Arms of Filippo Card. Guastavillani, Camerlengo of the Holy Roman Church (1584-1587), surmounted by the Ombrellone, crossed keys.
Berman, p. 114 #1304.
Born in Bologna in 1541, FILIPPO CARDINAL GUASTAVILLANI [Vastavillani] (1541-1587) was the son of Angelo Michele Guastavillani, a patrician of Bologna, and of Giacoma Boncompagni, whose brother became Pope Gregory XIII in 1572. Filippo was a senator of the city of Bologna from 1571 until 1576. His uncle made him a cardinal deacon on July 5, 1574, and he received the Deaconry of Santa Maria Nuova, which he exchanged for Santa Maria in Cosmedin in 1577, and that for Sant' Angelo in Pescheria in 1583, and finally Sant' Eustachio in 1587. He held various administrative posts in the Papal States, Spoleto (1578), Ancona (1578-1581; 1585), the Holy House of Loreto (1585-1587) . He became Camerlengo of the Holy Roman Church on May 14, 1584, and held the office until his death on August 17, 1587.
Alessandro Cardinal Farnese, grandson of Pope Paul III, was the Bishop of Ostia and Dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals at the time of the Interregnum.
The Hereditary Marshal of the Holy Roman Church and Protector of the Conclave was Don Bernardino Savelli (Francesco Cancellieri, Notizie storiche delle stagioni e di siti diversi in cui sono stati tenuti i conclavi . . . (Roma 1823), 19-20, from the conclave diary of Paolo Alaleona, Papal Master of Ceremonies).
The General of the Holy Roman Church was Don Giacomo Boncompagni, Duke of Soria
The Governor of Rome was Msgr. Sangiorgio; and the Governor of the Borgo, and thus Governor of the Conclave, was Ghislieri. Don Giacomo Boncompagni and the others took their oaths of loyalty on the afternoon of April 21. Other Guardians of the Conclave were the Ambassador of the King of France, and the two Ambassadors of Bologna.
On Friday, April 5, the Pope was stricken by a slow fever and a bothersome pain in his throat. For a patient of the age of eighty-three, any medical problem was a serious problem. On Sunday he said his usual private Mass. On Monday morning, the 8th, he held a Consistory, in which he named a number of bishops; after lunch, he received the Spanish ambassador. His officials who came to prepare for the Segnatura on the next day, noticed his weakness. On Wednesday, April 10, he had a good meal with the Duke of Sora, fussing about maintaining the Lenten fast. He inquired after one of the Japanese ambassadors, who was ill. He received the two cardinal nephews next. They were talking about domestic matters, when it came to the time for the doctors to apply hot compresses to the Pope's legs, which was carried out by Michele Mercati [Marini, Degli archiatri pontefici I, 452-461]. The doctor noted a cold sweat and a weak pulse. He called his colleagues, and the Duke of Sora but they did not arrive in time. The two cardinal nephews were present, however, to see the Pope sit up in bed, raise his hands to heaven and make a large sign of the cross on his breast. He fell back on the pillows. He was unable to make his confession, or to take communion. But he was able to receive Extreme Unction at the hands of the Penitentiary Major, Cardinal Filippo Boncompagni. Cardinal Guastavillani, the Chamberlain of the Holy Roman Church, his other nephew, and the other chamberlains recited the appropriate prayers. The Pope himself recited some prayers and made his profession of faith. At the end of the ceremony he died quietly [ Maffei II, 423-426; Novaes 8, 90].
Pope Gregory XIII (Boncompagni) died on April 10. 1585, the Wednesday before Palm Sunday, at the age of 83. The novendiales began on April 11, but only lasted five days, due to the arrival of Holy Week. The Funeral Oration was preached by Msgr. Stefano Tucci, SJ, on Tuesday, April 16.
During the reign of Gregory XIII (1572-1585), thirty-nine cardinals had died (Petramellari, 203). There were sixty living cardinals at the time of the Conclave of 1585 (list in Petramellari, 273-275). Another list can be found in G. van Gulik and Conrad Eubel Hierarchia catholica III editio altera (Monasterii 1923), p. 48 n. 1. He lists five cardinal bishops, thirty-one cardinal priests (though Cardinal Salviati was still a Cardinal Deacon), and six cardinal deacons (not including Salviati) —a total of forty-two; he also names eighteen absent.
The conclave began in the Vatican on April 21, Easter Sunday. At the opening ceremonies, out of sixty living cardinals thirty-two cardinals were in attendance, according to Paolo Alaleone, the Master of Ceremonies (Gattico, p. 338; Novaes 8, 103, says forty-two). The oration de pontifice eligendo was pronounced by Msgr. Marcantonio Mureto. Two factions, led by the Cardinals Ferdinando de' Medici and Ludovico d' Este (grandson of King Louis XII of France and Protector of France before the Holy See), were struggling for control and willing to combine to make a pope, if only they could agree on a common candidate.
On Monday, April 22, the Mass was celebrated by Cardinal Farnese, the Cardinal Dean, and all of the Cardinals received Holy Communion. After Mass, the Bulls of Julius II, Pius V and Gregory XIII were read and the Cardinals swore to observe them. In mid-afternoon all of the Conclavists were summoned to the Capella Paolina. The senior cardinal of each order (Farnese, Simoncelli, and Medici) and the Chamberlain (Guastavillani) presided. As each person's name was called by Msgr. Alaleone, one by one they were permitted to leave the chapel, thus making sure that no unauthorized persons were present.
In the morning of Tuesday, April 23, the Cardinals unanimously voted to give the Masters of Ceremonies four scudi for each cardinal every month during the Sede Vacante, as their regalia for participation in the Conclave.
Cardinal Andreas of Austria also arrived on April 23, and presented the Conclave officials with a document signed by Gregory XIII, which granted him the privilege of electing the pope even if he had not been ordained Deacon. Tthe Brief was read to the Cardinals, who assembled in the Capella Paolina. The document was authenticated and registered by the Secretary of the Conclave on the instruction of the Cardinals. All the Cardinals then went to the Entrance to the Conclave to welcome the Austrian Cardinal, but before he entered Cardinal de' Medici also presented a Brief of Pope Pius IV which had been confirmed by Pius V, granting him the same right of participating in Conclave even though he was not at least a Deacon. This was also read aloud by the Secretary, Silvio, and registered. Cardinal Sforza also presented a document testifying that he had been ordained to the Diaconate, and that too was registered (Gattico, pp. 338-339).
On the 23nd of April, it appeared that Cardinals Pier Donato Cesi and Guglielmo Sirleto were favored by the vote, though by the next morning they were abandoned, having been the subject of much maneuvering by the faction leaders. Wanting to avoid the potential influence of cardinals who had not yet arrived, Medici then proposed two names to D' Este, those of Cardinals Albani and Montalto, and invited him to choose. D' Este imposed conditions, however, and the projected deal, when news got out, caused much indignation. Through a series of misdirections and strategems, Medici convinced the cardinals that Montalto was NOT his candidate, though Cardinal Altemps (Markus Sittich von Hohenems, cousin of Carlo Borromeo and nephew of Pius IV) guessed that he was, which Medici confirmed. Altemps, who was a leader of a group of cardinals who had been created by his uncle, was brought into Medici's circle.
On the evening of the 23rd, Ludovico Cardinal Madruzzo (Madruccio), who was the designated leader of the Spanish faction, arrived in Rome and had conversations with the Spanish and Imperial ambassadors before he entered conclave.
On Wednesday, the 24th of April, before daylight, Medici had explained to Montalto all that had been done on the previous day in favor of his candidacy, and advised him as to how affairs should be conducted. D'Este met with Farnese—who believed that Montalto had no voting strength—and managed to further misdirect him. During a meeting in the Pauline Chapel, d' Este recruited Guastavillani, the Cardinal Camerlengo; Giambattista Castagna, the Cardinal of San Marcello; and Francesco Sforza.
According to Paolo Alaleone, the Master of Ceremonies, Cardinal Madruzzo was admitted to the Conclave on April 24 along with Cardinal Ferrero. Alaleone noticed that while the two cardinals were in the Chapel and the Bulls governing the Conclave were being read by them, after which they took the required oaths, two other Cardinals, Bonelli and Boncompagni had left the Chapel.
Meeting immediately with Cardinal d' Este, Madruzzo learned of d' Este's dislike of his own favorite, Sirleto. With Sirleto blocked and considering that a completely pro-Spanish pope would be as unpalatable as a completely pro-French one, Madruzzo therefore declared himself to d'Este to be against Cardinal Albani, and thus in favor of Montalto. Altemps, Medici and Gesualdo then put pressure on Madruccio as well, and he was won over. As leader of the Spanish interest, Madruccio brought his own influence to bear on Andrew of Austria, Colonna, Deza (Seza), Gonzaga, Sfondrati and Spinola. With all of these adherents, Medici and d'Este still needed four votes. These could only be had in the group of Gregory XIII's cardinals organized by Alessandro Farnese, the Dean of the College of Cardinals.
Before the scrutiny began, Cardinals Bonelli [medal above, at left] and Boncompagni, who were having conversations with those cardinals who were outside the Chapel, returned and announced to Cardinal Montalto (Peretti) that they were making him pope. Boncompagni, Cardinal Priest of S. Sisto, asked Montalto to choose the name of Sixtus. This activity was noticed by the rest of the Cardinals, but at that point the announcement was made that all should return to their places.
When the cardinals finally assembled in the Paoline Chapel, d' Este declared that it was not necessary to proceed to a ballot, since it was obvious who the new pope was. Without opposition the cardinals proceeded to do hommage ('adoration') to Felice Cardinal Peretti, OFM, "Cardinal Montalto," though, immediately afterwards, a vote was conducted by asking each cardinal to cast his vote aloud. The vote was unanimous. While he was still in his place, Montalto signed and swore to the Electoral Capitulations and made his formal acceptance of his election. The new pope retired to the Sacristy to revest himself in the papal garments, and he was then led to the papal throne by Cardinals De Medici and Guastavillani.
Cardinal François de Joyeuse arrived in Rome too late to participate in the Conclave.
The coronation of Sixtus V took place on May 1. As senior cardinal deacon Cardinal de' Medici placed the tiara on his head. On May 5, Sixtus took possession of the Lateran.
S[tephanus] Tuccius, Oratio in exequiis Gregorii XIII p.m. habita in Vaticano XV kal. maii 1585 (Lutetiae Parisiorum: apud F. Morellum 1585).
For the Conclave of 1585, see Giuseppe de Novaes, Elementi della storia de' sommi pontefici da San Pietro sino al ... Pio Papa VII third edition, Volume 8 (Roma 1822) 103-106. L. Ranke, The Ecclesiastical and Political History of the Popes of Rome during the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries Volume I (tr. S. Austin) (Philadelphia 1841); Giovanni Leti, Vita di Sisto Quinto, pontefice romano Volume II (Torino 1852) 40-86; Baron Joseph Alexandre Hübner, The Life and Times of Sixtus V Volume I (tr. H.E.H. Jerningham) (London 1872), pp. 187-205; id., Sixte-Quint nouvelle édition (Paris 1882) Vol. II, pp. 435-443 (a letter of April 24, 1585, from Cardinal Ferdinando de' Medici to Grand Duke Francesco de' Medici).
Giovanii Antonio Petramellari, Ad librum Onuphrii Panvinii de summis pontif. et S. R. E. Cardinalibus a Paulo IV ad Clementis Octavi Annum Pontificatus Octavum Continuatio (Bononiae: Apud heredes Ioannis Rosij, MDIC). Lorenzo Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa Tomo Quarto (Roma 1793).
Joannes Baptista Gattico, Acta Selecta Caeremonialia Sanctae Romanae Ecclesiae ex variis mss. codicibus et diariis saeculi xv. xvi. xvii. Tomus I (Romae 1753).
M. Antonii Mureti oratio habita ad Illustrissimos et Reverendissimos S. R. E. Cardinales ipso die Paschae, cum subrogandi Pontificis causa conclave ingressuri essent anno MDLXXXV (Romae: apud Franciscum Zanettum 1585). 11pp.
Giampietro Maffei, SJ, Degli annali di Gregorio XIII. Pontefice Massimo Tomo secondo (Roma: Girolamo Mainardi 1742).
Alexandre de Hübner, Sixte-Quint nouvelle edition Tome I (Paris: Hachette, 1882).
Augustinus Brunus, "Vita Gabrielis Palaeoti S. R. E. Cardinalis, Episcopi Sabinensis, archiepiscopi Bononiensis," E. Martène-U. Durand, Veterorum scriptorum et monumentorum...amplissima collectio Tomus VI (Paris 1729), 1385-1438. Paolo Prodi, Il cardinale Gabriele Paleotti (1522-1597) 2 volumes (Roma: edizioni di storia e letteratura, 1959, 1967).
P. O. von Törne, Ptolémée Gallio, Cardinal de Côme (Paris: Alphonse Picard, 1907). G. B. Adriani, "Della vita e delle varie Nunziature del Cardinale Prospero Santa Croce," Miscellanea di storia Italiana V.
The Ceremoniale which was in effect at the Conclave of 1585, published at Venice in 1582, is reprinted in Iohannes Gerhardus Meuschen (editor), Caeremonialia Electionis et Coronationis Pontificis Romani et Caeremoniale Episcoporum (Francorurti: ex officina B. Joh. Max. a Sande. MDCCXXXII), pp. 135-192.
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John Paul Adams, CSUN