SEDE VACANTE 1342

April 25 , 1342 — May 7, 1342



Palace of Popes at Avignon
The Palace of the Popes, Avignon

New Cardinals

During his pontificate Benedict XII (Jacques Fournier) had appointed six cardinals, in one creation. Four were fellow monks, two Benedictines, a Cistercian, and a Mercedarian. One was from Rimini, the rest from southern France. Four were lawyers, two were theologians. The "First Life of Benedict XII" (Baluzius I, 209; similarly cols. 242-244) states:

Anno Domini MCCCXXXVIII die XVIII mensis Decembris, quae fuit feria sexta quatuor temporum, dictus Benedictus Papa unam fecit creationem sex cardinalium, quos in Presbyteros assumpsit, qui fuerunt isti: videlicet Dominus Gocius de Arimino Italicus tunc Patriarcha Constantimopolitanus, Dominus Bertrandus de Deucio diocesis Uticensis tunc Archiepiscopus Ebredunensis, Dominus Petrus Rogerii diocesis Limovicensis, monachus ordinis sancti Benedicti tunc Archiepiscopus Rothomagensis, Dominus Guillelmus Curti diocesis Tolosanae ordinis Cisterciensis tunc Episcopus Albiensis, Dominus Bernardus de Albia diocesis Appamiarum etiam Episcopus Ruthenensis, et Dominus Guillelmus de Aura diocesis Carcassonensis tunc Abbas monasterii Montisolivi ordinis sancti Benedicti.

Bertrand de Deaulx and Gozzio Battaglia had been Benedict's envoys to King Robert and King Frederick in southern Italy, and had actually brought about a peace. The same "First Life" (column 210) claims that Benedict was not a nepotist: Ipse enim de suis consanguineis vel propinquis exaltandis vel promovendis nullatenus curavit. Non enim invenitur quod aliquem de genere suo ad quamcunque praelaturam promoverit nisi unum solum, quem praefecit Ecclesiae Arelatensi, qui tamen ad hoc alias erat bene dignus et sufficiens; et hoc fecit etiam quodammodo precibus et instantia Cardinalium devictus.

Another cardinal had been named in the first and only creation by Pope Benedict, Raymond de Montfort, OBM. of Toulouse (Cardinal Priest of S. Stefano al Monte Celio). But he died in Barcelona before he could receive the red hat (galero). His cardinalatial titulus was reassigned to Guillelmus de Aura. [Cardella II, p. 156].

Benedict had talked a lot about returning the Papacy to Rome,  and his repairs conducted at St. Peter's and at the Lateran seemed to offer hope that he was serious.  But he also had the papal archives which had been stored at Assisi transported to Avignon [See Franz von Ehrle, Historia Bibliothecae Romanorum Pontificum tum Bonifatianae tum Avenionensis  I, pp. 129-135; Carini, La biblioteca vaticana 26-34].  At bottom, he was unwilling to face his responsibilities toward Rome.

 

Death of Pope Benedict XII

The "Secunda Vita Benedicti XII" notes Benedict's physical condition in April, 1342 [Baluze I, 220]:

Hic pastor, bonus ex quadam antiqua tibiarum infirmitate fluenti coepit plus solito infirmari; et volentibus medicis infirmitatis fluxum hujusmodi refrenare, supervenerunt et alia propter quae in die beati Marci Evangelistae de Mense Aprilis XXV. die anno nativitatis dominicae MCCCXLII migravit ad Christum in palatio quod fundaverat.

Benedict XII died on April 25, 1342 ["Vita Prima Benedicti XII", Baluze I, 212; the "Vita Quarta" makes it April 15—a simple haplography (Baluzius I, 228)], on the Feast of St. Mark the Evangelist, in his Palace in Avignon ["Vita Sexta Benedicti XII", Baluze I, 236].

 

 

 

Tomb of Pope Benedict XII, Avignon
Tomb of Benedict XII, Cathedral, Avignon

Hic Dominus Benedictus papa avarus, durus, et tenax, in conferendis gratiis remissus, tardus et negligens, improvidendo statum Ecclesiarum supra modum fuit; et in excusatione duritii suae paucos ad haec dignos vel sufficientes dicebat.  Omnes Cardinales fore deceptores sui credebat. Raro supplicationes ipsorum recipere volebat, ipsosque non modicum suspectos habebat. ["Octava Vita Benedicti XII, in Baluze I, 240].   "This Pope Benedict was greedy, harsh, and tight-fisted; in conferring favors he was miserly, slow, and inattentive;  he was beyond measure in not providing for the state of Churches; and in making excuses for his hardness, he used to say that few people were worthy for these favors or up to them.  He believed that all the Cardinals would be deceptive toward him.  He rarely was willing to receive their supplications, and he held them under suspicion more than usually."

 

The Electors

Eubel Hierarchia Catholica I second edition, p. 18 note 1. During his pontificate Benedict XII (Jacques Fournier) had appointed six cardinals, in one creation. Of the twenty-three Cardinals who had participated in his election in 1334, ten had died (besides himself). The number of cardinals eligible to participate in the Conclave of 1342, therefore, was nineteen. Eighteen attended. Fourteen were French, three were Italian, one was Spanish. One Frenchman was ill and did not attend. Biographies of some of Benedict XII's cardinals are given in Baluzius I, columns 810-824; in Aubery, pp. 456-464; and in Cardella, II. See also Müller II, pp. 304-305. Frizonius and Onuphrio Panvinio state that there were 22 cardinals—three of whom he cannot name (Panvinio Epitome, 217-218).

Cardinals attending:

  1. Bertrand du Pouget, of Cahors, Suburbicarian Bishop of Ostia e Velletri.  Previously he had been Cardinal Priest of S. Marcello (1316-1327).  Rector of the church of Radeclive on Sore, Diocese of York, by papal provision, by 1320 [Bliss Calendar of Papal Registers II, 234 (November 7, 1323)].  Prebend of Croperi in the Diocese of Lincoln, by 1317 and as late as 1344; a successor was appointed on December 17, 1351 [Bliss II, 235; Le Neve II, 140].  Canon of Aix [Baluze I, 727]. Legate in Lombardy and the Romagna (1326-1334) [Continuator of Guillaume de Nangis: D'Achery, Spicilegium XI (Paris 1672), p. 718 and 761].  He was expelled by the Bolognese in 1334, and made his way, via Florence and Pisa to Avignon, arriving on April 26 [Giovanni ViIlanni II. 6; the "Fifth Life" of John XXII (Baluze, p. 117), however, says he returned at Pentecost, which was on May 15].  He was present at John XXII's deathbed on December 3, 1334 [Baronius-Theiner 25, sub anno 1334, no. 35, p. 15].     (Cardinal Bertrand died February 3, 1352).    [Baluze, Vitae Paparum Avenionensium I, 725-728].
  2. Joannes Raymundus de Convenis (Jean-Raymond de Comminges),  son of Count Bernard VI of Comminges and Laura de Montfort.   Suburbicarian Bishop of Porto e Santa Rufina (from 1331), previously Cardinal Priest of S. Vitale (1327-1331).  He had previously been Canon of Albi, Canon of Comminges [Regestum Clementis Papae V, I, no. 162], Canon of Narbonne;   Bishop of Maguelonne (Montpellier) (1309-1317) [Gallia christiana 6, p. 779], and the first Archbishop of Toulouse (1317-1327) [Gallia christiana 13, p. 38]. In 1319 he had himself excused from the investigation of Bernard Delicieux, OFM, though he enforced the sentence against him.  He would have been elected Pope in 1334, but he refused to swear to keep the Papacy in France.   Archdeacon of Northampton [Le Neve, Fasti Ecclesiae Anglicanae II, 56]  and Richmond (1346-1348) [Bliss, Calendar of Papal Registers 3, p. 290; Le Neve, Fasti Ecclesiae Anglicanae III, 138];      (died November 20, 1348). [Baluze I, 753-755]
  3. Gauscelin de Jean Duèse [Gaucelmus Joannis Deuza], of Cahors, Suburbicarian Bishop of Albano.  Major Penitentiary [Bliss, Calendar of Papal Registers II, 521 (November 4, 1335); E. Göller, Die päpstlisches Pönitentiarie (1907), 90-91; H. Denifle, Archiv für Litteratur- und Kirchengeschichte 4 (1888), 209-220].   He assisted in the revision of the Statutes of the Fratres Minores [Baronius-Theiner 25, sub anno 1336, no. 65, p. 88].  Rector of the church of Stebenhethe in the Diocese of London [Bliss, Calendar of Papal Registers 3, p. 277].  Rector of the church of Hemyngburgh in the Diocese of York [Bliss, Calendar of Papal Registers 3, p. 278]. Treasurer of Lichfield [Bliss, Calendar of Papal Registers 3, p. 277].   (died August 3, 1348).    Nephew of Pope John XXII.
  4. Pierre de Pratis (des Près), of Cahors [born at the Château de Montpesat], son of Raimond, seigneur de Monpesat, and Aspasie de Montaigut.  Suburbicarian Bishop of Palestrina (1323-1361); previously Cardinal Priest of S. Pudenziana (1320-1323).  Doctor of civil law.  Archdeacon of Rochester [Bliss, Calendar II, 210 (February 9, 1321)]. In 1319 he was made Archbishop of Aix (1318-1321) [Eubel I, 96; cf. Baluze I, 747], previous to which he had briefly been Bishop of Riez (1318) [Eubel I, 417; Gallia christiana I (1716), 320-321 and 404; Gallia christiana novissima: Aix (1899), 79-80 and instrumenta pp. 55-56].  He had earlier been Provost of Clermont, by papal provision.   Doctor of Canon Law, Professor at Toulouse.   He assisted in the revision of the Statutes of the Fratres Minores [Baronius-Theiner 25, sub anno 1336, no. 65, p. 88]. (died September 30, 1361). [Baluze, Vitae Paparum Avenionensium I, 746-748].
  5. Annibaldo di Ceccano, a Neapolitan of the diocese of Aquino in Campagna, Suburbicarian Bishop of Frascati.   Archdeacon of Nottingham (from November 23, 1331) [Bliss, Calendar III, 73 (January 4, 1343)].  Archdeacon of Buckingham (from October 4, 1333).  [Bliss, Calendar of Papal Registers II, 533 (December 10, 1336); Calendar III, 73 (January 4, 1343); Le Neve, Fasti Ecclesiae Anglicanae II, 68, 150].      (died July/August, 1350). [Baluze I, 755-757].

  6. Pedro Gómez Barroso, of Toledo, Cardinal Priest of S. Prassede (1327-1341). Canon and Prebend of Lichfield (December 24, 1342- ). He was appointed on June 24, 1337, by Pope Benedict, along with Cardinal Bertrand of S. Maria in Aquiro, as Nuncio to France and England, to attempt to make peace; they were still at work in August 1338, having been ordered not to become parties to peace negotiations; this changed on November 17, 1338; Louis of Bavaria had become part of the complications, when King Edward began to favor him and accepted the title of Vicar of the Empire in Germany ;  in October, 1339, King Edward was in danger of excommunication.  In March, 1340, King Edward seemed ready to press his claims to the throne of France.  The Pope downgraded the level of diplomatic contacts [Bliss, Calendar of Papal Registers II, 537-540, 563, 565-569, 571-583].  Archdeacon of Chester (1342-1348) [Bliss, Calendar of Papal Registers II, 277; III, 74 (September 14, 1342)]; Le Neve, Fasti Ecclesiae Anglicanae I. 566].  He assisted in the revision of the Statutes of the Fratres Minores [Baronius-Theiner 25, sub anno 1336, no. 65, p. 88].  Cardinal Pedro Gómez Barroso died on July 14, 1348.
  7. Imbertus de Puteo (Dupuis), of Montpellier, Cardinal Priest of SS. XII Apostoli. (died May 26, 1348). Nephew of Pope John XXII.
  8. Élie Talleyrand de Périgord, Cardinal Priest of S. Pietro in Vincoli (1331-1348), then Bishop of Albano (1348-1364).  Archdeacon of London to 1322, when promoted to Richmond [Bliss, Calendar II, p. 210 (October 20, 1320), p. 231]. Archdeacon of Richmond (1322-1328) [Le Neve, Fasti Ecclesiae Anglicanae III, 138].  Dean of York (1347-1364) [Bliss, Calendar of Papal Registers 3, 255, 337]. Prebend of Loughton in Morthugg, Diocese of York [Bliss, Calendar III, p. 52 (June 30, 1342)] Canon of Lincoln and Prebend of Thame (from 1335) [Bliss, 518 (July 3, 1335); Le Neve II, 220].   (died January 17, 1364).
  9. Magister Pierre Bertrand, from Castrum Annoniaci in the Auvergne in the diocese of Vienne; the family was ennobled in March, 1339, by King Philip VI.  Doctor (?) in utroque iure (Orleans) [Gallia christiana IV, 409]. Cardinal Priest of S. Clemente (1331-1348), at the request of the King and Queen of France [Baronius-Theiner 24 sub anno 1331, no. 34. p. 482].  He had previously been Canon and Dean of Le Puy, Bishop of Autun (1322-1331) and Bishop of Nevers (1320-1322)  He died on June 23, 1348. [Baluzius I, 782-786].  He was the uncle of Petrus Bertrandi of S. Susanna (1344-1361) and then Bishop of Ostia (1353-1361).
  10. Gozzio (Gozo) Battaglia, of Rimini, Cardinal Priest of S. Prisca. (died June 10, 1348) Doctor utriusque iure [Baluzius I, col. 216 Aubery, p. 457, citing his funeral inscription]
  11. Bertrand de Déaulx, Cardinal Priest of S. Marco (1338-1348).   Canon and Prebend of Salisbury (before 1342) [Bliss, Calendar of Papal Registers 3, 74].  Archdeacon of Dorchester [Le Neve, Fasti Ecclesiae Anglicanae 2, 638].      (died October 21, 1355) Professor of Civil and Canon Law
  12. Pierre Roger, OSB,  son of Pierre Roger, seigneur de Rozières.  Cardinal Priest of SS. Nereo ed Achilleo. (died December 6, 1352). Master of Sacred Theology.
  13. Bernard d'Albi, of Pamiers, Cardinal Priest of S. Ciriaco alle Terme. (died November 23, 1350) Juris Doctor
  14. Guillaume Court, OCist., Cardinal Priest of Ss. IV Coronati. (died June 12, 1361) Master of Theology. [Cardella II, 152-154]
  15. Guillaume d'Aure, OSB, Cardinal Priest of S. Stefano al Monte Celio. (died December 3, 1353) Professor of Canon Law [Baluzius I, col. 216; cf. cols. 822-824]

  16. Raymond Guillaume des Fargues, of Bordeaux, a Gascon; brother of Guillaume Raymond de Fargues, seigneur de Fargues [R. L. Alis, Notice sur le Chateau, les anciens seigneurs, et la paroisse de Mauvezin (Agen 1887) 53-54, 70-71]. Cardinal Deacon of S. Maria Nuova, nephew of Pope Clement V.  Treasurer of Beauvais.   Dean of Salisbury (1310-1346) [Le Neve, Fasti Ecclesiae Anglicanae II, 614-615]   (died October 5, 1346). [Baluze, Vitae Paparum Avenionensium I, 662-664].  faineant.
  17. Gaillard de la Mothe, of Bourdos in Gascony, diocese of Aquitaine, son of Amanieu, Baron de la Mothe, Seigneur de Langon et de Rochetaillé, and Alix de Got, the daughter of Clement's brother, Arnaldus Garsia de Got.  Cardinal Deacon of S. Lucia in Silice (1316-1356). (died December 20, 1356).  Protonotary Apostolic. Former Canon of Narbonne [Regestum Clementis Papae V, I, no. 211 (July 31, 1305)].  Prebend of Milton in the Church of Lincoln (contested: 1316-1326) [Bliss, Calendar of Papal Registers II, 214-215, 250, 252].  Archdeacon of Exeter.  Archdeacon of Lincoln [Bliss, Calendar of Papal Registers II, 150].   Archdeacon of Oxford (1312—after 1345, perhaps until his death) [Le Neve, Fasti Ecclesiae Anglicanae II, 65; and cf. Bliss II, 287, 303, 358, 536, 551].  He also had benefices in the dioceses of Canterbury, Winchester, and Paris [Bliss II, 545 (June 12, 1339)].  It should be remembered that his family were vassals of the Kings of England.     He assisted in the revision of the Statutes of the Fratres Minores [Baronius-Theiner 25, sub anno 1336, no. 65, p. 88].  Frizonius, followed by Ciaconius, states [Ciaconius-Olduin II, 412]  that he crowned Clement VI, but this was probably only a conjecture on his part.  Raymond des Fargues was senior in the Order of Deacons to Gaillard by six years.  Cardinal Gaillard rebuilt the family seat at Rochetaillé [Edouard Feret, Essai sur l' arondissement de Bazas (Bordeaux 1893)  48-49].  He was buried in the Cathedral of St. Just in Narbonne on January 15, 1537 [Louis Narbonne, La cathédrale Saint-Just de Narbonne (Narbonne 1901) 146-147].
  18. Giovanni Colonna, a Roman, son of Stefano Colonna 'Il Vecchio', Signore di Palestrina; and Calceranda, daughter of Giordano de Insula; Nephew of Cardinal Pietro Colonna (Archpriest of the Liberian Basilica, 1306-1326).   Cardinal Deacon of S. Angelo in Pescheria.  Canon of Bayeux. Archpriest of the Lateran Basilica (from 1343).   (died July 3, 1348).

Cardinals not attending:

The "Second Life of Clement VI" (Baluzius I, col. 267) states that one Cardinal did not attend the Conclave: " XVII Domini Cardinales intraverunt, solo duntaxat Domino Bertrando de Montefavencio sanctae Mariae in Aquiro Diacono Cardinali extra conclave praedictum propter morbum podagrae remanente"

  1. Bertrand de Montfavez, of Chateauneuf in the Diocese of Cahors, Cardinal Deacon of S. Maria in Aquiro.  Rector of the church of Wimbleton in the Diocese of Winchester, to his death [Bliss Calendar III, p. 53].  He assisted in the revision of the Statutes of the Fratres Minores [Baronius-Theiner 25, sub anno 1336, no. 65, p. 88].  He died on December 1, 1342, and was buried in a church near Avignon which he had founded, and to which he attached a college of Canons Regular of S. Augustine, Nôtre Dame de Montfaveiz, or de Bon-répos:  Hic jacet Bertrandus de Montfaventio, de Castro novo-Ratherii, Cadurcensis, tituli Sanctae Marie in Aquiro Diaconi Cardinalis, qui post extructam suis expensis et dotatam hanc ecclesiam et monasterium aliaque pie ac praeclare a se gesta in Domino obdormivit, anno Domini 1343. [Ciaconius-Olduin II, 412].

 

The Camerarius S. R. E. was Msgr. Gasbert de Laval [de Valle], Archbishop of Arles (April 26, 1323 to October 1, 1341) [Vidal, Benoît XII. Lettres communes I (Paris 1903), no. 2432 (April 7, 1335); C. Samaran and G. Mollat, La fiscalité pontificale en France au XIVe siècle  (Paris 1905),  p. 167-168; Gallia christiana 1, 575-576; Gallia christiana novissima: Arles (1901) pp. 609-657,  esp. no. 1521, 1529, 1542, 1544;  Baumgarten, Von den Apostolischen Kanzlei (Köln 1908), p. 34 (February 12, 1333)].  He had been appointed on September 18, 1319 and named Archbishop of Marseille (1319-1323). He had previously been Archdeacon of Cahors and Treasurer General S.R.E.  (the second-ranking official in the Apostolic Camera).   He died in the Curia on January 3, 1347.


Conclave

The "Second Life of Clement VI"—echoed by the "Third Life" (Baluzius I, column 267) states that the Conclave took place in the Apostolic Palace in Avignon (Souchon, 51), and began on Sunday, May 5, 1342, and was completed on Tuesday, May 7:

... et demum post obitum Domini Benedicti XII memorati, qui obiit XXV die mensis Aprilis de anno nativitatis Domini millesimo trecentesimo quadragesimo secundo, in conclavi palatii Avinionensis, quod die dominica quinta mensis Maii sine medio subsequentis, eo computato, XVII Domini Cardinales intraverunt, solo duntaxat Domino Bertrando de Montefavencio Sanctae Mariae in Aquiro Diacono Cardinali extra conclave praedictum propter morbum podagrae remanente, die Martis septima ejusdem mensis Maii confestim ante vigiliam ascensionis Domini, hora tertiae, in Summum Romanum Pontificem concordia mirabili sublimatur. Vacavit sedes diebus duodecim.

The "Fourth Life of Clement VI" (Baluzius I, column 299) states: "Anno Domini MCCCXLII nona die Maii Avinioni ad locum Praedicatorum Clemens VI natione Lemovicensis, de quodam loco dicto Mestrio Lemovicensis diocesis, fuit in Romanum Pontificem electus, et coronatus XIV Kal Iunii." The author of the Life has probably made a mistake, reading NONA (May 9) where his source wrote NONIS (The Nones, May 7). He is also wrong in stating that the Conclave was held at the Dominican Convent. The description of the Coronation is similar to that of Benedict XII, whose election at the Apostolic Palace was followed by a progress to the Dominican Convent, where the coronation took place, which was followed by another procession leading him back to the Apostolic Palace. The "Fourth Life" descends from the "Second Life", but the copyist is less skilled than some. Father Theiner (Baronius-Theiner 25, p. 277-278) cites an additional source, Vatican manuscript 2040 as saying: "Hic [Clemens VI] sub MCCCXLII fuit electus Nonis Maii Avinioni ad locum Praedictorum, coronatus XIV kal. Junii...." NONIS is the correct reading, but the location of the election depends upon the placement of a comma. If the pause is placed after AVINIONI, then the statement reads in accordance with the tradition of Benedict XII's election and coronation, and the election did NOT take place at the Convent of the Dominicans.

Pierre Roger was born in the Chateau de Maumont, in the Diocese of Tulle, in ca. 1291, as he himself records in his testimony for the canonization of St. Yvo: "Iste Dominus Yvo anno aetatis suae quinquagesimo, et XIX die Maii coronatur in coelis, ego autem anno aetatis mea quinquagesimo ad statum istum, licet invitus, assumptus, die XIX mensis Maii coronatum fui." (Pagi, 124). He had been Bishop of Arras (1328), was promoted to Sens (1329), and then to Rouen (1330). He was Chaccellor of King Philip VI (1334-1338), and then Cardinal (December 18, 1338). (Baronius-Theiner, sub anno 1342, vi.; p. 277)

Coronation of Clement VI

Clement VI was crowned at the Church of the Convent of the Dominicans in Avignon, on Pentecost Sunday, May 19, 1342. The "Second Life" and the "Third Life" provide the same narrative (Baluzius I, col. 267-268 and 283):

Nam in festo Pentecostes, quod tunc celebrandum fuit XIX die Maii, apud Ecclesiam Fratrum Praedicatorum de Avinione cum maxima sollemnitate extitit coronatus, astantibus et servientibus ei Dominis Iohanne primogenito Regis Franciae, tunc Duce Normanniae, qui postea patri suo successise in regno, Iacobo Duce Borbonii, Philippo Duce Burgundiae, Imberto tunc Dalphino Viennensi, et multis aliis tam Franciae quam Vasconiae ac partium aliarum Comitibus, innumerisque Baronibus, et ad Palatium Apostolicum eisdem omnibus adestrantibus eum sequenti die lunae honorifice nimium et quiete reductus....

He was one of the greatest of papal nepotists (Souchon, 52). In 1342 he created eleven cardinals, including his brother Hughes Roger, OSB; his cousins Aymeric de Chalus, Gerard de la Garde, OP, and Guillaume d'Aigrefeuille; his nephews Bernard de la Tour, Guillaume de la Jugié, and Nicholas de Besse; and his cousin (or nephew) Adhemar Robert. To these relatives were added his nephew Pierre Roger de Beaufort (1348), his cousin Pierre de Cros (1350), and his nephew Raymond de Canilhac (1350). The next Conclave would truly be a family affair. Clement VI died on December 6, 1352.

 



 

Bibliography

Stephanus Baluzius [Étienne Baluze], Vitae Paparum Avinionensium 2 volumes (Paris: apud Franciscum Muguet 1693): "Secunda Vita Clementis VI, cols. 265-280. "Tertia Vita Clementis VI," 279-300. "Quarta Vita Clementis VI," 299-310. "Quinta Vita Clementis VI," 309-318-

Augustinus Theiner (Editor), Caesaris S. R. E. Cardinalis Baronii, Od. Raynaldi et Jac. Laderchii Annales Ecclesiastici   Tomus Vigesimus Quintus 1334-1355 (Barri-Ducis: Ludovicus Guerin 1872) [Baronius-Theiner].

Joannes Dominicus Mansi, Sacrorum Conciliorum nova et amplissima collectio editio novissima Tomus Vicesimus Quintus (Venetiis: apud Antonium Zatta 1782).

Thomas Rymer, Foedera, Conventiones, Literae et cujuscunque generis Acta Publica inter Reges Angliae et alios quosvis... Tomus III (Londini: A. & J. Churchill, 1706).

Eugène Déprez, "Recueil des documents pontificaux, conservés dans diverses archives d' Italie (XIIIe et XIVe siècles)," Quellen und Forschungen aus italianischen Archiven und Bibliotheken 3 (Rome 1900) 103-128

Bernard Guidone, "Vita Clementis Papae V," and "Vita Joannis Papae XXII," in Ludovicus Antonius Muratori, Rerum Italicarum Scriptores Tomus Tertius (Milan 1723), 673-684. [Bernard Guidonis [Gui], OP, of Royères in the Limousin, Bishop of Lodève (ca. 1261—1331):   U. Chevalier, Repertoire I, 1919-1920].   Ignaz Hösl, Kardinal Jacobus Gaietani Stefaneschi. Ein Beitrag zur Literatur- und Kirchengeschichte des beginnenden vierzehnten Jahrhunderts (Berlin: Emil Ebering 1908). Heinrich Finke, Acta Aragonensia. Quellen zur deutschen, italianischen, franzosischen, spanischen, zur Kirchen- und Kulturgeschichte aus der diplomatischen Korrespondenz Jaymes II. (1291-1327) (Berlin und Leipzig 1908).

Bartolomeo Platina, Historia B. Platinae de vitis pontificum Romanorum ...cui etiam nunc accessit supplementum... per Onuphrium [Panvinium]... et deinde per Antonium Cicarellam (Cologne: Cholini 1626). Bartolomeo Platina, Storia delle vite de' pontefice edizione novissima Tomo Terzo (Venezia: Ferrarin 1763).   Aubery, Histoire generale des cardinaux (Paris 1642).   Lorenzo Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa Tomo secondo (Roma: Pagliarini 1792). Giuseppe Piatti, Storia critico-cronologica de' Romani Pontefici E de' Generali e Provinciali Concilj Tomo settimo (Poli: Giovanni Gravier 1767).  Ludovico Antonio Muratori, Annali d' Italia Volume 19 (Firenze 1827).

J.-B. Christophe, L' histoire de la papauté pendant le XIV. siècle Tome premier (Paris: L. Maison 1853) [very Gallican in outlook, hostile to Italian sources].  Martin Souchon, Die Papstwahlen von Bonifaz VIII bis Urban VI (Braunschweig: Benno Goeritz 1888). Félix Rocquain, La papauté au Moyen Age (Paris 1881).   F. Gregorovius, History of Rome in the Middle Ages, Volume V.2 second edition, revised (London: George Bell, 1906).   St Clair Baddeley,. Robert the Wise and his Heirs 1278—1352 (London: Heinemann 1897).  Carl Müller, Der Kampf Ludwigs von Baiern mit der römischen Curie. II. Ludwig von Baiern, Benedict XII, und Clemens VI (Tübingen 1880).

Franz Ehrle, SJ, "Zur Geschichte des Schatzes, der Bibliothek, und des Archiv der Päpste im vierzehnten Jahrhundert,"  Archiv für Litteratur- und Kirchengeschichte 1 (Berlin 1885), 1-364.  Franz Ehrle, Historia Bibliothecae Romanorum Pontificum tum Bonifatianae tum Avenionensis  I (Roma: Typis Vaticanis 1890).

L. Duhamel, "Les origines du palais des papes," Congrès archéologique de France. XLIXe Session (Paris:Champion 1883) 185-258.

Eugène Déprez, "La guerre de cent ans à la mort de Benôit XII," Revue historique 83 (1903), 58-76. Eugène Déprez, "Les funerailles de Clement VI, et d' Innocent VI, d' apres les comptes de la cour pontificale," Melanges d' histoire et d' archéologie publiés par l' Ecole Française de Rome 20 (1900), 235-250.

William Cornwallis Cartwright, On the Constitution of Papal Conclaves (Edinburgh 1878)

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