at the moment of the Election. [Future Pope Lucius III, September 1, 1181–November 25, 1185]
- Gregorius Tarquinius, Cardinal Deacon of SS. Sergius and Bacchus (1123-1145). He is still subscribing on June 17, 1145 [JL 8771], and his successor, Cardinal Cinthius, begins to subscribe on September 21,1145 [Brixius, p. 34 nr. 17, p. 74 note 16; p. 143].
- Oddo Bonecase [MGH SS 8, 255; Zanker, 159], diaconus cardinalis sancti Georgii ad velum aureum (1132-1161). He was sent on a diplomatic mission to France in May, 1154-April, 1155 [Zenker, 159; E. Ernst, Archiv fur Diplomatik, Schriftgeschichte, Siegel- und Wappenkunde (1987), p. 260]. His latest subscription is JL 10684 (January 31, 1161).
- Guido da Vico [Pisanus], Cardinal Deacon of SS. Cosma e Damiano (subscribes from March 8, 1132- May 16, 1149) On July 16, 1146, a letter of Eugenius III [Migne, PL 180, cxxv, column 1151] refers to Cardinal Guido as judge in a dispute between the Canons of Verona and their bishop Tebaldus He died in 1149.
- Hubaldus, Cardinal Deacon of S. Maria in Via Lata (1134-1143/44). His latest subscription is on December 16, 1143 [JL 8459]. [Brixius, pp. 44, 91; Zenker, p. 178] He has the title of Magister in a document of November 7, 1141 [Migne PL 179, column 556 no. 485; Kehr Italia Pontiticia 5, p. 421 no. 3].
- Gerardus, Cardinal Deacon of S. Maria in Domnica (1138-1144). He signed on March 3, 1144; and the bull issued on the day of the death of Pope Celestine on March 8, 1144 [Pflugk-Harttung, Acta...inedita III, nr. 54, p. 53; and nr. 55, p. 55 = JL 8516]
- Octavianus de' Monticelli [Sabinensis, not Tusculanus] (aged 48). Octavianum cardinalem presbyterum, qui de nobilissimo Romanorum descendit sanguine, according to Pope Adrian IV in a remark to Frederick Barbarossa [in Otto of Frising, MGH SS 20, 406]. Cardinal Deacon of S. Niccolò in Carcere (1138-1150). Later Cardinal Priest in the titulus sanctae Ceciliae (from 1151). Antipope "Victor IV" (1159-1164). Legate to King Roger of Sicily for Popes Celestine II and Lucius II (1143-1145) [Chronicon Ignoti Monachi Cisterciensis S. Mariae de Ferraria p. 27 ed. Gaudenzi].
- Nicolaus (Niccolò), Cardinal Deacon. Nicolaus signs a bull on October 29, 1142 [JL 8242], as Nicolaus diaconus cardinalis sanctae romanae ecclesiae, immediately after Cardinal Octavianus of S. Nicolai in Carcere. He was promoted to Cardinal Priest of S. Ciriaco in December, 1143 [Brixius, p. 45]. He died on April 1, 1151 [Zenker, p. 109], as the Necrologio dei SS. Ciriaco e Nicolao records [P. Egidi, Necrologi e libri affini della Provincia romana, (Roma 1908), p. 25]
- Petrus, Cardinal Deacon of S. Maria in Aquiro (1141-1144). Latest subscription May 20, 1144 [Migne, PL 179, xlv bis, column 884]
- Petrus (Pietro), Cardinal Deacon of S. Maria in Porticu. (subscribed 1141 to May 17, 1145)
- Gilbertus (Gislibertus), Cardinal Deacon of S. Adriano by February 23, 1142 (JL 8216) [Zenker, p. 153], he was promoted to the Title of S. Marco by Celestine II by December 23, 1143 (JL 8460) (subscribed December 23, 1143—1150). On April 28, 1145, he suscribes as Ghilibertus indignus sacerdos sancte Romane ecclesie [Nachrichten der K. Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften zu Göttingen, phil.-hist. Klasse (1906), no. 29, p. 67]. On May 20, 1148, he subscribes as Gilibertus indignus sacerdos tit. S. Marci [Nachrichten der K. Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften zu Göttingen, phil.-hist. Klasse (1906), no. 39, p. 82; Lawrie, Early Scottish Charters (1904) p. 130 (May 14, 1144)]. The donation inscription on the tabernacle at S. Marco, ordered made by Cardinal Gilbertus for the redemption of his soul, gives him the title Magister and calls him GII PRESBYTER CARDIINALIS SANCTI MARCI [Forcella Inscrizioni delle chiese di Roma IV, no. 818]. The tabernacle was completed and dedicated in 1154, the date of the inscription.
- ? Gregory of S. Angelo in Pescheria (1137 or 1143–April 13, 1154). [Brixius, p. 49 nr. 3, and p. 97 note 101; but cf. Zenker, p. 174, who does not accept Brixius' notion that there were two successive Gregories at S. Angelo, but instead dates Cardinal Gregory between 1137 and 1154; cf. Maleczek, Papst und Kardinalskolleg, p. 242 n. 246, who prefers the two-Gregory theory]. On January 1, 1144, he subscribes as G(re)G(orius) diaconus cardinalis sancti Angeli [Julius v. Pflugk-Harttung, Acta pontificum Romanorum inedita III (Stuttgart 1886), no. 48, pp. 43-44 (JL II, 8474)].
Cardinals not attending the Election of 1143:
- ? Raynaldus, Abbot of Montecassino (died 1166). He is commemorated in the Necrologion Casinense [Muratori, Rerum Italicarum Scriptores VII, 943] in July: " Idibus. Obiit Ven. mem. Dominus Rainaldus presbyter cardinalis et Abbas hujus loci." [July 15].
He became Abbot in 1137, after Abbot Wibaldus, the Imperial supporter, had fled along with the Imperial party in the face of King Roger of Sicily: licet officio eidem ecclesiae administrare desierimus. Wibald wrote to congratulate him on his election [Epist. 3 and 4: Migne, PL 189, columns 1129-1130].
It is alleged that Rainaldo di Collemezzo Abbot of Montecassino [Cardella I.2, pp. 26-27] was created Cardinal Priest— allegedly of SS. Marcellino e Pietro—by Innocent II in 1140 (Is the date '1140' merely an inference because Cardinal Crescentius, the previous incumbent at SS. Marcellino e Pietro, last subscribes in April of 1139? If so, it is a very weak argument.). Or maybe he was created by Anacletus II (thus, before January 25, 1138) and welcomed into the faction of Innocent II, who allowed him to keep his title [rejected by Cardella, p. 27, rightly]. In fact, it would seem that, as an adherent of King Roger of Sicily and of Anacletus II, Rainaldo would have been one of those excommunicated and deposed by the Lateran Synod of 1139, and he may have been one of those pardoned along with King Roger after the Normans captured Pope Innocent on July 22, 1139. And yet, he may even have been made a cardinal by demand of King Roger as part of the settlement after the capture of Innocent II. But there is no evidence for such suppositions (cf. Luigi Tosti, La storia della Badia di Monte-Cassino II , pp. 153-168). Innocent II was not uniformly forgiving to all of the supporters of Anacletus: In August he deposed Rossemanus, Archbishop of Benevento, and others, because they had favored Anacletus II (Falco, Chronicon Beneventanum: Watterich, pp. 253-255). And there is no evidence that he was Cardinal of S. Marcellino e Pietro.
In a document of December 12, 1147, however, King Roger of Sicily calls him vir venerabilis Raynaldus S. Romanae Ecclesiae cardinalis, et sacri Cassiniensis coenobii religiosissimus abbas, fidelis noster (Tosti II, pp. 193-194). Rainaldus is called "cardinalis et venerabilis Montis Casini abbas" in other documents (e.g. Tosti, pp. 196-198 [March 1155]). G. A. Loud, The Latin Church in Norman Italy (Cambridge 2007), p. 241, states that Rainaldo "seems to have been an honorary cardinal from 1141, but never an active member of the college." Ciaconius-Olduin (I, 1053) list him as one of the living cardinals in July, 1154, at the time of the Election of Anastasius IV.
It is a fact that the title 'cardinal' was used in other churches than the Church of Rome, at Constantinople, Aquileia, Beneventum, Pisa, Capua, Salerno, Ravenna, Naples, Milan, and Compostela for example [e.g. Bulletino dell' "Archivio paleografico italiano" num. 1 (Perugia 1908), p. 75; Ughelli, Italia sacra II, 371: per manum Alberti, diaconi cardinalis Ravennatensis ecclesiae; L. A. Muratori, "De Cardinalium institutione," Antiquitates Italicae 12, Dissertatio 61, pp. 569-616], most usually for canons or at least senior canons of the Cathedral of the city. There is, for example, a grant from S. Reparata at Naples (A.D. 1100), subscribed by Sergius Archpresbyter et Cardenalis sanctae Sedis Neapolitanae [Muratori, column 581]. Muratori (column 594) even adduces the text of Ordericus Vitalis (Liber IV. 6), referring to two legates to England sent by Alexander II in 1070: Post haec Guillelmus rex Dominicam Resurrectionem in urbe Guenta celebravit, ubi cardinales Romanae ecclesiae coronam ei solemniter imposuerunt. Nam ex petitione ipsius Alexander papa tres idoneos ei ut carissimo filio legaverat vicarios: Ermenfredum pontificem Sedunorum, et duos canonicos cardinales. And at Benevento, the Archbishop issued a document in 1113, subscribed: Ego Landulphus Beneventanus Archiepiscopus subscripsi; Ego Roffridus Diaconus necnon et Biblioth. et Archipresbyter; Ego Joannes Cardinalis; Ego Constantinus Cardinalis; Ego Hermannus Cardinalis; Ego Joannes Primicerius [Ughelli Italia Sacra VIII, 94]. At a Council held at Reggio (Aemilia) in 1141 [Mansi, Sacrorum Conciliorum 21, 569], attendees included Gualterius, Archbishop of Ravenna and Alerius, Bishop of Reggio, Johanne quoque Ravennatis ecclesiae archipresbytero cardinale et presbytero Fantulino cardinale, atque Andrea presbytero cantore, Henrico diacono cardinale et Buniolo subdiacono cardinale, astantibus etiam ejus Reginae ecclesiae canonicis et capellanis, etc. Pope Urban IV refers to the canons of Ravenna being called "cardinales" in a mandate of June 11, 1264 [Guiraud, Registres d' Urbain IV III (1904), p. 274, no. 1760].
- Adenulfus, OSB, Abbot of Farfa, Cardinal Deacon of S. Maria in Cosmedin (1131/1132-1144). His career: MGH SS XI, pp. 584-585. [death: MGH SS XI, p. 589; Il Chronicon Farfense II, p. 321 ed. Balzani]
- ? Guido di Castro Ficelo [not Castelfidardo], deaconry not known, over a period of seven years. He first subscribes on April 29, 1140 (JL 8092), and his latest is on December 27, 1146 (JL 8974). This latest subscription [Migne, PL 180, column 1175, reads: Guido S. R. E. indignus diaconus, but he signs first among the four Cardinal Deacons [Zenker, pp. 188-190; see also L. Spätling, "Kardinal Guido und seine Legation in Böhmen-Mähren (1142-1146)," Mittheilungen des Instituts für Oesterreichische Geschichtsforschung 66 (1958) 309 ff.]. Guido is mentioned as legate in Moravia by Innocent II in a letter of August 21, 1142 [Migne, PL 179, column 597, no. dxxxi: JL 8238; Erben p. 104,-105 no. 236 and 238]. Ciaconius-Olduin term him altaris Lateranensis minister. Apparently he is not the same Cardinal Guido as Guido Sanctae Romanae Ecc. diac. card., who subscribed on March 14, 1145, immediately after Cardinal Berardus [Migne PL 180, 1016; JL 8717]. He may be the Cardinal Guido who was the friend and protector of Arnold of Brescia [Zenker, p. 189]. He subscribed on January 31, 1145 [Pflugk-Harttung, Acta...inedita III, p. 64]: Ego in Romana Ecclesia Guido altaris minister indignus, suggesting that he may have been in Rome for the Election of February 15, 1145.
In his internet list of Cardinals who were created by Innocent II (1130-1143), Salvador Miranda (Librarian Emeritus, Florida International University) notes that the following cardinals, in his opinion, were still alive, and therefore (some of them, at least) eligible to participate in the Election of 1143:
- Consistory of 1137:
(title of S. Pietro in Vincoli). + Before 1158.
Actually, his name was Comes. He was Cardinal Deacon of S. Maria in Aquiro (1116-1126); in mid-1126 he was elevated to the Title of S. Sabina, and he followed Pope Anacletus during the schism. When Anacletus died in January of 1138, Innocent II named him Cardinal Priest of S. Pietro in Vincoli tit. Eudoxiae, but treacherously turned against him at the II Lateran Council (March, 1139) and had him deprived of all of his functions. His latest subscription is on March 31, 1139 (JL 7961). The date of his death given by Miranda as "before 1158" is presumably based on the fact that Cardinal Guillelmus was at S. Pietro in Vincoli on May 7, 1158 [Brixius, p.32 nr.8, pp. 72-73; Zenker, pp. 93, 118].
- Consistory of 1139:
(title of Ss. Silvestro e Martino). + ca. 1145. He signed a single bull, on March 31, 1139 (JL 7961). The date of his death cannot be correct, since his successor Cardinal Robert Pullen was subscribing already by January 4, 1145, indicating that Robert had been created cardinal in 1144 by Lucius II [Brixius, pp. 41; Zenker, p. 89, 91]. It is more than possible that Egmundus was dead long before 1144. Miranda does not list him among the Electors of 1143 or 1144, though he ought to—if he really believes that Egmundus died ca. 1145. It may also be noted that Miranda, in his biographical notice on Cardinal Robert Pullen, assigns Robert's creation to ca. 1142 (following the Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1928, p. 129), which is an even greater contradiction.
(title of S. Pudenziana). + At the beginning of 1140. He is actually the same as:
(deaconry is not known). + (?). The facts are: he was a Subdeacon by 1138. He subscribed as a Cardinal Deacon in February of 1140 [Brixius, pp. 46, 93-94], but was quickly promoted, by March 27, 1140, to the Title of S. Pudenziana
tit. Pastoris. He died in the same year shortly after his promotion.[Zenker, pp. 111, 190]. Some of the earliest reported subscriptions attributed to Cardinal Peter, his successor, are in fact modern "corrections" of Presbiter's name (hence Brixius' erroneous belief that he could not have been Cardinal Priest of S. Pudenziana).
(deaconry is not known). + After March 3, 1141. He subscribed bulls as Cardinal Deacon on April 16, 1140 (JL 8089) and March 3, 1141 (JL 8130). It is true that he died after March 3, 1141, but it is also true that he was promoted by Innocent II to the titulus of S. Vitale and lived on until 1146.
- Consistory of 1140:
Can. Reg. of S. Maria de Crescenzago (title of S. Vitale). + October
1146. He is the same person as the Tommaso created Cardinal Deacon without Deaconry in 1139, though considering the dates of death assigned by Miranda he is unaware of the fact. He subscribed bulls as Cardinal Priest of S. Vitale tit. Vestinae on April 11, 1141 (JL 8133). He was with Pope Eugenius III at Narnia on March 14, 1145 (JL 8717), he subscribed on June 16, 1145 (JL 8769) [Zenker, pp. 114, 193, 196] He was qualified as an Elector in 1143, 1144, and 1145.
- Consistory of 1142:
Bayern, O.Cist. (deaconry is not known). + March 17, 1154. Miranda mentions in a footnote in his biography of Konrad, "Many sources do not mention his promotion to the cardinalate." He was a disciple of Bernard of Clairvaux and took his monastic vows in that house. Neither Brixius (1912) nor Zenker (1964) mentions him. Ciaconius-Olduin warns, at column 1004, "Hunc plerique auctores cum Conrado alio Bavaro Archiepiscopo Moguntino, et cum Conrado Abbate Villariensi, qui, ut dicemus suis locis, facti et ipsi sunt S.R.E. cardinales, Episcopus Salmenses unus, alter Praenestinus, cum re vera diversissimi fuerint."
It should be kept in mind that at this time the old regulations on papal elections, promulgated by Nicholas II at the Lateran Synod of 1059 in his bull In Nomine Domini, still applied. There it was legislated that it was the Cardinal Bishops who chose the name of the Candidate and then presented it for a majority vote of the Cardinals and then the approval of the Clergy, Nobility and People of Rome: inprimis cardinales episcopi diligentissima simul consideratione tractantes, mox sibi clericos cardinales adhibeant, sicque reliquus clerus et populus ad consensum novae electionis accedant. The election of Gelasius II in January of 1118, for example, was accomplished by a meeting the Cardinal Bishops, Cardinal Priests, Cardinal Deacons, Nicolaus Primicerius cum scola cantorum, sibdiacones palatii omnes, archiepiscopi quamplures, sed et alii minoris ordinis clerici multi Romani, de senatoribus ac consulibus aliqui praeter familiam nostram. Hi omnes, vitantes scandalum, quod in huiusmodi solet electionibus pro peccatis nostris accidere (etsi secus, sicut postea rei probavit eventus, ac sint omnes rati, provenerit), credentes locum tutissimum, veluti qui curiae cedit, in monasterio quodam, quod Palladium dicitur, infra domos Leonis et Cencii Fraiapane situm, pariter convenerunt, ut iuxta scita canonum de electione tractarent. (Pandulphus, in Watterich II, 95). Seventy years before the death of Innocent II, at the selection of Gregory VII, the Electoral Announcement [Liber Pontificalis, p. 282 Duchesne II] named the participants:
congregati in basilica beati Petri ad Vincula, nos sancte Romane catholice et apostolicae aecclesiae cardinales, clerici, acoliti, subdiaconi, presbiteri, praesentibus venerabilibus episcopis et abbatibus, clericis et monachis consentientibus, plurimis turbis utriusque sexus et diversi ordinis acclamantibus, eligimus nobis in pastorem et summum pontificem...
It is said that, before he died, Innocent II recommended five cardinals from among whom the College of Cardinals might choose his successor [D. Girgensohn, "Celestino II", Enciclopedia dei Papi I (Roma 2000), though he cites no source]. One of them was said to be Guido di Castello, another was Gerardo of S. Croce.
The Election took place at the Lateran Basilica on the third day after the death of Innocent II, that is on September 26, 1143 [Letter of Celestine II to the Abbot and monks of Cluny, November 6, 1143 (JL 8435)]:
Notum igitur facimus dilectioni vestrae quod Domino nostro bonae memoriae papa Innocentio, VIII Kal. Octobris defuncto, et in Lateranensi ecclesia cum maximo cleri ac populi Romani frequentia tumulato, cardinales presbyteri et diaconi, una cum fratribus nostris episcopis et subdiaconis, clero ac populo Romano acclamante, partim et expetente, tertia die in ipsa ecclesia unanimi voto et pari consensu, me indignum, et prorsus tanti officii imparem, nescio quo Dei judicio, in Romanum pontificem concorditer elegerunt.
Cardinal Guido da Citta di Castello was not yet a bishop at the time of his Election. It seems that he was consecrated and crowned on the day of his election [JL II, p. 1]. Papenbroch, however, is of the opinion that he was consecrated on the next Sunday after the election, which would have occurred on October 3, 1143 [Daniel Papenbroch, Conatus chronico-historicus ad catalogum Romanorum Pontificum (Antwerp 1685), pars secunda, p. 20]
"Celestini II vita, a Bosone cardinali conscripta" Watterich II, 276; "Lucii II vita, a Bosone cardinali conscripta, " Watterich II, 278-279. "Eugenii III vita, a Bosone cardinali conscripta," Watterich II, 281-283.
Ludovico Antonio Muratori (editor), Rerum Italicarum Scriptores Tomus Sextus (Mediolani 1725): "Caffari, eiusque Continuatorum Alles Genuenses," 241-608; "Ottonis Frisingensis Episcopi, ejusque Continuatoris Radevici Libri de gestis Friderici I Imperatoris," 629-860; "Ottonis de Sancto Blasio Chronicon," 861-912 [Bishop Otto of Frising was the half-brother of Conrad III and the uncle of Frederick Barbarossa.]. Ludovico Antonio Muratori, "De Cardinalium institutione," Antiquitates Italicae Medii aevi, sive Dissertationes 12 (Arretii 1778), Dissertatio sexagesima prima, pp. 569-616)
Philippus Jaffé (editor), Bibliotheca Rerum Germanicarum, I: Monumenta Corbeiensia (Berolini 1864), "Wibaldi Epistolae," pp. 76-616.
Monumenta Germaniae Historica Scriptorum Tomus 20 (Hannoveriae 1868). "Ottonis Episcopi Frisingensis opera", pp. 83-301. [Bishop Otto of Frising was the half-brother of Conrad III and the uncle of Frederick Barbarossa].
Oswaldus Holder-Egger (editor), Gesta Frederici Imperatoris in Lombardia auct(ore) cive Mediolanensi (Hannover 1892). [Annales Mediolanenses Maiores].
Alphonsus Ciaconius [Alfonso Chacon], Vitae et Res Gestae Pontificum Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalium ... ab Augustino Oldoino Societatis Iesu recognitae Tomus Primus (Romae: sumptibus Philippi et Antonii de Rubeis 1677) [Volume I of the 4 volume edition. By 1677 the work had been rewritten several times by several hands; the Jesuit Olduin, the most recent of them, does what he can to eliminate the multitude of errors from earlier editions; many still remain]. Lorenzo Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa Tomo primo (Roma: Pagliarini 1793).
Caesaris S. R. E. Cardinalis Baronii, Od. Raynaldi et Jac. Laderchii Annales Ecclesiastici denuo excusi et ad nostra usque tempora perducti ab Augusto Theiner Tomus Decimusnonus 1094-1146 (Barri-Ducis: Ludovicus Guerin 1869). [Baronius-Theiner]
J.-B. Pitra, Analecta novissima Spicilegii Solesmensis altera continuatio Tom. I: De epistolis et registribus Romanorum Pontificum (Typis Tusculanis 1885). Philippus Jaffé (editor) Regesta Pontificum Romanorum (editionem secundam correctam et auctam auspiciis Guilelmi Wattenbach; curaverunt S. Loewenfeld, F. Kaltenbrunner, P. Ewald) Tomus secundus (Lipsiae: Veit et comp. 1888) [JL].
Giuseppe de Novaes, Elementi della storia de' sommi Pontefici Terza edizione Tomo Terzo (Roma 1821). [a mine of misinformation; many of his attributions are refuted by the Subscriptiones to papal documents]
Johann M. Watterich, (editor), Pontificum Romanorum qui fuerunt inde ab exeunte saeculo IX usque ad finem saeculi XIII vitae ab aequalibus conscriptae Tomus II (Lipsiae 1862). [Watterich]
M. Doeberl (editor), Monumenta Germaniae Selecta 4 (München 1890). [MGS]
Richard Zöpffel Die Papstwahlen und die mit ihnen im nächsten Zusammenhange stehenden Ceremonien (Göttingen 1871). Karl Holder, Die Designation der Nachfolger durch die Päpste (Freiburg: Weith 1892), pp. 65-66. F. Gregorovius, History of Rome in the Middle Ages, Volume IV. 2 second edition, revised (London: George Bell, 1896) [Book VIII chapter 5], pp. 524-571. T. A. Tout, The Empire and The Papacy, 918-1273, Period II (New York: Macmillan 1899). Edmund Curtis, Roger of Sicily and the Normans in Lower Italy (New York 1912). Horace K. Mann, Lives of the Popes in the Middle Ages Vol. IX 1130-1159 (London 1914). 221-231.
Edmund Curtis, Roger of Sicily and the Normans in Lower Italy, 1016-1144 (New York 1912). Georges Guibal, Arnaud de Brescia et les Hohenstaufen (Paris 1868). Giovanni di Castro, Arnoldo di Brescia e la rivoluzione romana (Livorno 1875). Adolf Hausrath, Arnold von Brescia (Leipzig 1895). A. Frugoni, Arnaldo da Brescia nelle fonti del secolo XII (Torino 1989). Alfred H. Tarlton, Nicholas Breakspear (Adrian IV.): Englishman and Pope (London 1896). Hermann Reuter, Geschichte Alexanders des Dritten 2nd edition Erster Band (Leipzig 1850). G. B. Siragusa, Il regno di Guglielmo I in Sicilia Parte prima (Palermo 1885).
P. Classen, "Zur Geschichte Papst Anastasius IV," Quellen und Forschungen aus Italianischen Archiven und Bibliotheken 48 (Roma 1968), 36-63. Johannes Leineweber, Studien zur Geschichte Papst Cölestins III (Jena 1905). J. M. Brixius, Die Mitglieder des Kardinalkollegiums von 1130-1181 (Berlin 1912). Klaus Ganzer. Die Entwicklung des auswärtigen Kardinalats im hohen Mittelalter (Tübingen 1963). Barbara Zenker, Die Mitglieder des Kardinalkollegiums von 1130 bis 1159 (Würzburg 1964). W. Malaczek, "Das Kardinalskollegium unter Innocenz II. und Anaklet II," Archivum Historiae Pontificiae 19 (1981) 27-78. G. Mercati, "Quando fu consacrato papa Celestino II?" Quellen und Forschungen aus Italienischen Archiven und Bibliotheken 13 (1910) 377- .
Luigi Pompili Olivieri, Il Senato Romano nelle sette epoche di svariato governo da Romolo fino a noi 2 v. (Roma 1886). "Le sénat romain au douzième siècle," Analecta Iuris Pontificii 12 (Rome 1873), columns 614-618.
On Cardinal Guido Cremensis' career: Studia Gratiana XI (Bologna 1976) pp. 103, 107.
Wilhelm Bernhardi, Konrad III Erster Theil (Leipzig 1883) [Jahrbücher der Deutschen Geschichte].
[My special thanks to Mr. Tomasz Karlikowski, Esq., who was kind enough to provide me with materials for this page, and to share with me his notes on the various cardinals who were living at the time of the death of Adrian IV. He also indulged me with additional correspondence on various topics relevant to this page. His interventions saved me from a number of mistakes and improved the final product.]