SEDE VACANTE 1294

December 13, 1294 —December 24, 1294



Celestine V, Cardinals, and Conclaves

From the beginning of his reign Celestine had been concerned about the conduct of conclaves. The history of his own election, which had taken two years and three months, showed that neglect of the rules laid down by Pope Gregory X at the Council of Lyons in 1294 led to disorder. In a letter to King Charles II of Sicily, dated October 22, 1294 [Raynaldus, s.a. 1294, xvii; p. 154 col. 1; cf. Potthast 23998] Celestine admits that several cardinals were afraid to enter the territories of King Charles at that time because they feared being kept there and denied the free election of a future pope. Charles had had to swear an oath through his procurator at the Papal Curia that he would not impede the cardinals from coming and going freely in his domains. Charles' lack of sincerity is shown by the fact that he immediately began to put pressure on the Pope to absolve him of his promise. The Pope succumbed, of course, and Charles was released to work his mischief. To say the very least, Charles of Sicily might well be the Custodian of the next conclave upon Celestine's death. As events turned out, he was, to say the least, present.

On September 18, 1294, three weeks after his coronation, Celestine V created twelve new cardinals, half of them regular clergy  and seven of them with French connections (a partial list of six, those marked with an asterisk (*) below, is provided by Ptolemy of Lucca, in Reynaldus, sub anno 1264, xvi; p. 153. See Eubel, Hierarchia Catholica I second edition, p. 11-12):

  1. *Simon de Beaulieu [Belloloco], Archbishop of Bourges (1281-1294), named Suburbicarian Bishop of Palestrina. (died August 18, 1297).
  2. *Berardus (Béraud) de Got, Archbishop of Lyons (1289-1294), named Suburbicarian Bishop of Albano. (died June 27, 1297).
  3. *Tommaso de Aquila (de Ocra, d'Ocre, de Aprutio), OCel, Abbot of S. Giovanni in Piano, named Cardinal Priest of S. Cecilia. (died May 29, 1300).
  4. *Jean de Cressi "Le Moine", OSB, Bishop-elect of Arras, named Cardinal Priest of Ss. Marcellino e Pietro. (died August 22, 1313).
  5. Pietro de L' Aquila, OSB, Bishop-elect of Valva-Sulmona, named Cardinal Priest of S. Croce in Gerusalemme. (died June 3, 1298). Councillor of Charles II of Sicily
  6. Guillaume de Ferrariis (Ferrières), named Cardinal Priest of S. Clemente. (died September 7, 1295).
  7. Nicolas de Nonancourt (l'Aide), Chancellor of the Cathedral Chapter of Paris, named Cardinal Priest of S. Marcello. (died September 23, 1299).
  8. Robert de Pontigny, OCist, Superior General of the Cistercian Order, named Cardinal Priest of S. Pudenziana (died October 9, 1305) [Kirsch, p. 44].
  9. Simon de Caritate (d'Armentières), OSB Clun., named Cardinal Priest of S. Balbina. (shortly after May 7, 1297).
  10. *Landolfo Brancaccio, Neapolitanus, named Cardinal Deacon of S. Angelo in Pescheria. (died October 29, 1312).
  11. *Guglielmo Longhi [Pongo], of Bergamo, chancellor of King Charles II of Sicily, named Cardinal Deacon of S. Nicola in Carcere Tulliano. (died April 9, 1319).
  12. Francesco de Adria (Ronci), OCel., General of the Celestine Order, named Cardinal Priest of S. Lorenzo in Damaso. (died October 13, 1294: Baumgarten, 167, quoting the Necrology of the Cathedral of Atri: MCCXCIV die XIII Octobris, VIII Indictione. Obiit Sulmonum Reverendus Pater in Christo F. Franciscus de Adria tituli S. Laurentii in Damaso Presbiter Cardinalis.).

The creation of a thirteenth cardinal caused a scandal. One evening after dinner, Pope Celestine simply named the Archbishop of Benevento a cardinal without any of the customary ceremonies of consultation of the Cardinals in consistory. The creation arroused such an outcry from the cardinals that the Archbishop had to resign his irregular appointment and submit to an election according to the traditional forms [Reynaldus, p. 154; Tosti, p. 69].

  1. *Giovanni Castrocoeli, OSB.Cas., archbishop of Benevento, former Abbot of Montecassino, Cardinal Priest of S. Vitale. (died February 22, 1295).

On September 28, Celestine issued a Constitution entitled Quia in futurorum (issued from Aquila, IV Kal. Octobris; Raynaldus, p. 153 column 2), recalling the good arrangements for conclaves issued by Gregory X at Lyons, and then the suspension of these regulations by Adrian V and John XXI, which led the Church into grave dangers because of the vacancy in the papal throne. He annulled the suspension of the Conclave Regulations of Gregory X by his predecessors.

A few days before his abdication, on December 10, 1294, Celestine issued yet another Constitution, in which he repeated his annulments and restorations (datum Neapoli IV. Id. Decembris: Raynaldus, p. 154 col. 2):

Constitutionem felicis recordationis Gregorii Papae X. praedecessoris nostri factam in generali concilio Lugdunensi, quae post obitum summi Pontificis ad cogendos Cardinales S. R. E. pro electione pastoris certum modum et formal seriosae auctationis indixit, per felicis recordationis Adrianum V. Praedecessorem nostrum suspensam, et ejusdem recordationis Joannem XXI. praedecessorem nostrum similiter (ut audivimus) revocatam, integraliter et in omnibus suis partibus ejusque substantiam et effectum, sicut ab ipso constituente fuit edita, firmum perpetuumque decernimus habere vigorem: seu summus Pontifex rebus subtrahatur humanis sive renuntiet, vel quocumque modo sedes Apostolica vacet...

Abdication

It became apparent immediately upon Celestine assuming the papal tiara that the job was wrong for the man, and the man was wrong for the job. Cardinals began to complain, and (in Ptolemy's words) stimulatur ab aliquibus Cardinalibus, quod papatu cedat. Celestine longed to return to his solitary life, and actually had a facsimile of his hut on Monte Murrone built in the papal apartments of the Castel Nuovo in Naples. He summoned advisors and legal experts, and asked for opinions as to whether he could resign the Papacy. They provided him with examples of earlier pontiffs who had resigned. The Anonymous of Paris 5375 reports (§ 34, p. 172):

Adveniente vero quadragesima sancti Martini, ille sanctus papa decrevit solus manere et orationi vacare. Fecit sibi fieri cellam ligneam intra cameram et coepit ibi solus manere, sicut antea facera consueverat. Et sic in illa coepit cogitare de onere quod portabat, si quo modo posset illud abiecere absque periculo. Et sic convocavit aliquos prudentes et jurisperitos, qui dederunt sibi consilium et auxilium et favorem, quod posset libere hoc facere et dederunt eidem exempla aliquorum pontificum qui renuntiaverunt. Hoc ille audito quod posset papatui renuntiare, ita in hoc consilio firmavit cor suum quod nullus potuit illum removere. Et hoc fratribus secum manentibus abscondebat ne forte illum impedirent.

His brothers in the Celestine Order did attempt to dissuade Celestine, but to no effect. On December 6, the Feast of St. Nicholas, there was a demonstration in front of the papal residence, arranged by King Charles of Sicily and led by the Archbishop of Naples (Philippus Capece Minutolo), in favor of the Pope retaining his throne. Ptolemy of Lucca was a participant in and witness of the event (Ptolemy of Lucca, in his Historia Ecclesiastica, quoted in Reynaldus, sub anno 1294, xviii; p. 155). There was even a colloquy between a bishop among the demonstrators, speaking on behalf of the King, and a bishop up on a balcony where the Pope was watching, speaking for Pope Celestine:

... quidam de collegio, jam incipiunt querulari, et ecclesiae fluctuationi attendere, ac etiam eidem Pontifici insinuare sub praetextu sua sanctitatis quantum sibi periculum imminebat. Interim autem Rex Carolus, ut tradunt, ordinavit cum Caelestino sive cum beneplacito collegii factum est, quod curia transferretur Neapolim. Vadens igitur illuc multum stimulatur ab aliquibus Cardinalibus, quod papatu cedat, quod etiam Roma sub ipso periclitatur, et sub eo confunditur. Quibus stimulis concitatur sanctus Pater. Quod cum perpendisset Rex et clerus, mandat fieri processionem a majori ecclesia usque ad castrum Regis: cui processioni ego interfui. Ubi convenerunt multi episcopi regionis, omnes religiosi, et totus clerus, cumque pervenisset processio ad dictum castrum ubi dictus Pontifex morabatur, eclamavimus more solito pro benedictione: ipse vero pro reverentia processionis ad fenestram accessit cum tribus episcopis. Data igitur benedictione, unus episcopus processionis praedictae a sancto Pontifice audientiam petit, loquens in persona Regis, et totius regni quantum ad clerum et populum, me praesente, supplicans humiliter eidem vice et nomine omnium supradictorum, voce altissima et tubali, quia processio tota audierat inferius in platea, Papa autem superius in fenestra; quod cum ipse esset gloria dicti regni, nulla per suasione ad resignandum consentiret. Ad quae verba ex pandato Papae unus ex episcopis, qui cum ipso erat, respondit, quod non intendebat, nisi aliud appareret, unde conscientia urgeretur. Tunc dictus episcopus prolocutor pro Rege et regno alte incipit Te Deum Latudamus, et tota processio prosequitur ipsum usque in finem: et ad propria redeunt: quod fuit quidem, ut mihi constat, circa festum beati Nicolai. Hoc autem non obstante, adhuc aliqui Cardinales mordaciter infestant, quod periculum animae suae papatum tenebat propter inconvenientia et mala quae sequebantur ex suo regimine: ad quae verba movetur sanctus.

The bishop stated on the Pope's behalf that he would go where his conscience directed him. There was more pressure on him that he should resign. Ptolemy of Lucca says (Raynaldus, p. 156), Dominus Benedictus cum aliquibus cardinalibus Caelestino persuasit ut officio cedat quia propter simplicitatem suam, licet sanctus vir, et vitae magni foret exempli, saepius adversis confundabantur ecclesiae in gratiis faciendis et circa regimen orbis.   Cardinal Caetani, in fact, made no secret of his low opinion of the way Celestine and his entourage did business. In a letter of April 8, 1295 (Baronius-Theiner, sub anno 1341, pp. 273-274), the new Pope stated that, while he was still in Naples, in answer to Celestine's own pleas and in consideration of the massive fraud involved, he was revoking all of Celestine's enactments which male fecerat; the document contains a bold statement of Celestine's incompetence:

Olim Caelestinus papa V antecessor noster, devictus instantia et ambitione nimia plurimorum, ignarus eorum quae et juris debitum et gravitas pastoralis cui praesidebat officii requirebant; seductus insuper atque deceptus per captiosam astutiam et deceptabilem aliquorum, fecit diversa et concessit varia minus digne inordinata et insolita, quorum aliqua subticemus ex causa, sub cujus Bulla nonnulla, ut fertur, praeter ipsius conscientiam transierunt, quae non indigne, quinimo necessario liman Apostolicae correctionis exposcunt. Quapropter antecessor ipse, suam insufficientiam ad portandum summi Pontificii onera diligenter attendens et defectum quinimo periculum ex hoc pati universalem Ecclesiam recognoscens, urgente conscientia, coram collegio fratrum suorum S. R. E. cardinalium, de quorum numero tunc eramus, papatui pure et absolute renuntiavit, ejusque oneri et honori in ipsis sibi nihil omnino retinens vel reservans, et humiliter postulavit et voluit, ut quae per ipsorum improvide facta fuerunt, futurus ejus successor provide revocaret: ac postquam fuimus ad apicem Summi Apostolatus assumpti, nobis cum adhuc essemus Neapoli preces fudit ut revocare quae ipse male fecerat, curaremus.

Finally, on December 13, 1294, the Feast of Saint Lucy, Celestine held a Consistory, prepared to renounce his office.  All of the cardinals except two (Napoleone Orsini and Pietro of Milan) were present [Bartholomew Cotton, Historia Anglicana p. 257 (ed. Luard);  MGH 28, p. 611; Annales de Dunstaplia, in Annales Monastici III, p. 382].  Seating himself on his papal throne, he first ordered the cardinals not to interrupt him. He took up a paper and began to read the document of renunciation (Anonymous of Paris 5375 § 34, p. 173; Raynaldus, xix, p. 155-156):

Ego, Caelestinus Papa V. motus ex legitimis causis, id est causa humilitatis, et melioris vitae, et conscientiae illaesae, debilitate corporis, defectu scientiae, et malignitate plebis, et informitate personae, et ut praeteritae consolationis vitae possim reparare quietem, sponte ac libere cedo papatui, et expresse renuncio loco et dignitati, oneri et honori, dans plenam et liberam facultatem ex nunc sacro coetui Cardinalium eligendi et providendi dumtaxat canonice universali Ecclesiae de Pastore.

Then, coming down from his throne, he removed his ring, crown, and mantle.  He retired to his room alone, and changed into his accustomed monkish habit.  He returned to the Consistory, and sat down on the ground. The Cardinals begged him tearfully not to resign, to no effect.  It is sometimes alleged that Cardinal Caetani, not Celestine, was the author of the document which Pope Clement had read. But there is also the statement that he requested opinions from several persons in the Roman curia as to whether a pope could resign.

 

The Electors

According to Ptolemy of Lucca, twenty-two cardinals participated in the papal election of December, 1294 (Tosti, 75, 77). Since the death of Pope Nicholas IV on April 4, 1292, three cardinals had died: Latino Malabranca Orsini, Jean Cholet, and Francesco Ronci (Eubel I second edition, p. 12 no. 12 and note 9). There were, therefore, eleven 'old' cardinals, who had elected Celestine, and twelve cardinals who had been created by Celestine (Eubel Hierarchia Catholica I second edition, p. 12 n 9; Tosti, p. 75). Eight of the electors were monks, eight were French, five were Romans.

Cardinals attending:

  1. Hugues Aiscelin (Seguin) de Billon, OP, of the Diocese of Clermont [Auvergne], Cardinal Bishop of Ostia [Eubel I, second edition, p. 46; Cardella II, 31-32; Kirsch, p. 44].  Under Nicholas IV, he was an examiner of episcopal and abbatial elections, as well as an Auditor of causes [e.g. Langlois, Registres de Nicolas IV, I, no. 3222].  He had graduated  Doctor of Theology, and was appointed Lector in Theology at the Dominican house of S. Sabina in Rome.  He was apparently also named Magister Sacri Palatii, perhaps by Martin IV [Catalano, De magistro sacri palatii apostolici, p. 62-63].      Arvernus    He was undoubtedly present for the Conclave of 1292-1294 [Baronius-Theiner 23, sub anno 1294, no. 6, p. 131;  Potthast p. 1915 (July 5, 1294)].  Chamberlain of the College of Cardinals (1295-1297) [Eubel I, second edition, p. 46; Cardella II, 31-32; Kirsch, p. 44].  He died on December 28, 1297.    [Roy, Nouvelle histoire des cardinaux françois IV (Paris 1787), no. 12] [Eubel I, second edition, p. 46; Cardella II, 31-32]     Arvernus
          His brother, Magister Aegidius, Provost of Claremont, was named Archbishop of Narbonne (1290-1311) on November 25, 1290 by Nicholas IV [Langlois, Registres de Nicolas IV, I, no. 3724, 4963-4969]. 
  2. Matteo d'Acquasparta, OFM, [of the Diocese of Todi], Suburbicarian Bishop of Porto e Santa Rufina (died 1302). [Cardella II, 28-30]   Tudertinus
  3. Gerardo Bianchi, of Gainaco, a village in the Diocese of Parma, Suburbicarian Bishop of Sabina, formerly Cardinal Priest of the Basilica XII Apostolorum (1278). (died March 1, 1302).
  4. Giovanni Boccamati (Boccamazza) [Romanus], a relative of Pope Honorius IV.  Suburbicarian Bishop of Tusculum (Frascati).   Chaplain of Pope Nicholas III.  Archbishop of Monreale and Administrator of Monreale (1278-1286) [R. Pirro, Sicilia sacra  I (Panormi 1733), 463], by appointment of Nicholas III [Registres de Nicolas III, no. 120, pp. 38-39].  He continued to administer that Church until the appointment of a successor [Registres d' Honorius IV, no. 491-492, p. 347].  The successor, on July 22, 1286,   was Peter of Reate [Registres d' Honorius IV, no. 560, p. 388].  It was Cardinal Boccamazza who delivered the news of the Sicilian Vespers to King Charles I  [V. D'Avino, Cenni storici sulle chiese arcivescovili, vescovili e prelatizie (nullius) del Regno delle Due Sicilie (Napoli 1848), 359]. On May 22, 1286, he was named by Honorius IV  Sedis Apostolicae Legatus to Hungary, Bohemia, Sweden, Denmark, Poland, Prussia, Pomerania, etc. [Registres d' Honorius IV, no. 772-805; pp. 551-558; and cf. no. 585 and 771; Potthast 22466. Cardella II, p. 27], with powers to absolve former supporters of Conrad and Conradin  [Potthast 22498 ((June 14, 1286); Eubel, Hierarchia catholica I, p. 11 n.2]. He entered Milan on August 30.   He was certainly back at the Curia in Rome on April 22, 1288, two months after the election of Nicholas IV  [Langlois, Registres de Nicolas IV, I, no. 582, p. 116].  He subscribed on September 3, 1288 at Reate [Langlois, Registres de Nicolas IV, I, no. 243, p. 40].    He was undoubtedly present for the Conclave of 1292-1294 [Potthast 23946 (May 28, 1294); Baronius-Theiner 23, sub anno 1294, no. 6, p. 131;  Potthast p. 1915 (July 5, 1294)].    His brother Angelo was Bishop of Catania in Sicily (1296-1303). He died as Dean of the College of Cardinals in 1309 in Avignon.
  5. Simon de Beaulieu [His epitaph reads: De bello fuit iste loco primas Aquitanus], Suburbicarian Bishop of Palestrina.  Formerly Canon of Bourges. Provided by Martin IV as Archbishop of Bourges (1281-1294)  [Gallia christiana 2, 73-76].  He was sent by Boniface VIII on an unsuccessful mission to arrange a peace between England and France (died at Orvieto August 18, 1297).
  6. Berardus de Got, Suburbicarian Bishop of Albano.  After the election of Boniface VIII, Cardinal Berardus was appointed Legate along with Cardinal Simon of Palestrina to arrange a concord between Edward I and Philip IV [Potthast 24097-24098 (May 25, 1295).   (died June 27, 1297)

  7. Benedetto Caetani, a Campanian from Agnani, Cardinal Priest of S. Silvestri et Martini, from December, 1291 [Eubel I second edition, p. 47], previously Cardinal Deacon of S. Nicolae in Carcere Tulliano, from April 12, 1281.    Canon of the Vatican Basilica [Archivio della societa romana di storia patria 6 (1883), 11].   Legate of Martin IV to Charles I of Sicily (1282) to dissuade him from war against King Pedro of Aragon.  Legate in south Italy.  Given the titulus of SS. IV Coronatorum [Salvador Miranda gives the date of April 1, 1285, but that was during the Sede Vacante, the day before the election of Urban IV;  the correct date is April 11, 1283], and the pope was Honorius IV [Registres d' Honorius IV, no. 826, p. 586].  Given the titulus of S. Susanna in commendam on March 8, 1288 [Eubel I, p. 48 n. 1].  On February 1, 1289, he subscribed a bull in Rome [Potthast 22870]. Said to have been Legate in Portugal on March 2, 1289 [The correct date of the evidence, however, is March 7, 1289, and he was part of a commission of three cardinals, which included Latino Malabranca of Ostia and Petrus Peregrosso of S. Marco, appointed to hear disputes between prelates of Portugal and King Denis, both sides represented by procurators;  the hearings and the decision took place at S. Maria Maggiore in Rome; Benedetto Caetani was never Legate in or to Portugal, but a judge under a papal commission from Nicholas IV   [Baronius-Theiner, sub anno 1289 nos. 17-39, pp. 49-56].  He subscribed a bull at Reate on July 1, 1289 [Potthast 12990]   Legate in France (1290) to collect crusader dues and settle the conflict between Edward I of England and Philip IV of France.  His nephew of the same name was Canon of Arras [Registres de Honorius IV, no. 946, p. 626 (August 13, 1286)]   [Cardella II, 26]   Campanus   (died as Pope Boniface VIII on October 11, 1303).
  8. Pietro Peregrosso, of Milan, Cardinal Priest of S. Marco (died August 1, 1295). [Cardella II, 32-33; Kirsch, p. 98]
  9. Tommaso de Aquila (d'Ocre), OCel, former Abbot of S. Giovanni in Piano, Cardinal Priest of S. Cecilia. He lived in a house next to his titulus [Brentano, Rome before Avignon (Berkeley1990) p. 319 n. 2].    (died in Naples, May 29, 1300). Cardinal Chamberlain S.R.E. [Savini, p. 88-89; Baumgarten, 161]
  10. Jean de Cressi "Le Moine", OSB [of Cressi, in the Diocese of Amiens, in Picardy], Cardinal Priest of Ss. Marcellino e Pietro. Chamberlain of the College of Cardinals from November 6, 1305 to 1311 (died August 22, 1313).  He had studied Canon Law, and was Doctor utriusque iure. Canon of Amiens, of Bayeux, and of Paris. He had been Dean of the Cathedral of Bayeux [Registre de Benoit XI, no. 81, p. 81]. Auditor of the Rota. Vice-Chancellor S.R.E.   Sent as Legate to France after the Roman synod of October 31, 1302 [Baronius-Theiner 23, sub anno 1302, no. 16, p. 305],  in the wake of the publication, on November 18, 1302, of Unam Sanctam [Baronius-Theiner 23, sub anno 1302, no. 13-14, pp. 303-304].   [Roy, Histoire nouvelle des cardinaux françois V (Paris 1788), no. 1;  Kirsch, p. 44].
  11. Pietro de L' Aquila, OSB, Cardinal Priest of S. Croce in Gerusalemme (1294-1298). Bishop of Valva-Sulmone (1294).  Councillor of Charles II of Sicily   (died June 3, 1298).
  12. Guillaume Ferrières [de Fornariis], Cardinal Priest of S. Clemente, on the recommendation of Charles II of Sicily. Provost of the Cathedral Church of Marseille.   Not long after the election of Boniface VIII, on June 30, 1295,  Cardinal Guillaume was sent to France to de-fuse a quarrel which was beginning between Philip IV, Charles I of Sicily, and Charles of Alençon and Valois [Potthast 24118].    (died September 7, 1295) [Kirsch, p. 98];  or September 24 [Martyrology of Evreux]; or November 8 [Martyrology of the Church of Paris]; or November 9 [his epitaph at Evreux].  His brother, Petrus Leyde, was canon of Evreux [Martyrology of Evreux].
  13. Nicolas de Nonancourt l'Aide, Cardinal Priest of S. Marcello. (died September 23, 1299).
  14. Robert, first Abbot of Pontigny, OCist [of unknown origin], then Abbot General of the Cistercians, Abbot of Cîteaux.   Cardinal Priest of S. Pudenziana, on the recommendations of Philip IV of France and Charles II of Sicily.   Chamberlain of the College of Cardinals from 1298-1305.  He died October 9, 1305 at Parma, and was buried in the Cistercian Church of S. Martin; later his body was transferred to Cîteaux. [Kirsch, p. 44]..
  15. Simon de Caritate d'Armentières, OSB Clun., Prior of the Monastery of La Charité-sur-Loire. Cardinal Priest of S. Balbina. (died shortly after May 7, 1297—his latest subscription [according to Eubel I, p. 12: a misprint?])  [V. Forcella, Inscrizioni delle chiese di Roma IV, p. 7 no. 4:  "The entrails of Simon lie here, his bones at La Charité over which he presided; Cardinal of S. Balbina... died 1296..."].
  16. Giovanni Castrocoeli, OSB.Cas., Cardinal Priest of S. Vitale. (died February 22, 1295).

  17. Matteo Rosso Orsini, a Roman, Cardinal Deacon of S. Maria in Portico (died September 4, 1305). See. R. Morghen, "Il Cardinale Matteo Rosso," Archivio della società Romana di storia patria 46 (1923), 271-372.
  18. Giacopo Colonna, a Roman, son of Giordano Colonna, Signore di Colonna, Monteporzio, Zagarolo, Gallicano e Palestrina; and Francesca, daughter of Paolo Conti.  Brother of Giovanni Colonna, Senatore di Roma, 1279-1280.  Uncle of Cardinal Pietro Colonna and Stefano Colonna.    Archdeacon of Pisa.  Cardinal Deacon of S. Maria in Via Lata (March 12, 1278; deposed May 10, 1297; restored February 2, 1306),  with S. Marcello in commendam. Archpriest of the Liberian Basilica [Langlois, Registres de Nicolas IV, I, no. 632, p. 128 (August 11, 1288)].   He died August 14, 1318, in Avignon).  
  19. Napoleone Orsini, a Roman, Cardinal Deacon of S. Adriano (died 1342). Nephew of Pope Nicholas III. [Cardella II, 33-37]
  20. Pietro Colonna, a Roman, Cardinal Deacon of S. Eustachio (died 1326).  Named Protector of the Order of Hermits of St. Augustine (OESA) by Celestine V  [Potthast 24018 (December 5, 1294)].  Nephew of Cardinal Giacomo Colonna [Cardella II, 37-38]
  21. Landolfo Brancaccio, Neapolitanus, Cardinal Deacon of S. Angelo in Pescheria.  Appointed Legatus in the Kingdom of Sicily on April 6, 1295 [Potthast 24055]    (died October 29, 1312).
  22. Guglielmo Longhi [Pongo], of Bergamo, chancellor of King Charles II of Sicily Cardinal Deacon of S. Nicola in Carcere Tulliano. (died April 9, 1319).

Salvador Miranda states that Cardinal Francesco Ronci. O.Cel. did not participate in the Election.  The fact is obvious, since the Cardinal died on October 13, 1294, before the resignation of Celestine V.

 

 


Tom of Gerardo Bianchi
Tomb of Cardinal Gerardo Bianchi (Lateran Basilica), died of fever, March 1, 1302
Rohault, Le Latran au moyen-age, 466-467.

Conclave and Election of Cardinal Caietani

There are five contemporary sources for the Conclave of December, which began on December 23, 1294  [Bartholomew Cotton, Historia Anglicana p. 257 (ed. Luard);  MGH 28, p. 612]:

(1) Ptolemy of Lucca, author of the Historia Ecclesiastica, who was present in Naples in December of 1294 and participated in the demonstration before Pope Celestine by the Neapolitans on December 6,  in favor of his remaining as Pope.

(2) Jacopo Gaetani Stefaneschi (named a Cardinal on December 17, 1295), author of the "Opus Metricum", who was Auditor of the Rota, Canon of St. Peter's, and Subdeacon of the Holy Roman Church in the Curia of Celestine V. He was in Naples in December of 1294 and writes as an eyewitness to the events.

(3) The anonymous author of the Paris manuscript number 5375, who was not present, but who states that he received information in letters from Cardinal Thomas de Roca Morici, who was a participant in the Conclave of 1294 and the other events of 1294 and 1295.

(4) Boniface VIII (Cardinal Benedetto Caetani), who gives his own account of his election in his electoral manifesto, Gloriosus et mirabilis, issued from the Lateran on January 23, 1295, the day after his coronation.

(5) The manifestos published by the Colonna Cardinals, Jacopo and and Pietro (uncle and nephew), who subsequently protested the resignation of Celestine V as uncanonical and the election of Boniface VIII as illicit, on the grounds that the Pope (Celestine) was still alive. Both, however, had participated in the Conclave that elected Boniface, and had seen their own ambitions defeated, which substantially weakens their protests, which came only after their family came under attack from their enemies, who were supported by Boniface VIII.

There are numerous other contemporary sources (such as Bernard Guidone's lives of these popes, and Ferreto of Vicenza's scurrilous fantasies), but they lack the status of eyewitnesses. A host of documents survive that bear directly on the events of 1294 and 1295; these are collected in the Annales Ecclesiastici of Odoricus Raynaldus (Odorico Rinaldi), the continuator of Cardinal Baronius' Annales.

The Regulations of Pope Gregory X were in full operation, as they must have been in accordance with the bulls of Celestine V, and thus the Conclave opened on Thursday, December 23, 1294, with the singing of the solemn Mass of the Holy Spirit. The site for the Conclave was the Castel Nuovo in Naples. And, as Ptolemy of Lucca notes, King Charles was present: ad electionem alterius procedunt, praesente Rege Carolo Neapoli.   Benedetto Caetani was elected by scrutiny and accessio on the next day, Friday, Christmas Eve, 1274. He was about 65 years old (see Montaubur). The poem of Cardinal Jacopo Stefaneschi, grand-nephew of Pope Nicholas III and Subdeacon of the Holy Roman Church in the reign of Nicholas IV (Celestine had made him a Canon of the Vatican Basilica and Auditor Rotae), describes the event. In the prose summary he says (Reynaldus, sub anno 1294, xxiii, p. 158; Muratori, RIS III p. 616-617):

Post hujusmodi Caelestini cessionem die undecima, vigilia scilicet natalis Domini, quae labentis tunc millesimi ducentesimi nonagesimi quarti anni ultimo decurrebat die, Bonifacius VIII, tunc Benedictus Gajetanus nomine, Anagnia ortus, profunde juris utriusque scientiae, longique in illis exercitii, docteque experientiae, in Romana ecclesia moribus veteranus, cardine etiam insignis, in summum Pontificem scrutinio accessioneque eligitur.

In the poem Stefaneschi indicates that, on the first scrutiny, Benedetto Caetani had the majority of the votes cast, but that there was another candidate. At the accessio, however, he was elected (Raynaldus, sub anno 1294, xxiii, p. 158;:Muratori, RIS, p. 642)

....Post haec procedere visum est.
Scrutantesque suum per claustra silentia votum,
Mox referant, patuitque viris haud spiritus idem
Sed quasi conformis: nam plurima nomina fratrum
In te conveniunt; alii licet altera fassi,

O carde Benedicte sacer, levitaque quondam
Eligeris: nam digna quidem concordia vocum
Accessit, pater alme patrum (ne promptior ausit
His aliud) culpam celansque fuisse, rubentum
Quisque tuo submissa pedi dedit oscula supplex.

Cardinal Caietani himself gives a narrative of his election in his inaugural letter as Pope Boniface VIII, Gloriosus et mirabilis, issued from the Lateran on January 23, 1295 (Raynaldus, sub anno 1295, viiii, p. 170; Tosti, 467-470):

... Cardinales ipsi, considerantes attentius quam sit onusta dispendiis, quam gravia malorum incommoda secum trahat prolixa ecclesiae memoratae vacatio; et propterea votis ardentibus cupientes per efficacia et accelerata remedia hujusmodi periculis obviare, die jovis X. Kalend. januarii post festum subsequentem praedictum, missarum solemniis ad honorem Sancti Spiritus celebratis, hymnoque solito cum devotione cantato, se in quodam conclavi apud Castrum novum civitati Neapolitanae contiguum, ubi tunc idem frater Petrus cum sua residebat familia, incluserunt, ut per mutui commoditatem coloquii ecclesiae praedictae provisio, superna cooperante virtute, celerius proveniret. Die vero veneris immediate sequente praefati Cardinales, mentis oculis erectis ad Dominum, pia desideria benignius prosequentem, in electionis negotio ferventibus studiis, ut praedicta vitarentur incommoda, procedentes; et tandem, cum divina clementia ecclesiae praelibatae compatiens, eam nollet ulterioris vacationis periculis subjacere, ad personam nostram, licet immeritam, intentum animum dirigentes, quamquam inter eos quamplures magis idonei, et digniores etiam haberentur, nos tunc tituli S. Martini presbyterum Cardinalem in summum Pontificem canonice elegerunt....

Pope Celestine had said earlier to Cardinal Tommaso d' Ocre and to Cardinal Benedetto Caetani that Benedetto ought to be pope (Anonymous of Paris 5375 § 35; p. 174). The Merton manuscript of Matthew of Westminster's Flores Historiarum (ed. Luard, p. 276) goes farther, stating that, after his resignation speech in which he urged the cardinals to elect an industrious and useful successor without dissention, Celestine was asked to name a worthy person. He is said to have named Benedetto Caetani. This passage, however, does not appear in other manuscripts of the Flores, and it should be treated with caution. The same manuscript has it that Celestine was elected at Aquileia (rather than Perugia) and that he consecrated Archbishop Winchelsey (Winchelsey was consecrated at L' Aquila on September 12, 1294 by Cardinal Gerardo Bianchi, Bishop of Sabina: Stubbs, p. 68). Any attempt to assess the responsibility of Benedetto Caetani in the career and end of Pietro de Murrone is poisoned by the propaganda issued by his enemies: the Colonna (see Denifle), Giovanni Villani, and Dante Alighieri.

 

relics of Celestine V in Aquila
The relics of Celestine V, reconstructed (in a contemporary fantasy) after the Earthquake of Aquila.
Examination of the remains indicated that Celestine had not in fact been murdered;
the hole in his skull, thought to indicate murder, was made post mortem.  "For centuries this hole
on the skull has fueled speculations and legends," said Luca Ventura, of the San Salvatore
Hospital’s Department of Pathology in L’Aquila. "But our analysis found no trace of the murder
engineered by Boniface. On the contrary, we can say beyond doubt that
Celestine wasn’t alive when the lesion was made." [Huffington Post, May 10, 2013]

 

Coronation of Boniface VIII

Pietro Cantinelli (ed. Torraca, p. 77) records, "die veneris XXIV dicti mensis Decembris, electus fuit papa dominus Benedictus Gaitanus cardinalis, et vocatus est dominus papa Bonifacius octavus, qui fuit coronatus in urbe romana, die dominico XXIII mensis ianuarii anno domini millesimo ducentesimo nonagesimo quinto, indictione octava." He was crowned in Rome on Sunday, January 23, 1295.

Cardinal Stefaneschi gives an extensive description of the Pope's arrival in Rome and the ceremonies of his coronation and possessio of the Lateran Basilica (Muratori, RIS, pp. 643-655).  The Bishop of Ostia was his consecrator (Hugues Aycelin de Billon, OP), and—though not mentioned in the sources—the Bishop of Porto (Matteo d'Acquasparta, OFM) and the Bishop of Albano would have been the co-consecrators. The pallium was placed on his shoulders and the papal tiara on his head by Cardinal Matteo Rosso Orsini (p. 647 lines 69-80; p. 648 lines 141-146).

He immediately, on December 27, 1294, revoked all provisions for future vacancies of benefices which had been granted by Nicholas IV, or Celestine V, or even himself and Cardinal Gerardus Bianchi when they were Legates in France in 1290 [Bartholomew Cotton, Historia Anglicana p. 258 (ed. Luard);  MGH 28, p. 611; Potthast, pp. 1923-1924; and cf. Potthast 24061 (April 8, 1295)].    During an argument in Consistory with Cardinal Hugues Aycelin de Billon, OP, Bishop of Ostia, he deprived the Cardinal of the pallium, and did not restore it until after his coronation [Annales of Nicolas Trevet, p. 334 (ed. Hog 1845), d' Achery Spicilegium VIII, p. 668; Potthast (p. 1924) states that this was Cardinal Nicholas (Bocasini), who did not become Bishop of Ostia, however, until May 2, 1300].

 

Petrus de Morrone, the former Celestine V,  died at Castro Fumonis, on May 23, 1296, one year, four months and twenty-eight days after his resignation [Berrnardus Guidonis, "Vita Coelestini Papae V", Muratori p. 670].  He was in the neighborhood of 88 years of age.

 

 


 

Bibliography

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Odoricus Raynaldus [Rainaldi], Annales Ecclesiastici ab anno MCXCVIII. ubi desint Cardinalis Baronius, auctore Odorico Raynaldi. Accedunt in hac Editione notae chronologicae, criticae, historicae... auctore Joanne Dominico Mansi Lucensi   Tomus Quartus [Volume XXIII] (Lucca: Leonardo Venturini 1749), sub anno 1294 (p. 26).   Augustinus Theiner (Editor), Caesaris S. R. E. Cardinalis Baronii, Od. Raynaldi et Jac. Laderchii Annales Ecclesiastici   Tomus Vigesimus Quintus 1334-1355 (Barri-Ducis: Ludovicus Guerin 1872) [Baronius-Theiner].

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Ioannes Rubeus, Bonifacius VIII e familia Caietanorum Principium Romanus Pontifex (Romae: Corbelletti 1651). Martin Souchon, Die Papstwahlen von Bonifaz VIII bis Urban VI (Braunschweig: Benno Goeritz 1888), pp. 15-23. . Félix Rocquain, La papauté au Moyen Age (Paris 1881), 211-291. Louis [Luigi] Tosti, [OSB,] History of Pope Boniface VIII and his times (tr. E. J. Donnelly) (New York 1911; original edition in Italian 1846). F. Gregorovius, History of Rome in the Middle Ages, Volume V.2 second edition, revised (London: George Bell, 1906), Book X, chapter 5, pp. 515-525. H. Denifle, "Die Denkschriften der Colonna gegen Bonifaz VIII. und der Cardinale gegen die Colonna," Archiv fur Literatur- und Kirchen- geschichte V (Freiburg im Breisgau 1889), 493-529.  Ludwig Mohler, Die Kardinäle Jakob und Peter Colonna (Paderborn 1914).   Paul Maria Baumgarten, "Die Cardinalsernennungen Cälastins V. im September und Oktober 1294," (Stephan Ehses, editor) Festschrift zum elfhundertjährigen Jubiläum des deutschen Campo Santo in Rom (Freiburg im Breisgau: Herder 1897) 161-169.   Francesco Savini, "Il Cardinal Tommaso «de Ocra o de Aprutio» e il suo testamento del 1300," Archivio storico italiano 22 (Firenze 1898), 87-101. P. Montaubur, "Entre gloire curiale et vie commune," Mélanges de l' École française de Rome CIX (1997) 303-442.

S. Sägmüller, Die Thätigkeit und Stellung der Kardinäle bis Papst Bonifaz VIII., historisch und canonistisch untersucht und dargestellt (Freiburg i. B. 1896) [reviewed by Wenck in Theologische Litteraturzeitung 23 (Leipzig 1891), 113-116].   S. Sägmüller, "Zur Thätigkeit und Stellung der Kardinäle bis Papst Bonifaz VIII," Theologische Quartalschrift 80 (Ravensburg 1898) 596-614 [reviewed by Wenck in Göttingische gelehrte Anzeigen 162. 1 (Berlin 1900) 139-175]. S. Sägmüller, "Die oligarchischen Tendenzen des Kardinalkollegs bis Bonifaz VIII," Theologische Quartalschrift (Ravensburg 1901) 45-93.

A. Rociglio, "La rinuncia di Celestino V," Celestino V ed il VI centenario della sua Incornazione (Aquila 1894), 209-247.   "Giovanni Vittori,  "Cenni biografici dei cardinali eletti da Celestino V," Celestino V ed il VI centenario della sua Incornazione (Aquila 1894), 301-320.  A. Paravicini Bagliani, I cardinali di curia e "familiae" cardinalizie I (Padova: Antenore 1972).

William Stubbs, Registrum Sacrum Anglicanum second edition (Oxford 1897).

Johann Peter Kirsch, Die FInanzverwaltung des Kardinalkollegiums im XIII. und XIV. Jahrhundert (Münster 1895).

 

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