ANTONIO CARDINAL BARBERINI, iuniore (1607-1671), was the son of Carlo Barberini and Costanza Magalotti. He was the nephew of Pope Urban VIII (Maffeo Barberini, 1623-1644), of the Capuchin Antonio Card. Barberini, seniore, (1624), and of Lorenzo Card. Magalotti. His brother Francesco became Cardinal on the election of their uncle to the papacy, and his brother Taddeo became Prince of Palestrina and Prefect of Rome. He was the cousin of Francesco Maria Card. Machiavelli (who became cardinal in 1641), and uncle of Carlo Cardinal Barberini (1653). He was Grand Prior in Rome of the Order of St. John of Jerusalem.
The accession of his uncle brought Antonio Barberini and his brothers many positions of power, wealth and influence. He became Cardinal Deacon of S. Maria in Aquiro in 1627, and Camerlengo of the Holy Roman Church on July 28, 1638, a position which he held until his death on August 3, 1671. In that capacity he presided over the Conclaves of 1644, 1655, 1667 and 1669-1670. The authoritarianism, arrogance and greed of the family ("Quod non fecerunt Barbari, fecerunt Barberini.") brought a strong reaction on the death of Urban VIII. In 1645 Antonio and Taddeo fled to Paris (where Urban VIII had once been ambassador), and remained in exile at the Court of Louis XIV (under the patronage of the Sicilian Giulio Card. Mazzarini) until 1653; he became Grand Almoner of France and a member of the Order of the Holy Spirit. In 1657 he was nominated Archbishop of Rheims, a choice which was approved by Pope Alexander VII. He became Cardinal Bishop of Palestrina in 1661. He died in Rome on August 3, 1671.
Cardinal Barberini was Cardinal Camerlengo during the conclaves of 1644, 1655, 1667 and 1670.
The Governor of the Conclave, Msgr. Girolamo Casanate (1620-1700), was born at Naples on June 13, 1620, the son of a leading senator and sometime diplomat. He studied the law at the University of Naples and practiced as a lawyer. He became the protegé of Giovanni Battista Cardinal Pamfilj, who had been Nuncio to the Court of Naples from 1621-1625, and who convinced Girolamo's father, during a diplomatic visit to Rome, to allow his son to take up the ecclesiastical profession. When Pamfilj became Pope Innocent X in 1644, Casanate was named Chamberlain of Honor, and was appointed papal governor of several cities in the Papal States, Sabina, Fabriano, Camerino, and then Ancona. At Camerino, he became acquainted with Bishop Emilio Altieri, who became Pope Clement X in 1670. From 1658 to 1662 he was Inquisitor at Malta. He was created Cardinal deacon by Clement X on June 12, 1673. In 1693 he was appointed Vatican Librarian (Bibliothecarius Sanctae Romanae Ecclesiae). He took part in the conclaves of 1676, 1689 and 1691. He died in Rome on March 3, 1700.
The Marshal of the Conclave was Prince Giulio Savelli (1626-1712), the second son of Prince Bernardino Savelli, Prince of Albano (1606-1658) and Felice Peretti, the heiress of Pope Sixtus V. He married Caterina Aldobrandini, daughter of Pietro Aldobrandini, Duke of Carpentino, and then Caterina Giustiniani. The family was perpetually in financial difficulties: in 1596 they sold Castel Gandolfo to the pope, and in 1650 the duchy of Albano. He succeeded his father as Marshal of the Holy Roman Church in 1658. He had one son, who predeceased him. On his death in 1712, the hereditary office of Marshal ceased.
Pope Alexander VII (Chigi), at the age of sixty-eight, had been suffering from kidney stones for some time, and around the beginning of March he began to fail; in constant severe pain, he was unable to give the Easter blessing. By the 24th of April the politicking about the succession had already begun (Petruccelli, 195, quoting Onorato Gini da Nizza, the Resident in Rome of Carlo Emmanuele II, Duke of Savoy). On the 18th of May a severe fever set in, and he died on May 22, 1667 (Novaes, 172-173). A pasquinade was immediately posted, claiming to summarize Alexander's last words to the cardinals: maxima de se, magna de parentibus, mala de principibus, pessima de cardinalibus, et nihil de Deo. [He thought most about himself, a great deal about his relationss, bad about the rulers, worst about the cardinals, and nothing about God]
The French already had a candidate and were working on a plan. At the Conclave of 1655, when Hughes de Lionne had been Ambassador Extraordinary of King Louis XIV, he had come to know and respect Msgr. Giulio Rospigliosi, the Archbishop of Tarsus, who had returned to Rome after his successful Nunciature in Spain (1644-1653). During the Conclave, Rospigliosi was elected by the Cardinals to serve as Governor of Rome. In his first promotion of cardinals, on April 9, 1657, the new Pope, Alexander VII, made Msgr. Rospigliosi a cardinal. Having become Secretary of State and Foreign Minister to Louis XIV (1663-1671), it occurred to Lionne that Cardinal Rospigliosi, who was now Secretary of State (1655-1667) and noted for his prudence and broad view of affairs, might make a good successor to Pope Alexander. The Cardinal's nephew, Giacomo Rospigliosi, was also in great favor with the French. He had been with his uncle in Spain and had taken a Doctorate in utroque iure at Salamanca. he had been Chamberlain to Pope Alexander's nephew, Cardinal Flavio Chigi, and had been sent to France in 1664 to prepare the way for the Embassy of Cardinal Chigi to King Louis XIV. Giacomo Rospigliosi had visited Paris a second time while on his way to his post as Internuncio in Flanders. Louis XIV had ordered Lionne to assure Cardinal Rospigliosi, who had done the French a number of favors, of his protection. When Pope Alexander's approaching death became obvious, Louis ordered the Duc de Chaulnes, his Ambassador in Rome, to undertake discussions with the Cardinal with regard to his being elected pope (Petruccelli, 197-199). The duke shared the information only with d'Este, Grimaldi and Retz. The French, however, disposed of eight votes among the cardinals (according to the Venetian Orator Giacomo Quirini: Relazioni, 327). Where were the other votes to form a two-thirds majority to come from?
Cardinal Friedrich von Hessen-Darmstadt, son of Landgrave Ludwig V, represented the interests of the Empire.
The Ambassador Ordinary of Venice was Giacomo Quirini (November 1663-December 1667); his successor, Antonio Grimani, had already been selected, but it had been decided not to replace the current ambassador in the light of the critical health of Alexander VII (according to Grimani's own relazione: Relazioni, 350).
The Marquis d' Astorgas represented Spain. The Venetian Oratore Giacomo Quirini estimated (after the fact) that the Spanish had available twenty-two votes in the Conclave.
The Conclave of 1667 lasted eigteen days. It began on June 2, with the Mass of the Holy Spirit. Sixty-one cardinals entered conclave on that day; Two others, who were too ill to enter conclave, died on June 5, Cardinals Francesco Sforza Pallavicino and Volumnio Bandinelli (Brusoni, 394). Cardinal Albergati-Ludovisi entered conclave on June 6, and Cardinals Donghi and Santa Croce on June 10. Cardinal Chigi, the Cardinal nipote, was working in favor of Scipione Cardinal d' Elci (Archbishop of Pisa, but a Florentine), in order (it is said) to please the Grand Duke of Tuscany, Ferdinando II (1621-1670). Cardinal Antonio Barberini, who was usually well-disposed toward French interests, was supporting the ambitions of his brother Francesco. It is likewise alleged that the same members of the Squadrone volante as had so greatly influenced the election of Alexander VII also operated effectively in producing another new pope.
At the death of Pope Alexander on May 22, the College of Cardinals was at full strength, seventy members. Two cardinals died on June 5.
On the twentieth of June, Giulio Cardinal Rospigliosi, Cardinal Priest of S. Sisto, Titular Bishop of Tarsus, was elected with only two dissenting votes, that of Cardinal Rospigliosi himself and Cardinal Corsini, who voted for Cardinal Chigi. But the final vote-count was not correct—one vote was missing. It was discovered that Cardinal de Retz, who was the scrutator in charge of the balloting, had given his ballot to Cardinal de Vendome to place in the chalice at the appropriate moment; Vendome had somehow not carried out his charge. Nonetheless, the election was held to be valid. Rospigliosi was crowned Clement IX on June 26 in the Vatican Basilica, by Cardinal Rinaldo d' Este, and on Sunday, July 3, he took formal possession of S. Giovanni Laterano.
Cardinal Decio Azzolini was named Secretary of State. Cardinal Ottoboni was named Papal Pro-Datary
For the Conclave of 1667, see: Conclave fatto per la Sede Vacante d' Alessandro VII (1669). Girolamo Brusoni, "Life of Clement IX," in Storia delle vite de' pontefice di Bartolommeo Platina e d' altri autori . . fino a Clemente XIII . . . Tomo IV (Venezia Domenico Ferrarin 1765), pp. 394-398, at 394-395; [Gregorio Leti], Conclavi de' Pontefici Romani nuova edizione, riveduta, corretta, ed ampliata Volume III (Cologne: Lorenzo Martini 1691)1-94. Giuseppe de Novaes, Elementi della storia de' sommi pontefici da San Pietro sino al ... Pio Papa VII third edition, Volume 10 (Roma 1822) 183-184. F. Petruccelli della Gattina, Histoire diplomatique des conclaves Troisième volume (Paris 1865), 195-224.
N. Barozzi and G. Berchet (editors), Relazioni degli stati europei lette al Senato dagli Ambasciatori Veneti nel secolo decimosettimo Serie III. Italia, Relazioni di Roma. Volume II (Venezia 1878).
John Bargrave, Pope Alexander the Seventh and the College of Cardinals  (Camden Society 1867). Leopold von Ranke, The Popes of Rome (tr. S. Austin) Volume 3 (London: John Murray 1866), pp. 392-394. Leopold von Ranke, History of the Popes, their Church and State (translated by E. Fowler) revised edition, Volume III (New York: The Colonial Press 1901), 41-42. T. A. Trollope, The Papal Conclaves as They Were and as They Are (London 1876), 339-340. A. Bozon, Le cardinal de Retz à Rome (Paris: Plon 1878), 79-97. R. Chantelauze, Le Cardinal de Retz et ses missions diplomatiques à Rome (Paris: Didier 1879), 447-480. Charles Gérin, Louis XIV et le Saint Siège Volume II (Paris 1894), 165-205.
Patritium Gauchat (editor), Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi Volumen Quartum (Monasterii 1935), 3-33.
© 2008, 2009 John Paul Adams, CSUN