May 1 , 1572—May 14, 1572

CARDINAL LUIGI CORNARO (1518-1564), a Venetian, member of a senatorial family, he was the son of Giovanni Cornaro. His great-aunt was Catherine, Queen of Cyprus. He enlisted as a Knight of the Order of St. John of Jerusalem, and rose to be the Prior of Cyprus. Created a Cardinal Deacon in 1551 by Pope Julius III, and given the Deaconry of S. Teodoro. He was promoted to being Cardinal Priest of S. Marco in 1561. He presided over the commission of cardinals which supervised the persecution of the Carafa family and associates. In 1568, he opted for the titulus of S. Vitale, and then in 1569 the titulus of S. Clemente. He became Camerlengo of the Holy Roman Church on May 10, 1570, and held the post until his death in 1584. He purchased the office of Camerlengo for 70,000 scudi from Cardinal Bonelli, the nephew of Pius V. The money was needed by the Pope to promote the war against the Turks (Cardella, IV 330-331).

Cardinal  Giovanni Morone, Dean of the Sacred College

The Dean of the College of Cardinals was Cardinal Giovanni Girolamo Morone. Born in Milan in 1509, the son of Count Girolamo Morone, Chancellor of the Duchy of Milan—a difficult position to hold during the struggles between François I and Charles V for possession of the duchy. Giovanni studied law at the University of Padua. He was appointed Bishop of Modena by Pope Clement VII as an act of gratitude to Giovanni's father for assistance provided during Clement's imprisonment during the Sack of Rome in 1527. Count Morone had been one of the principal negotiators between Clement and the Emperor Charles for the Pope's release [Sclopis, 2]. This made him an enemy in Cardinal Ippolito D'Este the younger, who believed he had a previous claim on the see. The issue was eventually settled in Morone's favor, but he had to provide D'Este with an annuity to compensate his 'loss'. Nonethess, Morone had to rule his diocese through intermediaries until he reached canonical age. He was finally ordained priest and consecrated bishop on January 12, 1533. In the meantime, he was sent by Clement VII to France to attempt to arrange peace with François I. In 1536 he was sent with the status of Nuncio to Bohemia and Hungary, which were ruled (in the right of his wife) by Ferdinand, King of the Romans, the younger brother of Charles V. His mission was not to engage in controversy with protestants, but to encourage Catholics and attempt to arrange the convening of a church council. Toward this end, Morone attended various church councils, Hagenau (1540), Regensburg (1541), and Speyer (1542) [Sclopis, 5-9]. He was made Cardinal Priest of San Vitale in June, 1542 by Paul III (Farnese), and received his red hat in October. He later opted for San Stefano in Monte Celio in 1549, San Lorenzo in Lucina in 1553, and Santa Maria in Trastevere in 1556. He was one of the Presidents of the Council of Trent when it opened on November 1, 1542. In 1557 he was imprisoned in Castel St. Angelo on orders of Paul IV, and was examined on charges including heresy by the Inquisition. He was finally offered release in 1559 and named Cardinal Bishop of Albano, but he refused, since Paul IV refused to apologize or exonerate him. He therefore remained in prison until Paul IV died. He participated in the Conclave of 1559. Pius IV restored him and cleared his name, whereupon he accepted the See of Albano, which he exchanged for Sabina in 1561, and then Palestrina in 1562. (Pius IV used his talents to bring the Council of Trent to a final conclusion in 1563. He became Bishop of Porto and Santa Rufina in 1565. He was present as Bishop of Porto in the coronation of the first Grand Duke of Tuscany, Cosimo I, in February and March, 1570 (Morini, 38). Finally Moroni was named Bishop of Ostia and Velletri in 1570 when he became Dean of the College of Cardinals. He died on December 1, 1580.

The Papal Master of Ceremonies since 1565 was Msgr. Cornelio Firmano, who became Bishop of Osimo in 1574. His diary survives in manuscript, in the Vatican Archives.

The Death of Pius V

Pius V (Ghislieri) had long suffered from kidney stones, but claimed to have been cured repeatedly by drinking quantities of asses' milk. In March, 1572 he began to suffer from dysuria, which brought on insomnia. By March, he was in real trouble but refused to allow his physicians even to touch him as a proper examination would require, and instead recurred to his usual remedy—this time without success. He was unconscious for some time, and the report circulated in Rome and to the Crowns that he had died. But he was able to bestow his Easter blessing on the crowds, and on April 21, 1572, he made a pilgrimage to the seven pilgrimage churches of Rome. At the Lateran Basilica, he was too weak to climb the Scala Santa, but he did converse with a number of English Catholic exiles who had gathered there. He returned to the Vatican Palace and took to his bed. He died on May 1.  The Acta Consistorialia report [Joseph Korzeniowski, Analecta Romana quae historiam Poloniae saec.XVI illustrant (Cracow 1894), p. 48]:

Die Iovis, prima mensis Maij MDLXXII Romae apud Sanctum Petrum hora circiter vigesima Pius PP V ab hac luce migravit.


When his body was opened, three large kidney stones were found (Montor, IV, 280-282; repeating Panvinio's "Life of Pius V" in the Platina collection, IV. 130; see also Novaes, VII, 249-250.). A description survives, deriving from the Archiatros of Pius V, Francisco Marenco di Alba (Cancellieri, 47-48):

cum diem suum obierit, tunc exenteratus fuit, ac dissecta vessica, inventi sunt tres lapides, pari magnitudine, colore, duritie ac figura; siquidem erant circulari, planaque figura, magnitudine quantum pollice ac indice digitus complecti posset, colore subnigro, ac levi superficie, qualis est in bezoar lapide vocato, duritie marmoris....

The novendiales began in St. Peter's on May 2, 1572. On January 9, 1588, his body was transferred from its temporary resting place in St. Peter's Basilica to the Chapel of Pope Sixtus V in Santa Maria Maggiore (the Liberian Basilica).


Interests of the Crowns

The Battle of Lepanto, on October 7, 1571, under the leadership of Don John of Austria, half-brother of King Philip II, had been a great victory against the Turks, relieving some of the pressure against the Venetians and the Empire in the Balkans. The danger, however, was that the Christian princes would return to their own squabbles with each ofher. A Crusader pope was needed, in the opinion of many, who would take the lead in the struggle against the Muslims and profit from the victory at Lepanto.

The leader of the French faction of cardinals was, as usual, the Cardinal of Ferrara, Ippolito d' Este [Petruccelli, 210]. He had a sufficient number of cardinals in his faction that he could provide a virtual exclusiva (veto) against any candidate. But Catherine de' Medicis, too, was playing a discreet role, through Cosimo I, Grand Duke of Tuscany. She was trying to outmaneuver the Huguenots in France and avert a civil war by the marriage of her daughter, Margot, with Henri de Bourbon, nephew of the Cardinal de Bourbon, who was unfortunately a lapsed Catholic and a leader of the protestants. At the same time she was using her son the Duke of Alençon to tempt Queen Elizabeth of England into marriage and a French alliance. She needed papal cooperation (which had not been forthcoming from Pius V, who had in fact made her life worse by excommunicating Elizabeth I of England) for the appropriate arrangements and dispensations. She was also involved in a struggle with the family of Guise—led by the Cardinal Charles de Guise-Lorraine—who were the leaders of the extreme Catholic faction and who were ambitious to rule France (Their niece, Mary Queen of Scots, was a prisoner of Queen Elizabeth). France was about to explode. The St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre (August 24, 1572) was still three months in the future. She wrote to the French ambassador in Rome, M. de Ferals on May 12, 1572 (Lettres, III, 100):

Monsieur de Ferrailz, vous entendrez de mon cousin Monsieur le cardinal de Ferrare, ou de mon cousin le cardinal d'Este l'intention du Roy monsieur mon filz qu'il vous a faict assez particulièrement entendre, et partant vous vous conduirez conformément à ce qu'ilz vous diront, favorisant en l'occasion qui se présente mon cousin le cardinal de Ferrare en tout ce qu'il vous sera possible, et je prierey Dieu, Monsieur de Ferrailz, vous tenir en sa garde.

Charles IX added a note on the 19th of May, to the effect that if the Cardinal of Ferrara could not be elected, the French should support Cardinal Farnese. Both memoranda were too late; a new pope was elected on May 14.

King Philip II's war in the Spanish Netherlands was not going well. The Protestants had assistance from England's Queen Elizabeth and from French Huguenots. Armies of Huguenots were even raised, against the most urgent wishes of Queen Catherine, to invade the Netherlands. The king's general, the Duke of Alva, was detested for his brutality by nearly everyone. He and King Philip professed to be so concerned about the ascendency of the protestants in France that they were willing to invade France to rescue the monarchy from its enemies, and they were cooperating the Guise faction to control the French government. He wanted a pope who was truly catholic, who would cease efforts to conciliate the Protestants, who would enforce orthodoxy, and who would unite the Catholic powers to suppress the heretic threats, by which he meant Elizabeth I, the protestants in the Netherlands, and the Huguenots in France. King Philip's Ambassador at the Conclave, Don Sancio de Padilla, had instructions to cooperate with Cosimo, the Grand Duke of Tuscany, who was furthering both their interests.

Grand Duke Cosimo I of FlorenceCardinal Ferdinando de' Medici

Cosimo I, Grand Duke of Tuscany (portrait at left), had had considerable influence upon the Conclaves of 1559 and especially 1565. His services to Pope Pius V, in particular, had brought him the promotion to Grand Duke. He was the organizing force of both the French and the Italian groups, his French royal cousins among them, who opposed the plans of the Spanish and Austrians—but in the service of his own plans . Already in 1568, he was advising his friend the pope to keep an eye on Cardinals Ferrara, Farnese and Morone, whom he accused of conspiring together to get support from, among others Cardinal Vitelli, for a future conclave (Petruccelli, 214). He was also advising Charles IX to be careful of D'Este and Farnese [Petruccelli, 214, letter of April 20, 1572], and he even wrote to Catherine de Medicis, warning her that the two Cardinals were making overtures to the Spanish [Petruccelli, 214, letter of April 23, 1572]. Cosimo had already received assurances of support from Cardinals Corregio, Della Corgna, Pellevé, Simoncelli, and Sirleto. On the 9th of May he wrote to Alessandrino (Cardinal Bonelli, nephew of Pius V, and leader of Pius' creature) to think of making a good pope, leaving his personal and family affairs in Cosimo's hands [Petruccelli, 215]. Cardinal Ferdinando de' Medici wrote to his brother Cosimo (April 9) that Cardinal Ciocchi del Monte, who was in hard circumstances, approached him for 500 ducats. Cosimo advised Ferdinando to give it to him. Ferdinando was able to tell the Duke that he had the support of Cardinals Altemps, Como (Gallio), Cesi, and Simoncelli. Cosimo was also playing a game of confusion with King Philip II; on April 28, he wrote to the king that it did not matter to him so much who was made pope, as that he would be friendly to the King [Petruccelli, 222].

On April 28th [Petruccelli, 216-218] Cosimo's younger brother, Francesco, Duke of Florence, wrote to his brother, the Cardinal de' Medici [portrait at right], that France, which was publicly for Cardinal d' Este, was in fact at the disposal of the Medici, appearances being sustained by a complicated series of misdirections with the collusion of the French Ambassador. He advises Ferdinando to go to Cardinal Boncompagni in complete secrecy and inform him that the Medici intend to make him pope at all costs, and that he should work too, for his part, to that end.  In order to keep Farnese off guard, the Cardinal was to speak about Aldobrandino, Montepulciano (Della Corgna), Perugia (Ricci, whom Farnese hated), Crivelli and Commendone, while assuring Borromeo and Altemps secretly that the Medici were seriously interested only in Sirleto and Boncompagni.


The College of Cardinals

The matter of voting rights of cardinals in Conclave had come before Pius V, in a Consistory held on January 10, 1571 [Joseph Korzeniowski, Analecta Romana quae historiam Poloniae saec.XVI illustrant (Cracow 1894), p. 64].  He issued a decree to the effect that, once a cardinal was created, he had a vote in a papal election, whether or not his mouth had been opened and/or closed:

Smus. fecit decretum econsistoriale, quod scripsit pro vicecancellario Ursinus et mandavit adnotari a ceremoniarum magistro etiam: quod cardinales creati, etiam quibus os esset clausum, habeant vocem et suffragium in electione Rom. Pontificis, et omnibus placuit et ab omnibus est laudatum.

Since the Conclave of 1565-1566, Twenty-two cardinals had died: Francesco Pisani, Crispo, Saraceni, Cicala, Suau, Capizucchi, Ghislieri (Pius V), D' Olera, Simonetta, Salviati, Pier Francesco Ferrero, Niccolini, Luigi Pisani, Crassi, Gonzaga, Castiglioni, Vitelli, Mendoza, Scotti, Strozzi, Babou de la Bourdaisière, and Amulio [cf. Petramellari, 143]. Pope Pius V created twenty-one cardinals, of whom three died (Zuniga, Carlo Grassi, and Souchier) [Alberi, 168]. There were therefore sixty-six cardinals at the time of the Conclave of 1572 [Petramellari, 182-185], with fifty-two cardinals attending the Conclave (Alberi lists Truchess as present, rather than absent).


Cardinals attending:

  1. Giovanni Morone (aged 62), Cardinal Bishop of Ostia and Velletri (1565; d. 1580) Protector of Hungary and the Arch-Duchy of Austria
  2. Cristoforo Madruzzo (aged 60), Tridentinus,Cardinal Bishop of Porto and Santa Rufina (d. 1578)
  3. Alessandro Farnese (aged 52), Cardinal Priest of S. Lorenzo in Damaso in commendam, Cardinal Bishop of Frascati, VIce -Chancellor of the Holy Roman Church 1535-1589. Protector of Poland  (d. 1589)
  4. Giulio della Rovere (aged 32), Cardinal Bishop of Sabina (d. 1578)
  5. Giovanni Ricci (aged 74), Montepulciano, Cardinal Bishop of Albano (d. 1574) a client of Alessandro Farnese. Bishop of Pisa

  6. Niccolò Caetani de Sermonetta (46), Cardinal Priest of S. Eustachio, 1552-1585 (d. 1585) Protector of Scotland
  7. Giacomo (Jacopo) Savelli (aged 49), Cardinal Priest of S. Maria in Cosmedin, 1560-1573 (d. 1587) Vicar General of Rome.
  8. Fulvio della Corgna (aged 55), Perusinus, nephew of Pope Julius III, Cardinal Priest of S. Adriano, Knight of Malta.  Archpriest of the Cathedral of S. Lorenzo in Perugia.  Bishop of Perugia (1550-1553)  Administrator of Spoleto  Bishop of Perugia again (September 10, 1564–May 5, 1574).  Then Bishop of Albano (May 5, 1574–December 5, 1580).   Bishop of Porto and Santa Rufina (December 5, 1580–March 4, 1583).   (d. 1585; buried in S. Pietro in Montorio)  [Cardella IV, 307-309;  Vincenzo Forcella, Inscrizioni delle chiese di Roma V (Roma 1873), p. 260 no. 725]
  9. Luigi Cornaro (aged 55), Cardinal Priest of S. Marco (d. 1584) Cardinal Camerlengo
  10. Scipione Rebiba (aged 68) [borgo S. Marco near Melfi in SIcily], Cardinal Priest of S. Maria in Trastevere (1570-1573). Cardinal Priest of S. Angelo in Pescheria (1566-1570). Cardinal Priest of S. Pudenziana (1556-1565).   Doctorate in utroque iure (or in Canon Law). Archpriest of Chieti.   Bishop of Amyclae in the Peloponnesus (1541-1551) so that he could serve as Auxilary Bishop of Chieti (1541-1551) for Cardinal Carafa (Paul IV).  Bishop of Motola (1551-1560).  Governor of Rome (1555-1556) [Niccolò del Re, Monsignor Governatore di Roma (Roma: Istituto di studi Romani 1972), 60, 84-85].  Named a cardinal by Paul IV on  December 20, 1555, and assigned the titulus of S. Pudenziana (1556-1565).  Throughout his life a protégé of Paul IV, he was named Vicar (1551-1555)  of Paul IV in the Archbishopric of Naples , with whose permission he introduced the Roman Inquisition into Naples [H.C.Lea, The Inquisition in its Spanish Dependencies (New York 1922), p. 78].  On April 9, 1556 he was sent to the Netherlands as Nuncio to the Emperor Charles V and King Philip II, to arrange for the resumption of the Council of Trent [R. Hinojosa, Los Despachos de diplomacia pontificia en España  I (Madrid 1896), p. 97].  Bishop of Pisa (1555-1560),  Bishop of Troia (for three months in 1560), Latin-rite Patriarch of Constantinople (1565–1573).  He died on July 23, 1577, and was interred in the Church of S. Silvestro al Quirinale [V. Forcella, Inscrizioni delle chiese di Roma IV, p. 42 no. 98].  His memorial inscription lauds him as  HAERETICAE PRAVITATIS INQUISITORI SUMMO FIDEI ORTHODOXAE ACERRIMO PROPUGNATORI.
  11. Giovanni Antonio Serbelloni (aged 53), nephew of Pius IV, Cardinal Priest of S. Angelo in Pescheria (1591)
  12. Carlo Borromeo (aged 34), nephew of Pius IV, Cardinal Priest of S. Prassede (1564-1584), previously Cardinal Priest of SS. Silvestri et Martini in Montibus (1560-1564), previously Cardinal Deacon of SS. Vito e Modesto (1560, February 14 to September 4). Doctor in utroque iure (Pavia, 1559).  Secretary of State of His Holiness (1560-1584).  Major Penitentiary (1565-1572).  Abbot Commendatory of the Abbey of Nomantola (1560-1566). Administrator of the Archdiocese of Milan (1560-1564),   Ordained a priest on September 4, 1583. Consecrated bishop on December 7, 1583.  Archbishop of Milan (1564-1584).   Archpriest of the Liberian Basilica (1564-1572).  Died November 3, 1584.
  13. Marco d' Altemps [Markus Sittich von Hohenems] (aged 39), nephew of Pius IV, Cardinal Priest of S. Giorgio in Velabro (d. 1595)  Bishop of Konstanz (1566-1589)
  14. Alfonso Gesualdo (aged 32), Cardinal Priest of Sta. Cecilia (d. 1603)
  15. Stanislaus Hosius (aged 68), Cardinal Priest of S. Clemente.  Bishop of Warmia  (1551-1570).  Named cardinal on February 26, 1561, and Legate of Pius IV to the Council of Trent (1562-1563).  Major Penitentiary (1574-1579)    He d. August 5, 1579, at Sutri, and was buried in his titulus [V. Forcella, Inscrizioni delle chiese di Roma II, p. 347 no. 1070].
  16. Antonio di Granvelle (aged 55), Cardinal Priest of S. Pietro in Vincoli, Archbishop of Mechelen (d. 1586) Member of the Spanish Council of State
  17. Luigi Madruzzi (aged 40), nephew of Cardinal Cristoforo Madruzzi, Cardinal Priest of S. Onofrio (d. 1600) Bishop of Trent.
  18. Francisco Pacheco (ca. 64), Protector of Spain before the Holy See, Cardinal Priest of Sta. Croce in Gerusalemme (d. 1579)
  19. Francesco Gambara (aged 39), Cardinal Priest of Sta. Prisca (d. 1587)
  20. Iñigo d' Avalos d' Aragona (aged 36), Cardinal Priest of S. Lorenzo in Lucina (d. 1600)
  21. Girolamo Austriaco da Coreggio (aged 54), Cardinal Priest of S. Anastasia (d. 1572)
  22. Marc' Antonio Colonna (aged 49), Cardinal Priest of SS. XII Apostoli, Archbishop of Salerno (d. 1597)
  23. Prospero Santacroce (aged 58), Cardinal Priest of S. Maria degli Angeli (d. 1589)
  24. Marc' Antonio Boba (aged ?), Cardinal Priest of San Silvestro in capite (d. 1575)
  25. Ugo Buoncompagni (aged 70), Cardinal Priest of S. Sisto (d. 1585).
  26. Alessandro Sforza (aged 38), nephew of Paul III, Cardinal Priest of Sta. Maria in Via (Platina 113) (d. 1581)
  27. Francesco Alciati (aged 50), Cardinal Priest of Sta Maria in Portico (d. 1580)
  28. Benedetto Lontellini (Lomellini) (aged 55), Cardinal Priest of Sta. Sabina (d. 1579) Bishop of Agnani
  29. Flavio Orsini (aged 40), Cardinal Priest of S. Marcellino e Pietro (d. 1581)
  30. Alessandro Crivelli (aged 58), Cardinal Priest of S. Maria in Aracoeli (d. December 22, 1574) [V. Forcella, Inscrizioni delle chiese di Roma  I, p. 186, no. 711].
  31. Guglielmo Sirleto (aged 58), educator of Carlo Borromeo, Cardinal Priest of San Lorenzo in Panisperna (d. 1585) Librarian of the Holy Roman Church.
  32. Gabriele Paleotti (aged 50), Cardinal Priest of S. Giovanni e Paolo (d. 1597) Bishop of Bologna
  33. Michele Bonnelli, OP (aged 31), grand nephew and Nipote of Pius V, Cardinal Priest of S. Maria sopra Minerva (d. 1598) "Alessandrino"
  34. Gianpaolo Della Chiesa (aged 52), Cardinal Priest of S. Pancrazio (died 1575)
  35. Marc' Antonio Maffei (aged 51), son of Hieronymus Maffei.  Cardinal Priest of S. Callisto (1570-1583).  Governor of Viterbo (1557) [Delle lettere di Commendatore Annibale Caro III (Padova 1765), p. 161 no. 136].  Datary of Pius V (1566-1570).  Archbishop of  Chieti  (1553-1568?;  the Acta Consistorialia seem to indicate that he was still Archbishop of Chieti and Datary when he became a Cardinal in 1570: Eubel III, 43 n. 11), in succession to his brother Cardinal Bernardino Maffei (1549-1553). He died on August 22, 1583 [according to Eubel III, 43; his tombstone says November 21], at the age of 61 years and 11 months; and was buried in the Minerva [V. Forcella, Inscrizioni delle chiese di Roma I, p. 472, no. 1836].
  36. Giulio Antonio Santorio (aged 39), Cardinal Priest of S. Bartolommeo all' Isola (died 1602)
  37. Pierdonato Cesi (aged 50), Cardinal Priest of S. Vitale (d. 1586).
  38. Charles d' Angennes (aged 41), Cardinal Priest of S. Eufemia (died 1587).
  39. Felice Peretti Montalto (aged 50), Cardinal Priest of S. Girolamo dei Schiavono, Bishop of Fermo (died 1590) Pope Sixtus V.
  40. Giovanni Aldobrandini (aged 47), Cardinal Priest of S. Simeone Profeta (died 1573)
  41. Girolamo Rusticucci (aged 35), Cardinal Priest of S. Susanna,  Bishop of Sinigaglia (1570-1577). Protonotary Apostolic. Private Secretary of Pius V. Secretary of State 1566-1570. Created cardinal in 1570.  Secretary of State of Sixtus V (1585-1590) [Moroni, Dizionario di erudizione historico-ecclesiastica 63 (Venice 1853), 280].  He was a member of the SC of the Council of Trent under Sixtus V  [Tempesti, Storia della vita di Sisto V  I, p. 373].  Created Vicar of Rome by Sixtus V in 1588 (1588-1603), in succession to Cardinal Bonelli.  First Protector of the Congregation of the Hospitallers of S. John of God .  He died on June 14, 1603, and was buried in S. Susanna  [V. Forcella, Inscrizioni delle chiese di Roma IX, p. 534, no. 1042].
  42. Arcangelo de' Bianchi, OP (aged 45) [Gambalo, a village near Vigevano in Piedmont], Cardinal Priest (May 17, 1570) He received the titulus of S. Cesareo in Palatino on June 17, 1570.  Commissary of the Holy Office of the Universal Roman Inquisition.  Confessor of Pius V.  Bishop of Teano (1566-1575) [not Chieti].  He died in Rome on January 18, 1580, at the age of 68, and was buried at Santa Sabina on the Aventine [V. Forcella, Inscrizioni delle chiese di Roma VII, p. 306 no. 618].  [Cardella V, 135].
  43. Paolo Burali d' Arezzo (aged 61), CR [Itri, diocese of Gaeta, Kingdom of Naples. The family is said to have come originally from France, a place called Buro in the province of Zimonia [Bagatta, p. 3]:  there is a village and fief called Buros in Gascony —but this origin seems to be nothing but an etymological fantasy; for a different view, see Avellino, v-xxx].  Paolo Burali was a younger son of Paolo Burali, who had served with the Spanish army as Segretario Maggiore to Prospero Colonna; he served King Ladislas of Naples as Councillor and as Luogotenente of the Grand Chancellor of Naples.  His baptismal name was Scipione.  In 1524 he began his studies in literature at the University of Salerno, and he spent three years there.  He then moved to Bologna, where he studied law.  One of his professors was Ugo Boncompagni (the future Gregory XIII) [Bagatta, p. 10], who was a professor from 1531-1538, at which time he moved to Rome [Maffei, Annales Gregorii XIII I, p. 5].   Burali obtained his degree of  Doctor in utroque iure (Bologna, 1536)  [Zigarelli, Biografie dei vescovi e arcivescovi della chiesa di Napoli (1861), 135, patriotically insists that his law degree was from Salerno]. He is said [by Bagatta, p. 11] to have been an excellent scholar in Greek and Hebrew.
            Burali then practiced as a lawyer in Naples. In 1548 he attempted to retire to Itri, to live a life of contemplation [Avellino, 6]. His spiritual director, Giovanni Marinonio, Praepositus of the house of S. Paul in Naples, approved these impulses [Avellino, 8].  But he was appointed to the Royal Council of S. Chiara by Emperor Charles V (May 5, 1550) [Zigarelli, 135], and persuaded by the Regent of the Supreme Council, Francescantonio VIllani, to accept the assignment [Avellino, 7-8].   He was named President of criminal cases [Cardella, Memorie de' cardinali V, 139; his notes unfortunately are heavily laden with hagiography].  In 1555, he was sent by the Viceroy Bernardino Mendoza to Rome on behalf of Philip II to Pope Paul IV, with whom Burali concluded his business in a friendly manner and in only a few days.  Paul IV would have liked to keep him on and employ him in papal service, but Burali returned to Naples.  Approximately twelve months after his return, Burali became Auditor of Causes to the new Viceroy of Naples, Ferdinando of Toledo, Duke of Alba.  But when the Duke planned to invade the Papal States and appointed Burali Auditor General of the Army, Burali obtained permission to avoid the assignment.
           In the Spring of 1556 his mother Vittoria Oliveres of Barcelona died [Bagatta, 5; Farulli, 202].  On January 25, 1557 he joined the Theatines, an order whose co-founder was Pope Paul IV (1555-1559); he received the habit from Giovanni Marinonio on February 2, 1557 (quite contrary to custom).   He expected to be a lay brother, but was commanded to take the tonsure. He was ordained a priest on March 26, 1558.  In 1560, at the age of 49, after only three years in the Order, he became Praepositus of the House of S. Paul in Naples; he was reelected twice, in 1563 and 1564 [Armellino, 14].   In 1562, Philip II offered Burali the Archbishopric of Brindisi, but he refused.  Even so, he was appointed by the Viceroy and by the City of Naples to be Ambassador to King Philip II, to deal with the question what was to be done with the worldly goods of convicted heretics; he departed for Madrid in July, 1564, only after Pope Pius IV ordered him to go, after entreaties of the Viceroy, the Ambassador in Rome. Don Luis Requesens, and S. Carlo Borromeo, had failed to move him.  After King Philip had taken more than six months without coming to a decision, Burali returned to Naples in May of 1565 [Avellino, 18-22].  He again governed S. Paul's in 1565 and 1566.  The General Chapter of his Order was held in Rome in April, 1567, and, again over his objections, he was compelled by his superiors to become Praepositus of S. Silvestro in Rome.  He took part in the trial of the Archbishop of Toledo for heresy.
            Cardinal Priest of S. Pudenziana (1570-1578),  Bishop of Piacenza (1568-1576), in succession to Cardinal Berardino Scotti, Theat. (who died on December 11, 1568).   A good, reforming, Tridentine bishop. Later Archbishop of Naples (September 19, 1576—June 17, 1578).  His chances of ever being pope, however, were ruined by the opposition of the Grand Duke of Florence, Cosimo III. And in truth, there were other candidates more holy, more experienced in administration, and more comprehensive in their thinking than Burali.   He died in Naples after twenty-one months as Archbishop of Naples in 1578.
  44. Vincenzo Giustiniani, OP (aged 52), Cardinal Priest of S. Nicolò fra le immagine (died 1582)

  45. Ippolito d' Este (aged 62), Grandson of Pope Alexander VI, Cardinal Deacon of S. Maria Nova (died December 2, 1572) "Ferrara"
  46. Girolamo Simoncelli (aged 50), grand-nephew of Julius III, Cardinal Deacon of S. Cosma e Damiano, 1554-1588 (d. 1605)
  47. Tolomeo Gallio (aged 45), Como, Cardinal Deacon of S. Agata in Suburra (d. 1607)
  48. Ferdinando de' Medici (aged 23) [Florentinus],  son of Cosimo I de' Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany, and Leonor Álvarez de Toledo; and younger brother of Francesco, Grand Duke of Tuscany. Created a cardinal by Pius IV on January 6, 1563. Cardinal Deacon of Sta. Maria in Dominica  (resigned to become Grand Duke of Tuscany, November 28, 1588)  He was not in Holy Orders.  (d. 1609, buried in the Medici Chapel, S. Lorenzo, Firenze)
  49. Guido Ferrero (aged 35),  Son of Sebastiano, lord of Casavallone Villata and Ponzano; and Maddalena Borromeo, aunt of Cardinal Carlo Borromeo;  nephew of two cardinals, and grand-nephew of Pius IV. His elder brother Federico was Marchese di Romagnano.  His father's sister was married to Francesco of Savoy, Lord of Colegno.   Guido became a domestic prelate in 1559 at the age of 22, as well as Referendary of the two Signatures.   Bishop of Vercelli, March 12, 1562, at the age of 25; he attended the XXV Session of the Council of Trent (1563); his VIcar General, from 1567, was a distant cousin, Giovanni Enrico [Vittorio Angius, Sulle famiglie nobili della monarchia di Savoia II  (Torino 1847), p. 903; stemma on p. 724 and 725].   Bishop Ferrero resigned the See in 1572, in exchange for the Monastery of S. Silvestro di Nonantola, near Modena (1573-1582) .  Nuncio of Pius IV in Vienna (1564).  Abbot of S. Maria di Pinerolo (by 1582).  Abbot of S. Benigno.  Abbot of S. Pietro di Muleggio (by a bull of January 11, 1574).  Abbot of S. Giusto di Susa (1572). [Göttingische gelehrte Anzeiger 134 (1872) 65;  P. Caffaro, Notizie e documenti della chiesa pinerolese (Pinerolo 1893) 223].  Abbot of Chiusa (1560), on the nomination of the Duke of Savoy  [G. Avogadro di Valdengo, Storia della Abbazia di S. Michele della Chiusa, p. 85; G. Claretta, Storia diplomatica dell' antica Abbazia di S. Michele della Chiusa ((Torino 1870), 176-184].  Abbot of S. Michele in Gaviano, where he founded a seminario in 1571. Cardinal Deacon on March 12, 1565, by Pius IV, at the request of the Duke of Savoy and Cardinal Carlo Borromeo; Cardinal Priest of S. Eufemia (February 8—March 6, 1566); Cardinal Priest of [the Deaconry of] SS. Vito e Modesto (1566-1585),  Prior of Chamonix (1570-1585) [M. A. Perrin, Le prieurè de Chamonix IV (Chambéry 1883), p. 385].  Abbot of S. Stefano d'Ivrea (1575-1576).
           In 1572, Cardinal Guido published the Conciliar and diocesan decrees for the Diocese of Vercelli; these included some of the most important Tridentine decrees. In 1567, he held a diocesan synod.   In 1581, Gregory XIII made him Legate in Ravenna and the Marches.  He owned the Villa Ruffinella in Frascati from 1578-1585 [Rodolfo Lanciani, Storia degli scavi di Roma III (Roma 1907), pp. 46-47].  He made his Will in the Castello of Gaviano in November, 1584.  He died in Rome on May 16, 1585, and was buried in the Liberian Basilica  [V. Forcella, Inscrizioni delle chiese di Roma XI, p. 46, no. 89].   The best discussion of his career is in Vittorio Angius, Sulle famiglie nobili della monarchia di Savoia II (Torino 1847), pp. 774-803.  "Vercellensis"
  50. Antonio Carafa (aged 34),  Protonotary Apostolic.  Canon of the Vatican Basilica.  Created cardinal by Pius V on March 24, 1568. Cardinal Deacon of S. Eusebio (1568-1573).  He was knowledgable in Greek. (died 1591)
  51. Giulio Acquaviva d' Aragona (aged 28), Cardinal Deacon of S. Teodoro (died 1574)

Cardinals not attending:

  1. Georges d' Armagnac (aged 71), Cardinal Priest of S. Nicolaus in Carcere Tulliano (d. 1585) Royal Governor in Languedoc.
  2. Otto Truchess von Waldburg (aged 58), Cardinal Bishop of Palestrina (d. 1573)
  3. Henrique de Portugal (aged 53), Cardinal Priest of SS. Quatro Coronati (d. 1580). Archbishop of Lisbon, fifth son of King Manuel of Portugal. Legate a latere to Portugal. Regent of Portugal
  4. Charles de Lorraine-Guise (aged 48), Cardinal Priest of S. Apollinaire (d. 1574) Archbishop of Reims. Brother of Cardinal Louis de Lorraine de Guise
  5. Charles I de Bourbon-Vendome (aged 49) (d. 1590) Archbishop of Rouen.
  6. Innocenzo Ciocchi del Monte (aged 40), Cardinal Deacon of Sta. Maria in Portico, 1564-1577 (died 1577)
  7. Luigi d'Este (aged 34), nephew of Cardinal Ippolito II d'Este, Cardinal Deacon of Sta. Lucia in silice, 1563-1577 (d. 1586)
  8. Louis de Lorraine de Guise (aged 45), Cardinal Priest of S. Tommaso in Parione, Bishop of Metz (d. 1578) Brother of Cardinal Charles de Lorraine-Guise
  9. Zaccaria Delfino (aged 45) [Venetus], son of Andrea Delfino.  Appointed a cardinal by Pius IV on May 12, 1565, and assigned the titulus of S. Maria in Aquiro   (a deaconry made a titulus for this occasion) (September 7, 1565-1578).   He had studied in Padua, and then in Rome. His career began when he was made a Protonotary Apostolic by Julius III, and then  Bishop of Hvar (Lesina) in Dalmatia (1553-1574) [Gams, 410; Eubel III, 273].  Made Bishop of Torcello by Paul IV (1563-1579).  Bishop of Brescia (1579-1584).   Nuncio to Ferdinando II, King of Sicily.  Nuncio to the Emperor Ferdinand, son of Emperor Maximilian (Summer, 1561-1563) [Nuntiaturberichte aus Deutschland/1560-1572  II.1 (Wien 1897), p. 286;   III (Wien 1903), ix]; the reconvening of the Council of Trent was a major issue.  In 1562-1563 he participated in the Council, until its conclusion.   Appointed a cardinal by Pius IV on May 12, 1565.  On December 11, 1566, he was deprived of his vote and right to speak in Consistory because he was AWOL [Eubel III, p. 40 n. 10].   He died  in Rome on May 1,1584 (or January 9, or on January 19, 1583 or December 19, 1583), and was buried at the Minerva.
  10. Antoine de Crequi (aged 41), Cardinal Deacon of S. Trifonio (d. 1574) Bishop of Amiens, State Councillor to King Charles IX.
  11. Giovanni Francesco Commendone (aged 49), Cardinal Deacon of S. Ciriaco alle Terme (d. 1584) Legate before Emperor Maximilian II and King Zygmunt of Poland (to 1561)..
  12. Diego Espinosa Arévalo (aged 69), Cardinal Priest of S. Stefano al Monte Celio (San Stefano Rotondo), Bishop of Sigüenza, Inquisitor General of Spain (died 1572) did not attend.
  13. Gaspar Cervantes de Gaete (aged 61), Cardinal Priest of S. Balbina, Bishop of Santa Severina (died 1575)
  14. Gian Girolamo Albani (aged 62, Cardinal Priest of S. Giovanni a Porta Latina (died 1591) did not participate ?
  15. Nicolas de Pellevé (aged 53), Cardinal Priest, without title.   son of Charles de Pellevé, Sieur de Jouy de Rebets and Hélène du Fay. His brother Robert was Bishop of Pamiers (1553-1579).  Cardinal Priest of S. Prassede (1584-1594).  Doctor of Laws (Bourges). Councillor of Parliament. Master of Requests. Abbot of S. Cornelius Compendiensis (in the diocese of Soissons) (1550-June,1552) [Gallia christiana IX, 441].   Named  Bishop of Amiens by Henri II (1553-1564), through the influence of Cardinal Charles de Lorraine-Guise [Gallia christiana X (Paris 1751), 1207]. Pellevé participated in the Estates General in Paris in January, 1557.  He was sent to Scotland in 1559, to deal with the Calvinist heretics [cf. J. Stevenson, Calendar of State Papers. Foreign Series. Elizabeth. (1559-1560) (London 1865), p. 108 no. 250, for the proclamation of François II and Mary which appointed him], but a Peace was concluded before he could do much. He accompanied the Cardinal of Lorraine to the Council of Trent (1562). Archbishop of Sens (1562-1591) [Gallia christiana XII , 95].  He was named cardinal by Pius V on May 17, 1570, with the consent of Charles IX, but did not receive the titulus of SS. John and Paul until July 4, 1572, from the new pope, Gregory XIII.  He was named Protector of Scotland and Ireland.  He remained at the Papal Court until December, 1586.   Later Archbishop of Reims (1592-1594)   An active member of the French "League" against Henri III and Henri IV.   (died March 24, 1594).  The new pope, Gregory XIII, sent a galley to fetch him to Rome on June 20, 1572  [Gallia christiana XII (Paris 1770), 95].

Opening of the Conclave

The Conclave began on May 12 (Novaes VIII, 7), and proved to be a three-day affair. Fifty-two cardinals participated (Novaes, 7; Moroni 32, 296).

The creature of Pius IV were led, as in the Conclave of 1565-1566, by Cardinal Carlo Borromeo, though he arrived at the very last minute before the Conclave was sealed. He did not, therefore, have the opportunity to engage in consultations beforehand. The cardinals who were creature of Pius IV and Pius V were nevertheless more or less united in opposing the election of Cardinals D'Este (Ferrara), Farnese, Pisa (Ricci), and Burali d' Arezzo (Piacenza).  Burali's family had long connections with Naples and the Spanish faction [Petruccelli, 223].

The leader of the French faction of cardinals was, as usual, the Cardinal of Ferrara, Ippolito d' Este [Petruccelli, 210]. But Cardinal D'Este was disliked or even hated by Farnese, Bonelli, Medici, Borromeo and Morone [Petruccelli, 210].

Pius V and Cardinal Bonelli

Cardinal Michele Bonelli ("Alessandrino"), nephew of Pius V (joint portrait, at left), could command twelve or thirteen of the votes of his uncle's creature, and he had available to him around eight votes which were organized behind Cardinal Ferdinando de' Medici, thanks to the elaborate and deceptive preparation work of the brothers Medici.

Cardinal Alessandro Farnese was a soggetto papabile, as he had been in the Conclave of 1565-1566. But some of his supporters, Cardinals Altemps, Sforza, Orsini, Cesi and Como (Galli), were aware that he would be excluded from the Papal Throne on orders of Cardinal Granvelle (who also arrived in Rome at the last possible moment), speaking in the name of Philip II, the King of Spain. The stated reason was Farnese's youth and the existence of so many worthy older soggetti—which was absurd—and that the greater part of the Italian rulers was opposed to him (Wahrmund, 268, Arco to Maximilian II, May 17). Farnese had been a cardinal for twenty-seven years and had helped his grandfather, Paul III, and his successors govern the Church as Vice-Chancellor since 1535. The real objection against Farnese was that he was hostile to Spanish interests. But the opposition of the Spanish Court caused Farnese's friends to abandon their hopes of making him Pope. This was not technically an exclusiva.

Cardinal Morone was also a soggetto papabile. The "Conclavist" says (Conclavi, 335-336) that his friends attempted to elect him by acclamation on the opening day, quite contrary to custom, after the Mass of the Holy Ghost, while the Cardinals were milling about the entrance to the Conclave area, even before they had been shown to their cells. The effort failed.

At the last moment, Duke Cosimo's agent, Concini, arrived. It was his duty to do what Cardinal Ferdinando de' Medici could not do, and what a Grand Duke should not do. By additional manipulations of every sort, he was able to unite the creature of Pius IV and the creature of Pius V toward the exclusion of Ferrara (D' Este), Farnese, Pisa (Ricci), and Piacenza (Burali d' Arezzo) —or so he reported to Cosimo on May 13.   Cardinal Alessandrino (Bonelli) was prepared to exclude Morone and Trani. [Petruccelli, 223]  He represented Cardinal Ferdinando de' Medici to Cardinal Granvelle as loyal to Cosimo and King Philip.

In a coup de theatre, on the night of the enclosing of the Conclave, May 12, Cardinal Granvelle, who had just that moment arrived at the Conclave from Naples, produced a letter which had reached him as he was en route, a letter directly from King Philip, with both the seal of Spain and of King Philip personally on it. Divining its probable contents, Granvelle opened it in the presence of Cardinal Farnese and shared with him its message. The letter instructed Granvelle to acquaint Farnese with King Philip's wish that he not attempt to become pope "this time."   That ended Farnese's candidacy. [Petruccelli, 225-227]


Election of Cardinal Boncompagni

Boncompagni was the obvious candidate.  He was acceptable to Cardinal Borromeo and the reformers.  He was a successful Nuncio in Spain, and was acceptable to the Spanish faction, which included Naples.

Ugo Buoncompagni (aged 70), Cardinal Priest of S. Sisto, was elected on May 14. He was crowned Pope Gregory XIII on May 20, 1572, the Feast of Pentecost, by Cardinal Girolamo Simoncelli (Petramellari, 182). He took possession of the Lateran Basilica, his cathedral church, on May 27.




"Notizie sul conclave in cui fu eletto pp. Gregorio XIII, con i nomi dei cardinali che v' intervennero,"  Codex Vaticanus Ottobonianus 3189, c. 384  [non vidi]

For details of the conclave of 1572, see  Casimiro Tempesti, Storia della vita e geste di Sisto Quinto  Tomo primo  (Roma: Remondini di Venezia 1754).  [Gregorio Leti], Conclavi de' pontefici romani Nuova edizione, riveduta, corretta, ed ampliata Volume I (Colonia: Lorenzo Martini, 1691), 335-344. Giuseppe de Novaes, Elementi della storia de' sommi pontefici da San Pietro sino al ... Pio Papa VII   third edition, Volume 8 (Roma 1822) 1-8. G. Moroni, Dizionario di erudizione storico-ecclesiastica Vol. 51 (Venezia 1851) 131; Vol. 53 (Venezia 1851) p. 84-85. Alexis François Artaud de Montor, Histoire de pontifes IV (Paris 1851), pp. 184-185. F. Petruccelli della Gattina, Histoire diplomatique des conclaves   Volume II (Paris: 1864), 208-235. George Duruy, Le Cardinal Carlo Carafa (1519-1561): Étude sur le Pontificat de Paul IV (Paris 1882) 308-314. Ugo Pesci, "La politica Mediceo rispetto ai conclavi," Rivista europea 6 (Firenze 1878) 26-46. Ludwig Wahrmund, Das Ausschliessungs-recht (jus exclusivae) der katholischen Staaten Österreich, Frankreich und Spanien bei den Papstwahlen (Wien: Holder 1888), 93-96. J. B. Sägmüller Die Papstwahlbullen und das staatliche Recht der Exklusive (Tübingen 1892), pp. 43-84.  Paul Herre, Papsttum und Papstwahl im Zeitalter Philipps II. (Leipzig: Teubner 1907) 192-241.

Giampietro Maffei,  Degli Annali di Gregorio XIII, Pontefice Massimo  Tomo primo (ed. Carlo Cocquelines) (Roma: Girolamo Mainardi 1742).

Giovanii Antonio Petramellari, Ad librum Onuphrii Panvinii de summis pontif. et S. R. E. Cardinalibusa Paulo IV ad Clementis Octavi Annum Pontificatus Octavum Continuatio (Bononiae: Apud heredes Ioannis Rosij, MDIC). Lorenzo Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa Tomo Quarto (Roma 1793). Eugenio Alberi (editor), Le relazioni degli ambasciatori veneti al senato Volume X (Serie ii, Tomo IV) (Firenze 1857).

Francesco Cancellieri, Notizie istoriche delle stagioni e de' siti in cui sono stati tenuti i conclavi nella città di Roma... (Roma 1823). Gaetano Marini, Degli Archiatri pontificii II (Roman 1784).


Frédéric Sclopis, Le cardinal Jean Morone (Paris 1869). G. Moroni, Dizionario Volune 46 (Venezia 1847) 299-302. Carlo Gioda, Girolamo Morone e i suoi tempi (Torino-Roma-Milano-Firenze: Paravia 1887). Leopold Witte (tr. J. Betts), A Glance at the Italian Inquisition. A Sketch of Pietro Carnesecchi (London 1885), 54-55, 67, 69 [Carnesecchi had entered Morone's service in 1527]. Cesare Cantù, "Il Cardinale Giovanni Morone," Illustri Italiani Volume II (Milano: Brigola 1873), 393-465 [containing both Morone's defense against the charges of heresy (421-439), and Paul's bull which refused to accept the findings of his own Commission, which had exonerated Morone (440-442)].

Augustinus Brunus, "Vita Gabrielis Palaeoti S. R. E. Cardinalis, Episcopi Sabinensis, archiepiscopi Bononiensis," E. Martène-U. Durand, Veterorum scriptorum et monumentorum...amplissima collectio Tomus VI (Paris 1729), 1385-1438. Paolo Prodi, Il cardinale Gabriele Paleotti (1522-1597) 2 volumes (Roma: edizioni di storia e letteratura, 1959, 1967).

Domenico Morini (editor), Della solenne incornazione del Duca Cosimo Medici in Gran-Duca di Toscana, fatta dal Som. Pont. S. Pio V., raggvaglio di Cornelio Firmano, Cerimoniere pontificio (Firenze: Magheri 1819).

P.O. v. Torne, Ptolémée Gallio, Cardinal de Côme (Paris 1907), 107-134.

Paolo Prodi, Il Cardinale Gabriele Paleotti (1522-1597) Volume II (Roma: Edizioni di storia e letterature 1959).

Epistolario del beato Paolo Burali: cardinale teatino, vescovo di Piacenza, arcivescovo di Napoli (1511-1578)  (Brescia: Centro bresciano di iniziative culturali, 1977).  Piacenza e il B. Paolo Burali: atti del convegno di studio in occasione del IV centenario dalla morte (Deputazione di storia patria per le province parmensi, 1979) [Archivio storico per le province parmensi 4th series, Vol. 30, t. 2]   Franco Molinari, Il Card. Teatino Beato Paolo Burali e la riforma tridentina a Piacenza (1568-1578) (Rome: Gregorian University 1957) [Analecta Gregoriana 87].  Andrea Avellino, Brevi cenni sulla vita del Beato Paolo Burali, d' Arezzo (Napoli; Gennaro Paci, 1876).  D. M. Zigarelli, Biografie dei vescovi e arcivescovi della chiesa di Napoli con una descrizione del clero, della cattedrale, della basilica di s. Restituta e della cappella del tesoro di s. Gennaro (Napoli: G. Gioja, 1861) [Burali's biography is borrowed from Pietro Farulli, Annali, overo Notizie istoriche...di Arezzo in Toscana (Foligno: Nicolo Campitelli 1717),  pp. 202-204].  G. B. Maffi, Vita del Beato Paolo d' Arezzo (Piacenza 1833).  G. B. Bonaglia, Vlta del Beato Paolo Burali d' Arezzo, Chierico Regolare, Cardinale di S. Pudenziana (Napoli 1772).  Relazione della Beatificazione di Paolo Burelli (Roma: Cracas 1772).    C. B. Bagatta, Vita del Vescovo Paolo Burali d' Arezzo (Verona 1698).   Giovanni Antonio Cagiano, Vita di Paolo Burali d'Arezzo,... cardinale del titolo di S. Pudentiana (Napoli: S. Roncagliolo, 1649).

Giulio Santorio, "Autobiografia di mons. Giulio Antonio Santorio, cardinale di S. Severina", in: Archivio della reale Società Romana di Storia Patria, Rome, XII-XIII (1889-90), 327-372.

Lettres de Catherine de Médicis (edited by Hector de la Ferrière) Tome quatrième, 1570-1574 (Paris: Imprimerie nationale 1891).

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