SEDE VACANTE 1922
(January 22, 1922—February 6, 1922)
Cardinal Gasparri and Benito Mussolini
SEDE VACANTE MDCCCCXXII
The Ombrellone, with crossed keys connected by cords.
The Arms of Pietro Cardinal Gasparri, Camerlengo of the Holy Roman Church (1916-1934), crossed keys and archepiscopal cross behind,
surmounted by a Cardinal's Hat with fifteen tassels on each side.
PIETRO CARDINAL GASPARRI (1852-1934) was born at Capovallazza di Ussita, the ninth child of shepherds (or sheep ranchers). He was educated at the Minor Seminary in Nepi and at the Pontifical Roman Seminary. He did advanced studies at the Athenaeum S. Apollinaire, taking doctorates in Philosophy, Theology and Canon and Civil Laws. Ordained in 1877, he became private secretary to Card. Teodolfo Mertel, who was Prefect of the Tribunal of the Signature of Justice at the time. He served for two years as professor at the Pontifical Roman Seminary and at the Athenaeum of the Propaganda Fidei. From 1879 to 1898 he taught Canon Law at the Institut Catholique in Paris. He was appointed Papal Chamberlain Supernumerary in 1889. In 1898 he was named Archbishop of Caesarea Maritima, and was sent as Apostolic Delegate to Ecuador, Peru, and Bolivia. In 1901 he returned to Rome to the Secretariat of State, as Secretary of the Sacred Congregation of Extraordinary Ecclesiastical Affairs (the Papal Foreign Office), becoming its Prefect in 1925. He was named Secretary of the Commission for the Codification of Canon Law in 1904, a project that occupied his attention until its completion in 1917. He was named Cardinal Priest of S. Bernardo alle Terme in 1907. On October 13, 1914 he became Secretary of State of His Holiness (a post he held until February 7, 1930) and, on December 4, 1916, Camerlengo of the Holy Roman Church (a post he held until his death, on November 18, 1934). He participated in the Conclave of 1914 and presided over that of 1922.
Gasparri was the principal negotiator and signatory of the Lateran Pacts (February 11, 1929), which established the Vatican City State and regulated relations with the Kingdom of Italy. This treaty restored sovereignty to the Pope, and thus coinage resumed.
The Dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals was Cardinal Vincenzo Vannutelli.
The arms of Richard Saenz de Samper on the Cross of the Knights of St. John of Jersualem, surmounted by an Archbishop's hat with twelve tassels on each side.
RICHARDVS | DE SAMPER |
SAC(cri) • PAL(atii) •AP(osto)LICI |
PRAEFECTVS | ET CONCLAVIS | GVBERNATOR
Richard de Samper, Prefect of the Sacred Apostolic Palaces (1921-1926), et Governor of the Conclave, 1922.
Mint: Pasinati, Roma
Riccardo Saenz de Samper y Campuzano (1873-1954) was born in Bogota, Colombia. Having served in the army as a Lieutenant of Artillery, he was sent to Paris as Secretary of the Columbian legation. He entered the clerical state in 1895 and spent the years 1896 to 1899 in Rome at the Academy for Noble Ecclesiastics (the training school for Papal diplomats). He was sent to Mexico during 1902 and 1903. On his return to Rome he was made Privy Chamberlain to Pius X, and later interim Maestro di Camera. In 1911 he was named Secretary of the Sacred Congregation of Ceremonies. He became Maestro di Camera in 1914, and was promoted Majordomo and Prefect of the Sacred Apostolic Palaces in 1921. He was Governor of the Conclave of 1922. The office of Majordomo was abolished in 1926 (briefly revived 1958-68), and he held the title Majordomo Emeritus until his death.
The arms of Prince Ludovico Chigi.
LVDOVICVS | PRINCEPS | CHISIVS
S(anctae) • R(omanae) • E(cclesiae • |
MARESCHALLVS | PERPETVVS
Prince Ludovico Chigi, Hereditary Marshal of the Holy Roman Church, 1922.
Mint: Pasinati, Roma
Prince Ludovico Chigi Albano della Rovere (July 10, 1866-November 14, 1951), son of Prince Mario and Antoinette, Princess zu Sayn-Wittgenstein-Sayn, was 76th Grand Master of the Sovereign and Military Order of the Knights Hospitaller of St. John on Jerusalem (Knights of Malta) from 1931-1951. In 1893 he married Donna Anna Aldobrandini, Princess of Sarsina; they had three children, Sigismondo, Petro and Laura. Prince Ludovico was Marshal of the Holy Roman Church at both the conclave of 1922 and that of 1939.
Bust of Prince Ludovico Chigi Albani, 76th Grand Master of the Knights of St. John of Jerusalem.
(in field:) AN•JVB | MCMXXXIV
The Arms of the Sovereign Order of the Knights of St. John of Jerusalem, surmounted by a crown and draped with the grand collar of the order; on the occasion of their general assembly in Rome in 1934.
Benedict XV gave evidence, on January 5, 1922, that he was suffering from a cold. On January 12, it was noticed that he was feverish and suffering from a heavy cough. On the 18th he was unable to get out of bed. During the night of the 19th/20th, his condition became much worse. On the 21st, he became delirious, and at 6 a.m. on January 22, he was dead.
Pope Benedict XV had appointed thirty-two cardinals in five creations, four of whom died during his pontificate. Of the sixty-five cardinals eligible to vote in 1914, thirty-two had died before the beginning of the Conclave of 1922. The total number of cardinal electors at the Conclave of 1922 was therefore sixty. Seven Cardinals were unable to attend, three of them arriving too late to vote and four of them excusing themselves because of illness or distance.
Five of the cardinals in attendance had been appointed by Leo XIII.
- Vincenzo Vannutelli (aged 85), Bishop of Ostia and of Palestrina (died July 9, 1930). Dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals
- Gaetano de Lai (aged 68), Bishop of Sabina e Poggio Mirteto (died October 24, 1928).ex-Secretary of the S.C. Consistorial
- Antonio Vico (aged 75), Bishop of Porto e Santa Rufina, ex-Prefect of the S.C. of Rites
- Gennaro Granito Pignatelli di Belmonte (aged 70), Bishop of Albano (died February 16, 1948).
- Basilio Pompilj (aged 63), Bishop of Velletri (died August 5, 1929). Vicar-General for the City of Rome
- Giovanni Cagliero (aged 84), SDB, Bishop of Frascati (died February 28, 1926).
- Michael Logue (aged 83), Cardinal Priest of S. Maria della Pace (died November 19, 1924). Archbishop of Armagh
- Giuseppe Francica Nava di Bontifé (aged 75), Cardinal Priest of Ss. Giovanni e Paolo (died December 7, 1928). Archbishop of Catania
- Agostino Richelmy (aged 71), Cardinal Priest of S. Maria in Via (died August 10, 1923). Archbishop of Turin
- Bartolomeo Bacilieri (aged 79), Cardinal Priest of S. Bartolomeo all’Isola (died February 14, 1923). Bishop of Verona
- Rafael Merry del Val y Zulueta (aged 56), Cardinal Priest of S. Prassede (died February 26, 1930). ex-Secretary of the Supreme S.C. of the Holy Office. Archpriest of the Vatican Basilica.
- Ottavio Cagiano de Azevedo (aged 76), Cardinal-Priest of S. Lorenzo in Damaso (died July 11, 1927). Chancellor of the S.R.E.
- Pietro Maffi (aged 63), Cardinal Priest of S. Crisogono (died March 17, 1931). Archbishop of Pisa
- Alessandro Lualdi (aged 63), Cardinal Priest of SS. Andrea e Gregorio al Monte Celio (died November 12, 1927). Archbishop of Palermo
- Desiré Mercier (aged 70), Cardinal Priest of S. Pietro in Vincoli (died January 23, 1926). Archbishop of Malines
- Pietro Gasparri (aged 69), Cardinal Priest of S. Lorenzo in Lucina (died November 18, 1934). Secretary of State. President of the Administration of the Patrimony of the Holy See. President of the Pontifical Commission for the Authentic Interpretation of the Code of Canon Law. Camerlengo of the Holy Roman Church
- Louis-Henri Luçón (aged 79), Cardinal Priest of S. Maria Nuova (died May 28, 1930). Archbishop of Reims
- Paulin-Pierre Andrieu (aged 72), Cardinal Priest of S. Onofrio (died February 15, 1935). Archbishop of Bordeaux
- António Mendes Bello (aged 79), Cardinal Priest of Ss. Marcellino e Pietro (died August 5, 1929). Patriarch of Lisbon
- Francis Bourne (aged 60), Cardinal Priest of S. Pudenziana (died January 1, 1935). Archbishop of Westminster
- Willem Marinus van Rossum (aged 67), CSSR, Cardinal Priest of S. Croce in Gerusalemme (died ). ex-Prefect of the S.C.de propaganda fide.
- János Csernoch (aged 69), Cardinal Priest of S. Eusebio (died July 25, 1927). Archbishop of Esztergom
- Friedrich-Gustav Piffl, CCRSA (aged 57), Cardinal Priest of S. Marco (died July 25, 1927). Archbishop of Vienna
- Alfonso Maria Mistrangelo, Sch.P (aged 69), Cardinal Priest of S. Maria degli Angeli (died November 7, 1930). Archbishop of Florence
- Andreas Frühwirth, OP (aged 87), Cardinal Priest of Ss. Cosma e Damiano (died February 9, 1933).
- Raffaele Scapinelli di Leguigno (aged 63), Cardinal Priest of S. Girolamo dei Croati (died September 16, 1933)
- Pietro La Fontaine (aged 52), Cardinal Priest of Ss. XII Apostoli (died July 9, 1935). Patriarch of Venice
- Vittorio Amedeo Ranuzzi de' Bianchi (aged 64) Cardinal Priest of S. Prisca (died February 16, 1927).
- Donato Sbarretti Tazza (aged 65), Cardinal Priest of S. Silvestro in Capite (died April 1, 1939). ex-Prefect of the S.C. of the Council
- Louis-Ernest Dubois (aged 65), Cardinal Priest of S. Maria in Aquiro (died September 23, 1929). Archbishop of Paris
- Tommaso Pio Boggiani (aged ), OP (aged 59), Cardinal Priest of Ss. Quirico e Giulitta (died February 26, 1942).
- Alessio Ascalesi (aged 49), CPPS., Cardinal Priest of S. Callisto (died May 11, 1952). Archbishop of Benevento
- Louis-Joseph Maurin (aged 62), Cardinal Priest of Santissima. Trinità al Monte Pincio (died November 16, 1936). Archbishop of Lyon
- Adolf Bertram (aged 62), Cardinal Priest of S. Agnese fuori le mura (died July 6, 1945). Archbishop of Wroclaw (Breslau).
- Augusto Silj (aged 75), Cardinal Priest of S. Cecilia (died February 27, 1926). ex-Prefect of the Supreme Tribunal of the Apostolic Signature
- Juan Soldevilla y Romero (aged 78), Cardinal Priest of S. Maria del Popolo (died June 4, 1923). Archbishop of Zaragoza
- Teodoro Valfré di Bonzo (aged 68), Cardinal Priest of S. Maria sopra Minerva (died June 25, 1922). Prefect of the S.C. of Religious
- Aleksander Kakowski (aged 59), Cardinal Priest of S. Agostino (died December 30, 1938). Archbishop of Warsaw
- Edmund Dalbor (aged 52), Cardinal Priest of S. Giovanni a Porta Latina (died February 13, 1926). Archbishop of Gniezno and Posen
- Francesco Ragonesi (aged 71), Cardinal Priest of S. Marcello (died September 14, 1931). former Nuncio in Spain.
- Michael von Faulhaber (aged 52), Cardinal Priest of S. Anastasia (died June 12, 1952). Archbishop of München und Freising
- Juan Bautista Benlloch y Vivó (aged 57), Cardinal Priest of S. Maria in Ara Coeli (died February 14, 1926). Archbishop of Burgos
- Francisco de Asís Vidal y Barraquer (aged 53), Cardinal Priest of S. Sabina (died September 13, 1943). Archbishop of Tarragona
- Karl Joseph Schulte (aged 50), Cardinal Priest of Ss. Quattro Coronati (died March 11, 1941). Archbishop of Cologne
- Giovanni Tacci (aged 58), Cardinal Priest of S. Maria in Trastevere (died June 30, 1928).
- Achille Ratti (aged 64), Cardinal Priest of Ss. Silvestro e Martino ai Monti (died February 10, 1939). Archbishop of Milan
- Gaetano Bisleti (aged 65), Cardinal Deacon of S. Agata de’ Goti (died August 30, 1937). Prefect of the S.C. of Seminaries and Universities
- Louis Billot (aged ), SJ (aged ), Cardinal Deacon of S. Maria in Via Lata (died December 18, 1931).
- Michele Lega (aged 62), Cardinal Deacon of S. Eustachio (died December 16, 1935). Prefect of the S.C. for the Discipline of the Sacraments
- Francis Aidan Gasquet (aged 75), OSB, Cardinal Deacon of S. Maria in Portico (died April 5, 1929). Bibliothecarius and Archivist of the Holy Roman Church
- Niccolò Marini (aged 78), Cardinal Deacon of S. Maria in Domnica (died July 27, 1923). ex-Secretary of the S.C. of the Oriental Church
- Oreste Giorgi (aged 76), Cardinal Deacon of S. Maria in Cosmedin (died December 30, 1924). Major Penitentiary (1918-1924)
- Camillo Laurenti (aged 60), Cardinal-Deacon of S. Maria della Scala (died September 6, 1938). former Secretary, S.C. de propaganda fide.
Cardinals not attending:
- Giuseppe Prisco (aged 88), Cardinal Priest of S. Sisto (died February 4, 1923). Archbishop of Naples (excused because of age)
- José María Martín de Herrera y de la Iglesia (aged 86), Cardinal Priest of S. Maria in Traspontina (died December 8, 1922) Archbishop of Santiago de Compostela (excused because of age)
- Joaquim Arcoverde de Albuquerque Cavalcanti (aged 72), Cardinal Priest of Ss. Bonifacio ed Alessio (died April 18, 1930). Archbishop of Rio de Janeiro (excused because of distance)
- Lev Skrbensky z Hriste (aged 58), Cardinal Priest of S.
Stefano al Monte Celio (died
December 24, 1938). Archbishop of Olomouc
- William Henry O'Connell (aged 62), Cardinal Priest of S. Clemente (died April 22, 1944). Archbishop of Boston (arrived late)
- Louis-Nazaire Bégin (aged 82), Cardinal Priest of Ss. Vitale, Valeria, Gervasio e Protasio (died July 19, 1925). Archbishop of Québec (arrived late)
- Dennis Dougherty (aged 56), Cardinal Priest of Ss. Nereo ed Achilleo (died May 31, 1951). Archbishop of Philadelphia (arrived late)
The Conclave of 1922 was the longest of the 20th century. It began on February 2 with the Mass of the Holy Spirit, celebrated by Cardinal Vincenzo Vannutelli, Dean of the Sacred College. Fifty-two of the fifty-three cardinals in Rome were in attendance; Cardinal Niccolo Marini was ill with influenza. Three North American cardinals arrived too late to participate in the election. The Archbishop of Naples excused himself on the grounds of age, and the Archbishop of Rio di Janiero on the basis of distance.
A private tally of votes given during the Conclave was kept by the Archbishop of Vienna, Cardinal Friedrich-Gustav Piffl. The tally
was not published in his lifetime, but was found among his papers after his death. They were published in 1963 in The
Tablet [J. Noonan, Power to Dissolve (1972), 407]. Piffl's notes indicated the largest number of votes received by
a candidate at any given ballot (there were fifteen candidates). Cardinal Ratti received 42 out of 53 votes. His principal competitors
were Pietro Gasparri, Pierre de la Fontaine, and Rafael Merry del Val.
Achille Cardinal Ratti (right), Archbishop of Milan since June 13, 1921, was elected on February 6,
on the 14th ballot. He was the holder of three doctorates from the Pontifical Gregorian University. He had been a seminary professor
at Padua (1882-1888) and had worked at the Ambrosian Library in Milan (1888-1911). In 1911 he moved to the Vatican Library, and
became its prefect in 1914. In 1918 Pope Benedict XV sent him as Apostolic Visitor to Poland (1918-1921), and made him Archbishop
of Lepanto. In June, 1921, he was appointed Archbishop of Milan, as a means of extricating him from an impossible political situation
in Poland. On his election he had held the post for less than eight months.
He was crowned in the Sistine Chapel, still believing the popes to be "Prisoners of the Vatican" and
unwilling to have the ceremony take place on the balcony of the Vatican Basilica..
THERE WERE NO COINS in 1922.
Francis A. Burkle-Young, Papal Elections in the Age of Transition, 1878-1922 (Lanham MD: Lexington Books 2000). Francis A. Burkle-Young, Passing the Keys: Modern Cardinals, Conclaves, and the Election of the Next Pope (Lanham MD: Madison Books 1999) 16-17.