SEDE VACANTE 1758
May 3, 1758—July 6, 1758
SEDE • VACAN | TE • MDCCLVIII
Shield with the Coat of Arms of Girolamo Cardinal Colonna, Camerlengo of the Holy Roman Church, upon the Cross of the Order of St. John of Jerusalem, crossed keys above, surmounted by Cardinal's hat with six tassels on each side; the Ombrellone over all.
VBI UVLT [sic] SPIRAT
SCV | DO
The Holy Spirit, surrounded by rays and eleven tongues of fire (Pentecost).
Berman, p. 187 #2885.
SEDE • VACAN | TE • MDCCLVIII
Shield with the Coat of Arms of Girolamo Card. Colonna, Camerlengo of the Holy Roman Church, upon the Cross of the Order of St. John of Jerusalem, crossed keys above, surmounted by Cardinal's hat with six tassels on each side; the Ombrellone over all.
VBI UVLT [sic] SPIRAT
The Holy Spirit, surrounded by rays and eleven tongues of fire (Pentecost).
Berman, p. 187 #2887.
GIROLAMO CARDINAL COLONNA DI SCIARRA (1708-1763), son of Francesco Colonna (4th Prince of Carbognano) and Vittoria Salviati, belonged to the celebrated
Roman family of the Colonna, only one of whose members, Martin V, ever became pope. He became a Cardinal deacon on September 9, 1743, delaying his reception of minor orders until 1746; he became Bishop of Sant' Agata dei Goti;
he was appointed archpriest of S. Maria Maggiore. He was made Vice-Chancellor of the Holy Roman Church in 1753, and was appointed Camerlengo of the Holy Roman Church on September 20, 1756, a post he held until his death on January 18, 1763. He was Grand Prior in Rome of the Order of St. John of Jerusalem.
The Dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals was Raniero Cardinal d' Elci. He had been Nuncio to the French Court in the 1730's.
The Governor of the Conclave was the Prefect of the Apostolic Palaces, Monsignor Marcantonio Colonna (born in Rome August 16, 1724; died there December 4,1793), a member of the Roman nobility, A Neapolitan patrician, and a Venetian patrician. He was the son of Principe Don Fabrizio Colonna, 10th Prince and Duke of Paliano, and Caterina Salviati, daughter of the third Duke of Giuliano. He became a Cardinal in 1759, and was assigned the titulus of Santa Maria in Aquiria (which he exchanged for Santa Maria della Pace in 1762, and San Lorenzo in Lucina in 1764). Ordained in 1761, he was promoted titular Archbishop of Corinth in 1762, and became Vicar General of the city of Rome. He was made Archpriest of Santa Maria Maggiore (the Liberian Basilica) in 1775. In 1784 he was further promoted to the title of Cardinal Bishop of Palestrina.
SEDE | VACANTE
Shield with the Coat of Arms of Marcantonio Colonna, Prefect of the Sacred Apostolic Palaces and Governor of the Conclave, surmounted by a clerical hat with six tassels on each side...
Inscription: "Marcus Antonius Colonna, Prefect of the Sacred Apostolic Palaces and Governor of the Conclave, 1758.".
The Secretary of the Sacred College of Cardinals was Leonardo Antonelli of Senigaglia, utriusque signaturae Referendarius.
The Magistri Ceremoniarum were: Ignatius Reali, Venatius Piersanti, Nuntius Sperandio, Franciscus Cajetanus Diversinus, Joannes Lucca, and Joannes Baptista Valeriani.
Pope Benedict XIV died on May 3, 1758, aged eighty-three, after a long period of suffering from gout (Montor, 109).
On May 15, twenty-seven of the fifty-five cardinals entered conclave. Five cardinals who were in Rome that day did not enter conclave due to illness. Ten cardinals did not participate at all. Cardinal de' Bardi had originally joined the conclave, but he left on June 24. There were, therefore, forty-four electors in the later stages of the conclave. Thirty votes were needed for a canonical election.
An official list of the Cardinals and their Conclavists and dapiferi who participated in the Conclave of 1758 is contained in the Motu Proprio Nos volentes of Clement XIII (July 11, 1758) [Bullarii Romani continuatio (ed. A. Barbieri and A. Spetia) Tomus primus (Romae 1835), pp. 7-8 and 15-17].
- Rainiero D'Elci (aged 88), Bishop of Ostia e Velletri, Dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals.
- Giovanni Antonio Guadagni, OCD (aged 83), Bishop of Porto e Santa Rufina (died January 15, 1759).
- Francesco Scipione Maria Borghese (aged 61), Bishop of Albano (died June 21, 1759).
- Giuseppe Spinelli (aged 64), Bishop of Palestrina (died April 12, 1763).
- Carlo Maria Sacripante (aged 68), Bishop of Frascati (died November 4, 1758).
- Joaquín Fernández Portocarrero Mendoza (aged 77), Bishop of Sabina (died June 22, 1760).
- Carlo Rezzonico (aged 65), Cardinal Priest of S. Marco. Bishop of Padua. According to the French ambassador, Choiseul, he was “un homme de mérite dans son état et propre à la papauté s'il n'était pas Vénitien” (Boutry, Choiseul à Rome, p. 247). Doctor in utroque iure (Padua) Bishop of Padua (1743-1758). Bishop of Rome (1758-1769). (died February 2, 1769)
- Domenico Passionei (aged 75) [Forum Sempronii], Cardinal Priest of S. Prassede and of S. Bernardo alle Terme in commendam . Bibliothecarius S. R. E., Secretary of Briefs to Clement XII, Benedict XIII, and Clement XIII. He died on July 5, 1761, at the age of 79, as his funeral inscription in S. Bernardo alle Terme indicates [V. Forcella, Inscrizioni delle chiese di Roma IX, p. 184, no. 369].
- Camillo Paolucci Merlini (aged 65), Cardinal Priest of S. Maria in Trastevere, with SS. Giovanni e Paolo in commendam (died June 11, 1763). Legate in Ferrara.
- Carlo Alberto Guidobono Cavalchini (aged 74), Cardinal Priest of S. Maria della Pace (died March 7, 1774).
- Giacomo Oddi (aged 78), Cardinal Priest of S. Anastasia (died May 2, 1770). Archbishop-Bishop of Viterbo e Toscanella.
- Federico Marcello Lante della Rovere (aged 63), Cardinal Priest of S. Silvestro in Capite (died March3, 1773). President of the territory of Balneario.
- Marcello Crescenzi (aged 63), Cardinal Priest of S. Maria in Traspontina (died August 24, 1768). Archbishop of Ferrara.
- Giorgio Doria (aged 49), Cardinal Priest of S. Cecilia (died January 31, 1759). Prefect of the S.C. of Good Government.
- Giuseppe Pozzobonelli (aged 61), Cardinal Priest of S. Maria in Via (died April 27, 1783). Archbishop of Milan.
- Girolamo de' Bardi (aged 73), Cardinal Priest of S. Maria degli Angeli (died March 11, 1761). [left the Conclave, due to illness, on June 24, 1758]
- Fortunato Tamburini, OSBCas. (aged 75), Cardinal Priest of S. Callisto (died August 9, 1761). Prefect of the S.C. of Rites
- Daniele Delfino (aged 72), Cardinal Priest of S. Maria sopra Minerva (died March 13, 1762). Archbishop of Udine.
- Carlo Vittorio Amedeo delle Lanze (aged 45), Cardinal Priest of S. Sisto (died January 25, 1784). titular Archbishop of Nicosia.
- Henry Benedict Mary Clement Stuart (aged 33), Cardinal Priest of Ss. XII Apostoli (died July 13, 1807). Archpriest of the Vatican Basilica, Prefect of the Reverend Fabric of St. Peter's. "Cardinal York"
- Giuseppe Maria Feroni (aged 65), Cardinal Priest of S. Pancrazio (1753-1764). Died November 15, 1767.
- Fabrizio Serbelloni (aged 62), Cardinal Priest of S. Stefano al Monte Celio (1754-1763) Legate in Bologna. Former Nuncio to Cologne (1734-1738), Poland (1738-1746), and Austria (1746-1753). Died December 7, 1775.
- Giovanni Francesco Stoppani (aged 62), Cardinal Priest of S. Martino ai Monti (1754-1763). Legate in the Romagnola. Died November 18, 1774.
- Luca Melchiorre Tempi.(aged 70), Cardinal Priest of S. Croce in Gerusalemme (1757-1762). Former Nuncio to the Netherlands (1736-1744) and Portugal (1744-1758). Died July 17, 1762.
- Carlo Francesco Durini (aged 65), Cardinal Priest of SS. Quattro Coronati (1754-1769), Archbishop-Bishop of Pavia (1753-1769).
- Cosimo Imperiali (aged 63), Cardinal Priest of S. Clemente (1753-1759), former Vice-Camerlengo of the Holy Roman Church (1747-1753).
- Vincenzo Malvezzi (aged 43), Cardinal Priest of Ss. Marcellino e Pietro (1753-1775) , Archbishop of Bologna (1754-1775). Died December 3, 1775.
- Clemente Argenvilliers (aged 70), Cardinal Priest of Sma. Trinità al Monte Pincio (1753-1758), Prefect of the S.C. of the Tridentine Council. Died December 23, 1758.
- Antonio Andrea Galli, CRSS (aged 60), Cardinal Priest of S. Pietro in Vincoli (1757-1767). Major Penitentiary (1755-1767). Died March 24, 1767.
- Antonio Sersale (aged 55), Cardinal Priest of S. Pudenziana (1754-1775). Archbishop of Naples (1754-1775). Died June 24, 1775.
- Alberico Archinto (aged 59), Cardinal Priest of S. Lorenzo in Damaso (1756-1758). Died September 30, 1758.
- Giovanni Battista Rotario da Pralormo (aged 73), Cardinal Priest without titulus (1756-1758), He received the titulus of S. Crisogono on August 2, 1758. Archbishop of Turin (1744-1766). He died on October 9, 1766.
- Paul d'Albert de Luynes (aged 55), Cardinal Priest without titulus (1756-1758), He received the titulus of S. Tommaso in Parione on August 2, 1758 (1758-1788). Archbishop of Sens (1753-1788).
- Etienne-René Potier de Gesvres (aged 61), Cardinal Priest without titulus (1756-1758), He received the titulus of S. Agnese fuori le mura on August 2, 1758 (1758-1774). Bishop of Beauvais (1728-1772). He died on July 24, 1774.
- Franz Konrad Casimir von Rodt (aged 52), Cardinal Priest without titulus (1756-1758), He received the titulus of S. Maria del Popolo on August 2, 1758 (1758-1775). Bishop of Konstanz (1751-1775). He died on October 16, 1775.
- Alessando Albani (aged 65), Cardinal Deacon of S. Maria in Via Lata (died December 11, 1779). .
- Neri Maria Corsini (aged 73), Cardinal Deacon of S. Eustachio (died December 6, 1770). Archpriest of the Lateran Basilica, Secretary of the Holy Office. Nephew of Clement XII.
- Agapito Mosca (aged 80), Cardinal Deacon of S. Agata alla Suburra (died August 21, 1760).
- Girolamo Colonna di Sciarra (aged 50), Cardinal Deacon of Ss. Cosma e Damiano (died January 18, 1763). Camerlengo of the Holy Roman Church.
- Prospero Colonna de Sciarra.(aged 51), Cardinal Deacon of S. Maria ad Martyres (died April 20, 1765).
- Domenico Orsini d'Aragona. (aged 38), Cardinal Deacon of S. Nicola in Carcere (died January 19, 1789).
- Giovanni Francesco Albani (aged 38), Cardinal Deacon of S. Cesareo in Palatio (died September 15, 1803).
- Flavio Chigi (aged 46), Cardinal Deacon of S. Angelo in Pescheria (1753-1759) . Died July 12, 1771.
- Giovanni Francesco Banchieri (aged 63), Cardinal Deacon of S. Adriano al Foro (1753-1763). Legate in Ferrara. Died October 18, 1763.
- Luigi Maria Torregiani (aged 60), Cardinal-Deacon of Ss. Vito, Modesto e Crescenzia (1754-1765). He died on January 6, 1777. He was named Secretary of State by the new Pope.
Cardinals not attending:
- Thomas Philip Wallrad d'Hénin-Liétard d'Alsace-Boussu de Chimay (aged 78), Cardinal Priest of S. Lorenzo in Lucina (1752-1759). Archbishop of Mechlin (1715-1759). Died January 5, 1759.
- Joseph Dominicus von Lamberg (aged 77), Cardinal Priest of S. Pietro in Montorio (died August 30, 1761). Bishop of Passau.
- Johannes Theodor von Bayern (aged 54), Cardinal Priest of S. Lorenzo in Panisperna (died January 27, 1763). Bishop of Liège (1744-1763).
- Álvaro de Mendoza (aged 86), Cardinal Priest without titulus (died January 23, 1761). Patriarch of the West Indies.
- Giovanni Battista Mesmer (aged 87), Cardinal Priest of S. Onofrio (died June 20, 1760). (age and illness)
- José Manuel da Camara d'Atalaia (aged 71), Cardinal Priest without titulus (died July 9, 1758). Patriarch of Lisbon (1754-1758).
- Luis Fernández de Córdoba (aged 62), Cardinal Priest without titulus (1754-1771). Archbishop of Toledo (1755-1771). Died March 26, 1771.
- Nicholas de Saulx-Tavannes (aged 67), Cardinal Priest without titulus (1756-1759). Archbishop of Rouen (1733-1759). Died March 10, 1759.
- Francisco de Solís Folch de Cardona (aged 45), Cardinal Priest without titulus (1756-1769). Archbishop of Seville (1755-1775). Died March 21, 1775..
- Francisco de Saldanha da Gama (aged 35), son of John, Viceroy of India. Doctor of Canon Law. Cardinal Deacon with no deaconry (1756-1759), on the nomination of King Joseph I of Portugal; subsequently Cardinal Priest without titulus (1759–1776). He conducted the investigation of the activities of the Jesuits in Portugal, the Algarves, and the Two Indies, with papal faculties from Benedict XIV (In specula supremae: April 1, 1758), granted at the request of the Marques de Pombal [Biker (editor), Collecção dos Negocios de Roma no Reinado de El-Rey Dom José I. Parte I (Lisboa 1874), pp. 48-52]. In thanks for his cooperation, he was made Patriarch of Lisbon (1759–1776), at the instigation of Pombal. Died as Patriarch of Lisbon on November 1, 1776, never having visited Rome.
The Conclave opened on May 15, 1758.
Cardinal Carlo Corsini (nephew of Clement XII), Cardinal Joaquin Portocarrero Mendoza (Cardinal Bishop of Sabina), and Cardinal Domenico Orsini d' Aragona (nephew of Benedict XIII) undertook to promote the candidacy of Cardinal Carlo Alberto Cavalchini (the Prefect of the Sacred Congregation of Bishops and Regulars).
On May 29, Cardinal Franz Konrad de Roth (Bishop of Konstanz) entered conclave, bearing the instructions of the Imperial Court in Vienna.
The results of the balloting on June 19 showed that Cardinal Cavalchini had obtained 21 votes. This made his election a serious possibility. On the 21st, his total had risen to twenty-six (Wahrmund 229; Montor says twenty-three). On that same evening, Cardinal de Luynes, acting on instructions from the French government, presented to Cardinal d'Elci, the Dean of the Sacred College, the veto (exclusiva) against Cardinal Cavalchini; it is said that the reason was that Cavalchini was favorable to the Jesuits and had voted for the canonization of Robert Cardinal Bellarmine, SJ (Ravignan, 30).
Election of Cardinal Rezzonico
It was apparently Cardinal de Roth and some of his associates who decided to put forth the name of Cardinal Rezzonico. In the balloting on July 4 he received 22 votes. On that same day Cardinal Girolamo de' Bardi was carried out of the conclave; he had been struck with illness two days earlier (Diario di Roma, 9). On the 6th, Rezzonico received thirty-one votes, which brought him canonical election. He chose the name Clement XIII.
On July 6, the Venetian Cardinal Carlo della Torre Rezzonico, Bishop of Padua, was elected, with 31 votes. He was crowned in St. Peter's on July 16, and he took solemn possession of the Lateran Basilica on November 13.
Cardinal Archinto was appointed Secretary of State; he died however on September 30. Cardinal Calvachini was appointed pro-Datary, and Monsignor Carlo Rezzonico, nephew of the Pope, was appointed Secretary of Memorials.
Brevi e distinte Notizie dell' esaltazione al pontificato di Sua Santita Clemente XIII. Rezzonico Veneziano (Venezia: Benedetto Milocco 1758).
Giuseppe Novaes, Elementi della storia de' sommi pontefice terza edizione Volume 14 (Roma 1822) 244-246 [death of Benedict XIV].
[Continuators of B. Platina], Vita di Clemente XIII pontefice massimo (Venezia: Domenico Ferrarin 1769), 5-7; 16. Alexis François Artaud de Montor, Histoire des souverain pontifes romains VII (Paris 1851) 116-119. Gustave de Ravignan, SJ, Clement XIII et Clement XIV 2 volumes (Paris 1854) I. G. P. Grimani, Sull' elezione del card. Carlo Rezzonico... (Padova 1875) Ludwig Wahrmund, Ausschliessungs-recht (jus exclusivae) (Wien 1888) 228-229.
Geheime und zuverlassige Geschichte von dem Konklave und der Wahl der sechs leztern Pabste, als: Benedikt XIII. Clemens XII. Benedikt XIV. Clemens XIII. Clemens XIV. und Pius des VIten (Mit Sonnleithnerischen Schriften 1782). Andrea Moschetti, Venezia e l' elezione di Clemente XIII (Venezia: Vicentini 1890).
Maurice Boutry, Choiseul à Rome, 1754-1757 (Paris: Calmann Lévy 1895) ['Mémoire sur le conclave' (November 19, 1756), pp. 221-255 ; 'Deuxième mémoire', pp. 256-266; 'Troisième mémoire' (April 1757), pp. 267-312].
D. Gravino, Per la storia del conclave di Clemente XIII (1758) (Genova: Sordimuti 1898).