EUGENIO CARDINAL PACELLI (1876-1958), born in Rome of a family of Vatican functionaries, attended the Gregorian University, the Capranica College, and the Academy of Noble Ecclesiastics, though with a dispensation throughout to live at home. He was ordained a priest in 1899, and entered papal service in 1901. He was an assistant to his patron, Msgr. Pietro Gasparri (who became a cardinal in 1907, and Secretary of State in 1914) from 1904-1917 in the project for the recodification of Canon Law. In 1917 he was named Nuncio to Bavaria by Pope Benedict XV, and consecrated Archbishop of Sardis; in 1920 he was named Nuncio to the new Weimar Republic. He was appointed Cardinal on December 16, 1929, and succeeded Cardinal Gasparri as Secretary of State on February 7, 1930. Having long and unsuccessfully sought a concordat with the Weimar Republic, he conducted negotiations at long distance through intermediaries with Nazi Germany for the Concordat of 1933. He became Cardinal Camerlengo of the Holy Roman Church in 1935, in succession to his patron, Cardinal Gasparri. Never having had a 'cure of souls', never having been a parish priest, never having administered a diocese, he was elected pope on March 2, 1939.
Prince Ludovico Chigi Albano della Rovere (July 10, 1866–November 14, 1951), son of Prince Mario and Antoinette, Princess zu Sayn-Wittgenstein-Sayn, was 76th Grand Master of the Sovereign and Military Order of the Knights Hospitaller of St. John on Jerusalem (Knights of Malta) from 1931-1951. In 1893 he married Donna Anna Aldobrandini, Princess of Sarsina; they had three children, Sigismondo, Pietro and Laura. Prince Ludovico was Marshal of both the conclave of 1922 and that of 1939.
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Bust, l., of Prince Ludovico Chigi Albani, 76th Grand Master of the Knights of Saint John of Jerusalem.
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The Arms of Prince Ludovico Chigi, Grand Master of Knights of Malta, surrounded by the collar of the Grand Master, surmounted by a princely coronet.
Assembly of the Knights at Rome, 1934.
There were only ten cardinals from the Conclave of 1922 who were still living, three Cardinal Bishops and seven Cardinal Priests. Thirty-five of the cardinals were Italian (56.45%). The average age was 66.30.
- Gennaro Granito Pignatelli di Belmonte (aged 87), Bishop of Ostia and of Albano, Dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals (died February 16, 1948)
- Donato Sbarretti Tazza (aged 82), Bishop of Sabina e Poggio Mirteto (died April 1, 1939). Secretary of the Supreme S.C. of the Holy Office
- Tommaso Pio Boggiani, OP (aged 76), Bishop of Porto e Santa Rufina , Chancellor of the Holy Roman Church
- Enrico Gasparri (aged 67), Bishop of Velletri. (died May 20, 1946). Prefect of the Supreme Tribunal of the Apostolic Signature
- Francesco Marchetti Selvaggiani,(aged 67), Bishop of Frascati (died January 13, 1951). Vicar-General of the City of Rome. Archpriest of the Lateran Basilica.
- Angelo Maria Dolci (aged 71), Bishop of Palestrina (died September 13, 1939). Archpriest of the Liberian Basilica (S. Maria Maggiore).
- William Henry O'Connell (aged 79), Cardinal Priest of S. Clemente (died April 22, 1944). Archbishop of Boston
- Alessio Ascalesi, CPPS (aged 66), Cardinal Priest of S. Callisto (died May 11, 1952). Archbishop of Naples
- Adolf Bertram (aged 79), Cardinal Priest of S. Agnese fuori le mura (died July 6, 1945). Archbishop of Breslau
- Michael von Faulhaber (aged 69), Cardinal Priest of S. Anastasia (died June 12, 1952). Archbishop of München und Freising
- Denis Dougherty (aged 73), Cardinal Priest of Ss. Nereo ed Achilleo (died May 31, 1951). Archbishop of Philadelphia
- Francisco de Asís Vidal y Barraquer (aged 70), Cardinal Priest of S. Sabina (died September 13, 1943). Archbishop of Tarragona
- Karl Joseph Schulte, (aged 67), Cardinal Priest of Ss. Quattro Coronati (died March 11, 1941). Archbishop of Cologne
- Giacomo Nasalli Rocca di Corneliano (aged 66), Cardinal Priest of S. Maria in Traspontina (died March 13, 1952). Archbishop of Bologna
- George William Mundelein (aged 66), Cardinal Priest of S. Maria del Popolo (died October 2, 1939). Archbishop of Chicago
- Alessandro Verde (aged 73), Cardinal Priest of S. Maria in Cosmedin (died March 29, 1958).
- Lorenzo Lauri (aged 74), Cardinal Priest of S. Pancrazio (died October 8, 1941). Major Penitentiary
- Jozef-Ernest van Roey (aged 55), Cardinal Priest of S. Maria in Ara Coeli (died August 6, 1961). Archbishop of Malines
- August Hlond, SDB (aged 57), Cardinal Priest of S. Maria della Pace (died October 22, 1948). Archbishop of Gniezno and Posen
- Pedro Segura y Sáenz (aged 58), Cardinal Priest of S. Maria in Trastevere (died April 8, 1957). Archbishop of Seville
- Jusztinian Györg Seredi, OSB (aged 54), Cardinal-Priest of SS. Andrea e Gregorio al Monte Celio (died March 29, 1945) Archbishop of Esztergom
- Alfredo Ildefonso Schuster, OSB (aged 59), Cardinal Priest of SS. Silvestro e Martino ai Monti (died August 30, 1954). Archbishop of Milan
- Manuel Gonçalves Cerejeira (aged 50), Cardinal Priest of Ss. Marcellino e Pietro (died August 2, 1977). Patriarch of Lisbon
- Eugenio Pacelli (aged 62), Cardinal Priest of Ss. Giovanni e Paolo (died October 9, 1958). Secretary of State, Prefect of the S.C. of Extraordinary Ecclesiastical Affairs, Camerlengo of the Holy Roman Church
- Luigi Lavitrano (aged 64), Cardinal Priest of S. Silvestro in Capite (died August 2, 1950). Archbishop of Palermo
- Joseph MacRory (aged 77), Cardinal Priest of S. Giovanni a Porta Latina (died October 13, 1945). Archbishop of Armagh
- Jean Verdier, PSS (aged 75), Cardinal Priest of S. Balbina (died April 9, 1940). Archbishop of Paris
- Sebastião Leme da Silveira Cintra (aged 57), Cardinal Priest of SS. Bonifacio ed Alessio (died October 17, 1942). Archbishop of Rio de Janeiro
- Raffaele Carlo Rossi, OCD (aged 62), Cardinal Priest of S. Prassede (died September 17, 1948). Secretary of the S.C. Consistorial
- Achille Liènart (aged 55), Cardinal Priest of S. Sisto (died February 15, 1973). Bishop of Lille
- Pietro Fumasoni Biondi (aged 66), Cardinal Priest of S. Croce in Gerusalemme (died July 12, 1960). Prefect of the S.C. for the Propagation of the Faith
- Federico Tedeschini (aged 65), Cardinal Priest of S. Maria della Vittoria (died November 2, 1959). Datary of His Holiness
- Maurilio Fossati, OSsCGN, (aged 62), Cardinal Priest of S. Marcello (died March 30, 1965). Archbishop of Turin
- Carlo Salotti (aged 68), Cardinal Priest of S. Bartolomeo all’Isola (died October 24, 1947). Prefect of the S.C. of Rites
- Jean-Marie-Rodrigue Villeneuve, OMI (aged 55), Cardinal Priest of S. Maria degli Angeli (died January 17, 1947). Archbishop of Québec
- Elia dalla Costa (aged 66), Cardinal Priest of S. Marco (died December 22, 1961). Archbishop of Florence
- Theodor Innitzer (aged 63), Cardinal Priest of S. Crisogono (died October 9, 1955). Archbishop of Vienna
- Ignace-Gabriel Tappouni (aged 59), Cardinal Priest of Ss. XII Apostoli (died January 29, 1968). Patriarch of Antioch of the Syrians
- Enrico Sibilia (aged 77), Cardinal Priest of S. Maria Nuova (died August 4, 1948).
- Francesco Marmaggi (aged 68), Cardinal Priest of S. Cecilia (died November 3, 1949).
- Luigi Maglione (aged 61), Cardinal Priest of S. Pudenziana (died August 22, 1944). Prefect of the S.C. of the Council
- Carlo Cremonesi (aged 72), Cardinal Priest of S. Lorenzo in Lucina (died November 25, 1943).
- Henri-Marie-Alfred Baudrillart, Orat. (aged 80), Cardinal-Priest of S. Bernardo alle Terme (died May 19, 1942).
- Emmanuel-Celestin Suhard (aged 64), Cardinal-Priest of S. Onofrio (died May 30, 1949). Archbishop of Reims
- Karel Kaspar (aged 58), Cardinal-Priest of Ss. Vitale, Valeria, Gervasio e Protasio (died April 21, 1941). Archbishop of Prague
- Santiago Luis Copello (aged 59), Cardinal Priest of S. Girolamo dei Croati (died February 9, 1967). Archbishop of Buenos Aires
- Isidro Gomá Tomás (aged 69), Cardinal Priest of S. Pietro in Montorio (died August 22, 1940). Archbishop of Toledo
- Pietro Boetto, SJ (aged 67), Cardinal Priest of S. Angelo in Pescheria (died January 31, 1946). Archbishop of Genoa
- Eugene Tisserant (aged 54), Cardinal Priest of SS. Vito, Modesto e Crescenzia (died February 21, 1972). Prefect of the S.C. of the Oriental Church
- Adeodato Giovanni Piazza, OCD (aged 54), Cardinal Priest of S. Prisca (died November 30, 1957). Patriarch of Venice
- Ermenegildo Pellegrinetti (aged 62), Cardinal Priest of S. Lorenzo in Panisperna (died March 29, 1943).
- Arthur Hinsley (aged 73), Cardinal Priest of S. Susanna (died March 17, 1943). Archbishop of Westminster
- Giuseppe Pizzardo (aged 61), Cardinal Priest of S. Maria in Via Lata (died August 1, 1970).
- Pierre-Marie Gerlier (aged 59), Cardinal Priest of Santissima Trinità al Monte Pincio (died January 17, 1965). Archbishop of Lyon
- Camillo Caccia Dominioni (aged 62), Cardinal Deacon of S. Maria in Domnica (died November 12, 1946).
- Nicola Canali (aged 64), Cardinal Deacon of S. Nicola in Carcere (died August 3, 1961).
- Domenico Jorio (aged 71), Cardinal Deacon of S. Apollinare alle Terme Neroniane-Alessandrine (died October 21, 1954). Prefect of the S.C. for the Discipline of the Sacraments
- Vincenzo La Puma (aged 65), Cardinal Deacon of SS. Cosma e Damiano (died November 4, 1943). Prefect of the S.C. of Religious
- Federico Cattani Amadori (aged 82), Cardinal Deacon of S. Maria in Aquiro (died April 11, 1943).
- Massimo Massimi (aged 61), Cardinal Deacon of S. Maria in Portico (died March 6, 1944). President of the Pontifical Commission for the Codification of Oriental Canon Law.
- Domenico Mariani (aged 75), Cardinal Deacon of S. Cesareo in Palatio (died ). Provost of the Administration of the Patrimony of the Holy See
- Giovanni Mercati (aged 72), Cardinal Deacon of S. Giorgio in Velabro (died August 23, 1957). Bibliothecarius and Archivist of the Holy Roman Church
The Conclave of 1939 began on March 2. Cardinal Pacelli, the Camerlengo and Secretary of State of Pius XI, was elected Pope Pius XII on the first day, on the third ballot (March 2, 1939). He died in Rome on October 9, 1958.