Raffaele Sansoni Galeotti Riario (May 3, 1461-July 9, 1521) was born at Savona, the son of Antonio Sansoni and of Pope Sixtus IV's sister Violentina. On December 10, 1477, while engaged in the study of law at the University of Pisa, he was created Cardinal Deacon of San Giorgio in Velabro by his uncle Pope Sixtus (1471-1484). He was 17. He was suspected of having had some connection with the Pazzi conspiracy, April 1478, through his uncle Count Girolamo Riario and Francesco Salviati, Archbishop of Pisa. Although he was arrested and imprisoned, his uncle the Pope had him freed and brought to Rome, where he was officially rehabilitated in consistory. He was named Chancellor of the Church [Cardella III, 210; according to Moroni 57, 171, he was named Vice-Chancellor], and in 1483 he became Camerlengo of the Holy Roman Church, a post he held until his death in 1521. He was loaded with benefices by Sixtus IV and Innocent VIII (1484-1492), including the administration and income of sixteen rich bishoprics (including eventually Imola, Tréguier in France, Salamanca, Osima, Cuença , Viterbo , and Taranto); he was also Abbot of Monte Cassino and of Cava.
Under Alexander VI, however, he was in disfavor. The greed for power and property on the part of the Borgia family made the Riarios a major target. Alexander's son Cesare coveted the holdings of the Riario family, and seized the city of Forlì and also Imola. Riario fled to France and took up his bishopric of Tréguier. Giuliano della Rovere, too, was in exile in France, filling the post of Legate to Avignon. On his return in September of 1503 Raffaele was appointed Bishop of Albano (in November, 1503) and was consecrated bishop on April 9, 1504 by the new Pope Julius II himself in person (Giuliano della Rovere, another nephew of Sixtus IV). In 1507 he was promoted to the bishopric of Sabina, and on July 7, 1508, became Apostolic Administrator of Arezzo. Julius II made him Cardinal Bishop of Ostia, Porto, and Velletri on September 22, 1508. He participated in five conclaves, including the conclaves of 1484, 1492, 1503 that elected Pius III and the one that elected Julius II, and that of 1513.
Paris de Grassis, Papal Master of Ceremonies of Leo X, records his death in 1521 (p. 86):
Die nona julii mortuus est cardinalis Sancti Georgii, Raphael Riarius Savonensis, decanus collegii et episcopus ostiensis, qui cum esset aetatis suae anno decimonono creatus est a Sixto cardinalis, demum in vicesimo secundo camerarius in quo mansit annos viginti novem, et sic anno sexagesimoprimo vel circa obiit Neapoli. . . .
The Dean of the College of Cardinals in 1503 was Cardinal Oliviero Carafa (1430-1511), who had been made a cardinal by Pope Paul II in 1467. He was now 72. He became Suburbicarian Bishop of Albano in 1476, and in 1483 transferred to the Bishopric of Sabina. He participated in the conclaves of 1484 and 1492. After the Conclave of 1492, he was elected Dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals in the place of Cardinal Rodrigo Borgia, who had been elected Pope Alexander VI. Since the see of Ostia was already being held by Giuliano della Rovere, he did not become Bishop of Ostia, the traditional prerogative of the Dean of the Sacred College. He had been named Administrator of the see of Naples just two weeks before the death of Pope Alexander VI, due to the death of his brother, the Archbishop. Julius II thoughtfully transferred the See of Ostia to Cardinal Carafa in a Consistory on November 29, 1503.
The Governor of the City was Johannes de Sacchis, Bishop of Ragusa (1490-1505). On January 1, 1500, he had been named Regent of the Apostolic Chancery [Burchard Diarium III, 5].
The Secretary of the Sacred College, and Secretary of the Conclave, was Msgr. Adrianus de Caprinis of Viterbo, scriptor apostolicus [Burchard Diarium III, 269].
The Masters of Ceremonies were Johannes Burchard and Bernardus Gutterii. Paris de Grassis participated as "futurus Magister ceremoniarum" [Burchard Diarium III, 299].
On September 26, 1503, four days after his election, Pope Pius III granted permission for the French army, which had been camped at the third milestone north of Rome, to use the Milvian Bridge to cross the Tiber on their march to the south [Baronius-Theiner 30, sub anno 1503 no. 14, p. 393; cf. Dispacci di Antonio Giustinian II, 208-211, nos. 558-559]. This included 7000 foot, and 1500 mounted soldiers. By October 4, the French forces were encamped at Valmontone, some 24 k. south of Rome [Dispacci di Antonio Giustinian II, 222]. Some French soldiers who found themselves inside the limits of the city of Rome were murdered, a series of events which continued for some days [Burchard Diarium III, 279].
On September 27, only five days after his election, the new pope underwent an operation which required two incisions on his ulcerous left leg. His surgeon, Ludovico of S. Miniato (Minatensis), was naturally blamed for the lack of success and called an imperitus chirurgus [Sigismondo de' Conti, quoted in Burchard Diarium III, p. 279 n.]. This, of course, exposed him to danger both from infection and from blood clots, which might lead to stroke or to pulmonary embolism. Antonio Giustinian, the Venetian Orator before the Holy See, remarks in his letter of the 28th [Dispacci di Antonio Giustinian II, 212], "Al Papa sono stati fatti due tagli alla gamba con molto dolore." On Thursday the 28th of September, 1503, Pius informed Giovanni Burchard that he wished to be ordained a priest on Saturday and consecrated a bishop on Sunday, by the Cardinal of St. Petri ad Vincula (Rovere), who was Bishop of Ostia and had the right by tradition to consecrate a new pope; he was to be assisted by the Bishops of Savona (Galeazzo della Rovere) and Spoleto (Francesco Eruli), and so Burchard informed Cardinal della Rovere [Burchard, 280].
Cardinal Francesco Todeschini-Piccolomini was ordained a priest on Saturday, September 30, and consecrated bishop on October 1— though special arrangements had to be made so that he could be seated throughout the ceremonies, due to his ulcerous leg which was causing him severe problems. He was crowned as Pope Pius III on Sunday, October 8 by Cardinal Raffaele Riario, the Cardinal Protodeacon [Burchard, 282-284, Panvinio, 362]. Due to his infirmity, there was no procession to take possession of the Lateran Basilica.
News was received in Venice on October 2 from Rome (dated October 28), that the new Pope was attempting to pacify the French and the Spanish. Cardinal Carafa was cooperating, Cardinal d'Amboise was not [cf. Diarii di Marino Sanuto 5, 143-144, 147]. Pius III was also trying to compose the differences between the Orsini and the Colonna [see, e.g., Dispacci di Antonio Giustinian II, 228 no 577 (October 9)]. The Orsini were being supported by the French, and the Colonna by the Spanish. He had appointed nine cardinals to arrange a council for that purpose: Carafa, della Rovere, da Costa, S. Giorgio, Pallavicini, Carvajal, Riario, Colonna and Sforza [Diarii di Marino Sanuto 5, 127, 136], al quali à commesso atendino acordar queste do fameglie. Amboise and della Rovere were also negotiating privately in their own interests, through Amboise's nephew, the Archbishop of Narbonne, François Guillaume de Castelnau de Clermont [Diarii di Marino Sanuto 5, 151]. Della Rovere was also negotiating with Cesare Borgia, who had been allowed back into Rome, and was living temporarily in della Rovere's house. Della Rovere was only too aware of the control that Borgia had over several cardinals, and his influence with the Spanish faction [See, e.g. Dispacci di Antonio Giustinian II, p. 223-224, no. 573 (October 7, 1503)].
On October 3, it was reported to Venice that the Pope was suffering from a fever and that the situation was grave. Maneuvering for the next Conclave had already begun: Il papa si à tajà la gamba; à la febre e stà malissimo; si judicha habi a viver pocho e non zonzerà a la incoronatione, qual si farà a dì 12 di questo; e zà si comenza a far pratiche dil papato [Diarii di Marino Sanuto 5, 148]. Nonetheless, on October 4, the Venetian ambassador Giustinian was received in audience by the Pope, who remarks only that the Pope was in bed, nursing his ulcerous leg [Dispacci di Antonio Giustinian II, 220-221, no. 569].
There were complaints that the pope was receiving improper treatments from his doctors. Sigismondo Tizio [in Piccolomini, p. 123] remarked:
Placuit interea medicis qui pontificem curabant, altero iam perforato crure, potionem pigmentariam, quam medicinam vocant, a Pio esse summendam; nec defuere qui medelam huiusmodi compositam reiiciendam putarent. Verum medentes custodientesque, nec non summentem pisum, fata ipsa ita disponebant inpellebantque ut longaeva iam Picolhomineorum felicitas repentino termineretur momento....
At a consistory on October 11, the Pope proposed to make Cardinal d'Amboise's nephew a cardinal. The response from the Cardinals was lukewarm [Diarii di Marino Sanuto 5, 176-177]. The Orator of Ferrara, Beltrando Costabili, noted as well that on October 11 and 12 the Pope was subjecting himself to one long audience after another, not taking care of himself, despite the fact that he was taking medicine [Piccolomini, p. 123 n. 1; Pastor, History of the Popes, VI, p. 621]. Burchard noted that Pius took medicina mala again on October 12. On the 13th, according to Johannes Burchard [Diarium III, 284], while conducting an audience with the Cardinal of Bologna, Lorenzo Cibo, the Pope fell into a febrim firgidissimam ("the chills"), which he endured for some two hours, during the course of the audience. Afterwards, he vomited.
On the night between the 13th and 14th of October, according to Giustinian (240) "el Pontifice ha abuto un parosismo de febre assai notabile.... Questo parosismo ha continuato con freddo e caldo tutto ozi con vomito e pasion di stomaco; el qual, durando, over rinfrescadosi, sarà con grandissimo pericolo di Soa Santità, considerata l' etade, la mala valitudine e poca prosperità sua. Next day, at midday, he wrote (243), "heri sera tornò il parosismo, non così grande como fo la notte avanti, pur con qualche accidente cattivo, zoè rigor e tremor e sonno, la furia del quale durò fino alle 5 ore di notte, poi commenzò a declinar." Though it diminished in intensity, the fever continued without remission and the pope became weaker and weaker.
Giustinian was summoned in the middle of the night between Tuesday and Wednesday, the 17th and 18th by Cardinal Carafa, and informed that the Pope had died some two hours earlier (Dispacci, 253, written October 18, ante diem). Pope Pius III had reigned for twenty-six days.
The Master of Ceremonies, Johannes Burchard, was summoned, and he supervised the usual arrangements for the washing and dressing of the body of the late Pope. It was placed on view in the Camera del Pappagallo while the Office of the Dead was recited by the Penitentiaries, and then placed in the Sistine Chapel by the parafrenarii and papal domestics. After some four hours, the remains were transferred to the Vatican Basilica by the Canons of St. Peter's, though an alternative route had to be used, due to heavy rain. The body remained in the chancel until Thursday morning, October 19, when it was transported to the Chapel of St. Gregory, and, after a Requiem Mass, buried [Burchard Diarium III, 285-286].
That afternoon, the First Congregation of Cardinals was held in the papal chambers, and the Archbishop of Taranto, Enrico Bruni, was appointed Custodian of the Palace. The Second Congregation took place on October 20, and four cardinals (Carvajal, Fieschi, Medici and Cesarini) were deputized to receive the oath of fidelity to the Sacred College from the Castellan of the Castel S. Angelo.
The College of Cardinals was the same as that in September, absent Cardinal Piccolomini, and with the addition of Cardinals d'Este and Isvalies—a total of thirty-eight [complete list in Burchard, 295-296; Eubel III, p. 9 n.1]:
The Cardinals who were supporters of Duke Cesare were greatly suspected and were in total fear of the Orsini and Bernardino Alviano. Cesare and Pope Alexander had done everything they could to destroy the Orsini, and the Orsini were eager for revenge. Paolo Orsini, the natural son of Cardinal Latino Orsini, had been strangled on orders of Cesare, and his son Fabio had died fighting the Borgia in 1503; Cardinal Giovanni Battista Orsini of SS. Giovanni e Paolo died in the Castel S. Angelo on February 22, 1503 (of poison, Paolo Giovio says at the beginning of Book II of the Life of Leo X). Francesco, the 4th Duke of Gravina had been killed on orders of Cesare Borgia at Castello di Pieve in January, 1503. The Spanish Ambassador, Francisco de Royas, who had an agreement with the Orisini dating from October 13, was worried about the Orsini keeping their promises and leaving the Duke and the Spanish in peace. The Orsini were demanding that the Duke stay in his palazzo during the entire period of the Sede Vacante [Dispacci di Antonio Giustinian II, 257]. The Cardinals pointed out that their authority extended only to managing the Conclave, not to protecting the Duke, and that they had no authority to satisfy any of the demands of the Orsini [Giustinian, 257]. Nonetheless, at the Second Congregation, on Friday, October 20, the Cardinals ordered that all the Orsini retainers should withdraw from the Borgo [Burchard, Diarium III, 287].
The Orsini were said to be favoring three candidates for the Papal throne, Carafa, Della Rovere, and Riario—all of whom would mean disaster for the Spanish cause. But if the Spanish had to choose one of the three, it would be Della Rovere. Giustinian also remarks that Carafa had some support, but there was the suspicion that he was actually a partisan of the French. At the moment nobody was talking about Amboise, or Ascanio Sforza, or Colonna [Giustinian, 254]. The streets were filled not only with the Orsini and their partisans, but also Giampaolo Baglioni on the side of the French.
On Saturday, October 21, the Tiber was in flood. Several clerics, including Burchard, had trouble getting to the Vatican; the water began to recede, however, before Mass began. The first of the novendiales was celebrated with a Mass by Cardinal Della Rovere, in which fifteen cardinals took part, including Costa, Geronimo Basso della Rovere, Pallavicini, San Georgio, Carvajal, Castro, Grimani, Cesarini, Farnese, and d'Albret. The French and Spanish cardinals did not want to come to the service, alleging fear of Paul of Perugia and the Orsini, who were lurking in the Borgo. . After Mass, however, a meeting took place in the Papal Apartments, and both the French faction (Amboise, Soderini, Sforza, Sanseverino, and Luis de Aragona) and the Spanish (Serra, Francisco Borgia, Castelar, Remolino, Francisco des Prades, Adriano Castello, Casanova, Pedro Luis Borgia-Llançol, and Loris) were present [Burchard Diarium III, 287-288].
On Sunday, October 22, Cardinal San Giorgio celebrated the Mass, at which fourteen cardinals were present: Carafa, Geronimo Basso della Rovere, Pallavicini, Carvajal, Castro, Ludovico Podacatoro, Ferrero, Fieschi, Riario, Medici, Cesarini, Farnese, Cornaro, and Grimani.
On the 23rd, Cardinal Carvajal said the Mass, with seven cardinals in attendance; after Mass, four others joined them.
On Tuesday the 24th, the Mass was celebrated by Cardinal Juan de Castro, with seven other cardinals in attendance: Carafa, San Giorgio, Carvajal, Podacataro, Ferrero, Sanseverino and Cesarini. After Mass, but in time for the absolutions, arrived Della Rovere, Grimani, Trivulzio and Colonna; last of all came Medici. Cardinal Pietro Isavlies returned to the City from his legateship in Hungary, though he was not formally received by the cardinals.
On October 25 there were fourteen cardinals present at the Mass celebrated by Cardinal Grimani. Cardinal Adriano Castello was present.
On Thursday, the 26th Cardinal Georges d' Amboise celebrated the Mass. There were twenty-two cardinals present, including Cardinal Adriano Castello. After Mass Cardinal Isavlies made his appearance and was greeted by the cardinals who were present.
Cardinal Jaime Serra celebrated the Mass on October 27, with seventeen cardinals in attendance.
On the 28th, Cardinal Francisco Borgia celebrated the Mass, assisted by nineteen cardinals. The meeting to revise the Electoral Capitulations did not take place, because Cardinal Carvajal could not be present. Late that night Cardinal D'Este arrived in Rome.
On Sunday, October 29, the Mass was said by Cardinal Pallavicini, at which twenty-four cardinals were present. Room assignments were drawn for the conclave cells [Burchard, 291-292]. After Mass there was a meeting at which the Electoral Capitulations were finalized which would be sworn to once the Conclave had begun. It was decided that the opening ceremonies of the Conclave would be held on Tuesday, October 31. The presence was demanded of the various officials who would have a role to play, including the Ambassador of the Emperor (Luca Raynaldi), the Ambassadors of the King of France (Roger de Grammont and Louis de Trans), the Ambassador of the King of England (Sylvester de Gigliis, Bishop of Worcester [1499-1521]), the Ambassador of Ferrara (Bertrando Costabili), the Ambassador of the King of Spain (Francisco de Royas), and the Ambassador of Venice (Antonio Giustinian) [Burchard, 292-293].
Also, on the 29th, Burchard notes that Cardinal Della Rovere came to the Apostolic Palace with Caesare Duke of Romandiola (Valentino) and his cardinals, and that they entered into an agreement in which Della Rovere, after he was elected Pope, would name Duke Cesare as Gonfaloniere of the Holy Roman Church and Captain General, and that they would leave each other in possession of their properties. The Spanish cardinals swore to give their votes to Della Rovere [Burchard, 293].
On October 31, the Mass of the Holy Spirit was sung by Cardinal Giovanni Antonio di San Giorgio. There were thirty-three cardinals assisting at the Mass. Absent were Cibo (who had been ill, on and off, during the brief reign of Pius III), Riario, Casanova, and d'Este (who may still have been impeded by his broken leg [Diarii di Marino Sanuto 5, 102]). After the service was concluded, the participants went in procession to the Capella Maior, sang the Veni Creator, and were led in prayers by Cardinal Carafa, the Dean of the Sacred College. Afterwards the Cardinals retired to their cells for lunch. Later in the day the Conclave area was sealed and the Cardinals and participants took their oaths, the Cardinals began (but did not complete) the signing of the several pages on which the copies of the Electoral Capitulations would be written. Early in the evening, the Cardinals decided that Cardinal Della Rovere would be pope, and they all went to his cell (with the exception of San Giorgio) saying "Proficiat de papatu." Burchard was present [Burchard, 294], and was promised a bishopric, a mule, a cappa and a rochet by Della Rovere.
On the morning of All Saints' Day, the Sacristan of the Conclave, Monsignor Ventura Beneassai, the Bishop of Massana (Massa-Maritima) (1501-1511), said the Mass of the Holy Spirit, at which all thirty-eight cardinals were present. Afterwards, all of the Cardinals subscribed to the Electoral Capitulations [text in Burchard, 295-298 n. 1], and Burchard administered the oath, beginning with Carafa. After the witnesses to the Capitulations oath had notarized the documents, the scrutiny began. Cardinal della Rovere received all of the first-choice votes except his own (he voted for Amboise, Riario and Carafa) and Amboise's. Amboise voted for Carafa and Da Costa. Amboise himself received second-place votes from Aragona, Fieschi and Ascanio Sforza. De Sprats received one third-place vote, from Ascanio Sforza. The result, therefore, was 36 votes for Della Rovere, one vote for Carafa, and one vote for Amboise. [Burchard, 298-299]
Cardinal Giuliano della Rovere was elected pope on November 1, 1503. When he was presented the Fisherman's Ring which had belonged to Pius III by Cardinal Carafa, he placed on his finger another one which he had already had made in anticipation of his election [Burchard, 304]. He signed three of the capitula, and Burchard witnessed them; but the new Pope would not sign any of the requests for favors which were being made to him. At the conclusion of the subscription, Cardinal Riario, the Cardinal Protodeacon, opened a little window, showed a cross, and announced, "Papam habemus!". After donning the papal robes, Julius was carried in his sedia gestatoria to the Vatican Basilica, where a Te Deum was sung and he received the public obeisance of the cardinals. Finally, he gave the papal blessing.
On November 3, Duke Caesare, deserted by the Spanish and insecure in his refuge at Nepi, was allowed by the Pope to move to Rome and into the Papal Palace again; was given rooms directly above the Pope's. On the night of the 19th he left Rome and moved to Ostia, intending to go to France.
Scheduling the date of his coronation was not an easy matter for Burchard. First, Julius announced he was to be crowned as Pope Julius II on November 18, and that he would take possession of the Laterian Basilica on the 19th [Burchard, 304]. Then he decided on the 19th for St. Peter's and the 26th for the Lateran [Burchard, 305]. Then the coronation was put off until the 26th and the Lateran until the Feast of St. Andrew.
On Sunday, November 26, after a solemn Mass, Julius II was crowned on the steps in front of the Vatican Basilica by the new Cardinal Protodeacon, his cousin Raffaele Riario, who had succeeded Pius III in that honor.
In a consistory on November 29, the Pope moved Cardinal Carafa from the see of Sabina to that of Ostia, and Cardinal Cibo from the see of Palestrina to the see of Sabina. He also moved Cardinal Riario from the post of Cardinal Protodeacon to the see of Albano. Four new cardinals were named (the closing and opening of the mouth, and the assignment of tituli was performed on December 8):
The Pope took possession of the Lateran Basilica on December 5, 1503 [Cancellieri, Storia de' solenni Possessioni 55-60; Dispacci di Antonio Giustinian II, 329-331]. Coins were distributed, both gold ducats and silver carlini, in graduated and regulated amounts, to the participants.
On December 4, the new Pope named Cardinal Georges d'Amboise Legate in Avignon for life, and he confirmed Cardinal Georges' position as Legate in France [Eubel III, p. 6 col. 2, n. 6]. The Cardinal left the Papal Palace on December 8, 1503, and took up residence at S. Maria del Popolo. On the 9th he departed for Bracciano.
L. Thuasne (editor), Johannis Burchardi Argentinensis . . . Diarium sive Rerum Urbanum commentarii Volume III (Paris 1883) pp 238-315 [There is a gap in the manuscripts between February 22 and August 12, 1503]. Stefano Infessura, Diario della citta di Roma (a cura di Oreste Tommasini) (Roma 1890) 276-282. Marino Sanuto (ed. Federico Stefani), I diarii di Marino Sanuto Tomo V (Venezia 1881). Onuphrio Panvinio, Epitome Pontificum Romanorum a S. Petro usque ad Paulum IIII. Gestorum (videlicet) electionisque singulorum & Conclavium compendiaria narratio (Venice: Jacob Strada 1557). Pasquale Villari (editor), Dispacci di Antonio Giustinian Ambasciatore Veneto in Roma dal 1502 al 1505 Volume II (Firenze 1876). Sigismundo Tizio: Paolo Piccolomini, "Il pontificato di Pio III, secondo la testimonianza di una fonte contemporanea," Archivio storico italiano 32 (1903),102-138.
F. Petruccelli della Gattina, Histoire diplomatique des conclaves Volume I (Paris 1864) 435-456 [contains translations of the dispatches of the ambassador of Modena. Bertrando Costabili]. Gaetano Moroni Dizionario di erudizione storico-ecclesiastica 36 (Venezia 1846) 6. Mandell Creighton, A History of the Papacy Volume IV: The Italian Princes: 1464-1518 (Boston: Houghton Mifflin 1887). Ludwig Pastor, The History of the Popes (edited R. K. Kerr) second edition Volume 6 (London: Kegan Paul 1902) 185-231. Ferdinand Gregorovius, The History of Rome in the Middle Ages (translated from the fourth German edition by A. Hamilton) Volume 8 part 1 [Book XIV, Chapter 1] (London 1902) 1-15.
Valeria Novembri and Carlo Prezzolini (editors), Francesco Tedeschini Piccolomini: Papa Pio III: Atti della Giornata di studi, Sarteano, 13 dicembre 2003 (Le Balze 2005).
On Cardinal Riario: Angelo Poliziano, "La congiura de' Pazzi," Prose volgari inedite et poesie latine e greche edite e inedite (edited by Isidoro del Lungo) (Firenze 1867), p. 94. Niccolò Machiavelli, History of Florence Book VIII, chapter 1. G. Moroni, Dizionario di erudizione storico-ecclesiastica 57 (Venezia 1852). Charles Berton, Dictionnaire des cardinaux (1857) p. 1445. Erich Frantz, Sixtus IV und die Republik Florenz (Regensburg 1880) 197-230, especially 207 (highly favorable to Sixtus and the Riarios).
On Cardinal Caraffa, the Dean: Lorenzo Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa Tomo Terzo (Roma 1793) 159-163.
On Cardinal Adriano Castello da Corneto: William Maziere Brady, Anglo-Roman Papers (London: Alexander Gardner 1890), 11-29.