March/April, 1191


Frederick Barbarossa had died in an accident on June 10, 1190, while trying to ford the Kalykadnos River (Safet, according to Ralph de Diceto: MGH 27, 280) near Seleuceia Ciliciae on foot [MGH 17, p. 800]. He was succeeded by his son, Henry, King of the Romans (Henry VI).   William, King of Sicily, Duke of Apulia, Prince of Capua, the brother-in-law of King Richard of England, died on November 17, 1189, without issue. Fifteen years earlier he had named Constanza, the daughter of King Roger I of Sicily and wife of the new Emperor, as his heir. With the favor of the Roman Curia, however, Count Tancred of Lecce (on whom see Toeche Kaiser Heinrich VI, p. 542-546) was crowned as King of Sicily in January, 1190, bringing about a civil war in south Italy, and grave problems between Clement III and Henry VI.

Seal of William II of Sicily



In England and Normandy, King Richard himself had just succeeded Henry II, and been crowned on September 3, 1189. He set out on Crusade in June of 1190. When he reached Rome, Pope Clement sent the Bishop of Ostia to meet him at the gates of Rome (according to Ralph de Diceto: Watterich II, p. 706), and advise him not to visit the City.

In the early Spring of 1191 King Henry VI himself was on his way to Rome: on February 28 he was in Pisa, on March 1 he signed a treaty with Pisa, on March 6 he was on the road at Puliganano (Diocese of Pistoia), on March 8 he was at San Quirico d'Orcia (Castrum Sancti Quirici), some 41 km. or 26 miles south of Siena. On March 12, he had crossed to Montepulciano (Mons Pozanus) [Regesta Imperii IV: Lothar III. und altere Staufer (1125-1197), RI IV.3 no. 141 and 142]. On April 7 he was at Cornazzano, on April 10 at Anguillara on Lake Bracciano. The pope had sent two cardinals, Petrus Gallocia and Petrus of S. Pietro in Vincoli, to northern Tuscany to conduct the negotiations. During the King's progress, however, Pope Clement had died and a new pope had been elected. Emergency negotiations had to take place to ensure that the new pope would honor the reluctant agreement of Pope Clement to crown the new Emperor. This was especially difficult, even though the King had his entire army with him; his intent was to proceed south immediately and claim the Sicilian inheritance of his wife, but this put him in conflict with Clement's previous policy in the south. But, as the King approached Rome, still expecting a Coronation, he instead faced opposition from the Roman Commune [Gregorovius, pp. 625-629]. The issue was Tusculum, or rather the Castellum of Tusculum. The residents had moved after the Battle of Monte Porzio, fought between the Roman Commune and an Imperial army led by Archbishop Christian of Mainz, in 1167, and the town itself was now deserted and in ruins. Though part of the Patrimony of St. Peter, Tusculum had been used by the German Emperors and Kings as a staging and supply center for their domination of the city of Rome, and the Commune was determined to remove it as an obstacle to their power.

In 1190, grave dissention had broken out again between Pope (in this case, Clement III) and the Roman commune over the issue of Tusculum. It had been the demands of the Romans which caused Lucius III to flee the city, to be crowned at Velletri (September 6, 1181), and to remain outside Rome except for a brief period between November, 1181, and March, 1182 (Gregorovius IV.2, pp. 609-612). His successor Urban III resided at Verona, where Lucius had died, and never visited Rome. He was trapped, in fact, between Frederick's forces which were occupying Tuscany, and his troops which controlled the mountain passes that led to Germany. Urban died in Ferrara, and was buried in the cathedral there. Gregory VIII, who ruled only 57 days, was able to launch a crusade and desecrate the tomb of the Antipope Victor IV at Lucca, but he died at Pisa before reaching Rome. Clement III, a native Roman, was able to negotiate with the Commune [Gregorovius, p. 619], and he and the Curia finally returned to the City after a six year absence, in February of 1188. But the desire of the Roman Commune to possess Tusculum, and to satisfy themselves for several generations of vendetta, still remained. They demanded that the Roman Emperor hand over Tusculum. This he could not and would not do, since the people of Tusculum had been under his protection for some time. His solution was to give the castle at Tusculum to the new pope, Celestine III (Hyacinth Bobone), and saddle him with the task of satisfying the Romans. This made Henry seem willing to acceed to papal desires to reclaim the lands of the Church from German lords, and willing to cooperate with the new pope. In fact, however, it was a trap, which would shortly lead to papal humiliation.

Death of Pope Clement

Pope Clement III signed his last bull on March 20, 1191 [Holtzmann, 566-567, no. 272].  He died in the second half of March, various sources putting the date on March 20 or March 25, or March 26 or March 28; or in the first week of April, perhaps April 4, or even April 10 [JL p. 576].

Roger of Hoveden (Benedict of Peterborough) says that he died on Thursday, April 4, 1191 [Volume III, p. 123 ed. Stubbs]:

Mense Aprilis, quarto idus ejusdem mensis, feria quarta, obiit Clemens papa tertius, cui successit Jacintus, diaconus cardinalis Sanctae Mariae in Cosmedin.

In the absence of consensus or an acceptable explanation for the disagreement (cf. Watterich II, p. 708 note 6; Theodor Toche, Kaiser Heinrich VI, pp. 170-171; Jaffé and Loewenfeld, p. 577-578), one might find some guidance by looking at the data concerning the election of Celestine III. The Chronicon Magni Presbyteri (Reicherspergensis) [MGH SS 18, p. 518) says that the election took place on March 30:

Defuncto etiam tunc Romae Clemente papa circa mediam quadragesimam, substitutus est in locum eius dominus Iacintus cardinalis admodum senex, electus a Romanis 3 Kal. Apr. illo sabbato quando cantabatur officium Sitientes venite ad aquas. Et in sancta die sollemnitatis paschae, quod evenerat tunc in 18. kal. Maii, consecratus Caelestinus est dictus.

If this report is in any way accurate, then the dates of Clement's death in April are to be excluded from consideration, even with the authority of Roger of Hoveden.   The Annales Ratisponenses [MGH 17, p. 590] indicate that Celestine was elected on the day after the death of Clement (which took place, perhaps, on March 20) that is to say, he was elected on March 21:

Anno Domini 1191, 13. Kal. Aprilis Clemens papa hominem deposuit. Cui altera die, id est 12. Kal. Aprilis sive in die sancti Benedicti [March 21], Iacintus qui dictus est Celestinus III successit. Eodem etiam anno rex Heinricus 17. Kal, Maii in inperatorem a Celestino papa inungitur cum uxore sua Constantia.

The two German chronicles are in complete contradiction. But if the Annales Ratisponenses is correct as to the interval, and the Chronicon Magni Presbyteri correct as to the date of the election, then Clement might have died on March 29, or perhaps March 28 (which is the date given by the necrologies of Monte Cassino [JL p. 576]). The interval of two days, rather than one, is perhaps suggested by the narration of the death of a pope and the election and consecration of his successor, written by Cencius Camerarius, Chamberlain of the Holy Roman Church (1189-1198), who doubtless took part in the Election of 1191 [Baronius-Theiner, sub anno 1191, p. 604]:

Mortuo Romano Pontifice et sepulto, omnes cardinales ad propria revertuntur secundum antiquam consuetudinem. Secunda vero die conveniunt in Ecclesia, et missa mortuorum cantata, omnes similiter secundum consuetudinem antiquam recedunt. Tertia autem die, iterum omnes in Ecclesia congregati, et missa sancti Spiritus ibidem primitus celebrata, tractant de electione. Et perscrutata omnium cardinalium voluntate ab aliquibus de ipsis, in quem major et melior pars convenerit cardinalium, prior diaconorum ipsum de pluviali rubeo ammantat, et eidem electo nomen imponit....

The solution to the problem, however, comes from a document (not a papal document) executed at the Monastery of S. Giovanni in Viterbo [W. Kurze, pp. 360-362 no. 355; K. Baaken, 211],  which is dated Anno dominice incarnationius eius millesimo centesimo nonagesimo primo, temporibus domni Celestini tertii pape et domni Henri Romanorum regis et semper augusti, mense martii, die vicesima quarta, indicatione nona [March 24, 1191].   On that date, Pope Celestine III had already been elected, and King Henry was still King of the Romans.  Since the news of the election would have taken a day or two to reach Viterbo, the date of the death of Pope Clement would have been on March 20 (as the Ratisbon Annals  has it), and the Election of Pope Celestine on the next day, March 21, 1191.


The Cardinals

Onuphrio Panvinio (Epitome, pp. 144-145) gives a list of twenty-five cardinals "qui creationi pp. Coelestini III interfuerunt." He includes Petrus (da Pavia, OSB) Tusculanus, who had died two years earlier; Alexius of S. Sabina, who had also died two years earlier (and was succeeded by Iohannes Felix); and F(idantius) of S. Marcello, who was not appointed until 1193. He omits Cardinals Romanus of S. Anastasia, Cencius of S. Lorenzo in Lucina, Ovicio (Ugo) (Bobone) of SS. Silvestro e Martino, Graziano of SS. Cosma e Damiano, Lotharius dei Conti di Segni of SS. Sergii et Bachi, and Niccolò of S. Lucia in Orphea. Three who were not present are not named: Konrad Bishop of Sabina, Guillaume of Reims and Adelardo Cattaneo, of Verona.

Ciaconius-Olduin [Tomus I, (Roma 1677) 1151-1153] provides a list of thirty Cardinals who were living at the time of the Election of Innocent III. Omitted are: Ovicio (Hugo) of SS. Silvestro e Martino, Cencius (Cynthius) of S. Lorenzo in Lucina, and Gregorio of S. Angelo in Pescheria (Nephew of Pope Celestine III)—a much better achievement than Panvinio's, though Ciaconius-Olduin makes no effort to decide who was actually present.


  1. Giovanni dei Conti di Segni, Bishop of Praeneste [Palestrina]. Formerly Cardinal Priest of S. Marco (1167-1190) [JL 16388], and before that Cardinal Deacon of S. Maria in Porticu (1159-1167). He subscribed for Celestine III on April 20, 1191. His latest subscription is March 22, 1196. [Cardella I.2, pp. 94-95]. Pope Clement III had sent him in 1189 to arrange a peace between Richard I of England and Philip II of France ("Benedict of Peterborough" Gesta Henrici II); he landed in England in November 1189 and sailed to Flanders with the King on December 12, 1189. The Peace was concluded successfully.
  2. Albinus [Mediolanensis], Bishop of Albano (1189-ca. 1197). Formerly Cardinal Priest of S. Croce in Gerusalemme (1185-1189). Previously Cardinal Deacon of S. Maria Nova (1182-1185). In 1188 he was Legate to the court of William II of Sicily, with Cardinal Petrus of S. Lorenzo in Damaso (1188-1190). He subscribed for Celestine III on April 20, 1191. His last known subscription is in July, 1196.
  3. Octavianus di Paolo dei Conti [Romanus], Bishop of Ostia e Velletri (1189-1206). Previously Cardinal Deacon of SS. Sergio e Baccho (1182-1189). Earlier, as Deacon of the S.R.E., he ws sent to France in 1179 to invite prelates to the Lateran Council of 1179..Legate to England for Urban III. He subscribed for Celestine III on April 20, 1191. Sent by Celestine III (1191-1198) as Legate to Normandy along with Cardinal Giordano da Ceccano, to deal with a disagreement between Walter of Rouen and William of Ely. Failing to get cooperation, they placed Normandy under edict and retired to Paris. On his way back to Rome Cardinal Ottaviano was captured by Duke Corrado of Spoleto and held in captivity for a year. As Cardinal Deacon he was sent with Cardinal Gerardo of S. Adriano to Spoleto to deal with the defection of Duke Corrado (Konrad Lutzen von Urslingen) and to absolve Count Markwald of Annweiler (Marquardt) of his excommunication. This was before 1197, since Konrad returned permanently to Germany in that year (A. Sansi, Storia del commune di Spoleto I, pp. 16-17).

  4. Pandulphus [of Lucca], Cardinal Priest in the title of Ss. XII Apostoli (1182-1201). He held the title of Magister [Kehr, IP VII.1, p. 250 no. 5]. Legate in Genoa in 1196. Legate in Tuscany, 1197. Appointed Legatus a latere in Tuscany shortly after the Election (Innocentius III Epp. I. 25, 35; Baluzius p. 9, p. 17 [Potthast 21]) [Cardella, 143-144] His latest subscription of a bull occurs in 1201. He retired to his native Lucca. Cardinal Pandulfus mentions his father and brothers in a grant to the canonry of S. Maria in Lucca signed on May 4, 1208. He died around 1210. He is not the same person as Pandulfus Masca of Pisa [Memorie e documenti per servire all' istoria del principato di Lucca V. 1 (Lucca; Domenico Bertini 1844), pp. 493-497]. [In general, see Maleczek, Papst und Kardinalskolleg, 79-80].
  5. Petrus Diani [quem docta Placentia mundo edidit, according to his tombstone in S. Cecilia], Cardinal Priest in the title of S. Cecilia (1188-1208); previously Cardinal Deacon of S. Niccolo in Carcere Tulliano (1185-1188). . Legate with Cardinal Soffredus, to Pisa and Genoa, in 1188 [Kehr, IP X, pp 386-387 no. 60-65]. Clement III announced their appointment in a letter to the Pisatans on May 19, 1188. He was at Lucca on July 7, 1188 . Their mediation was successful (JL 16363). He continued as legate in Lombardy until 1193 .[Kehr, Italia Pontificia 5, p. 499, no. *44 (May 3, 1193); Pflugk-Harttung, Iter Italicum p. 508 nr. 86]. He then served as Legate in Sicily for Celestine III [Cardella, 154]. He had been sent, along with Cardinal Gratianus of SS. Cosma e Damiano, as Legate to Emperor Henry VI [JL 17226 (April 27, 1195); Watterich II, p. 743], and was reported by Pope Celestine as being on his way back to the Curia on September 4, 1196 [JL 17426]. While in Germany he preached an Easter sermon (April 2, 1195) for the Crusade [Annales Marbacenses, in Watterich II, p. 743]. It is said that he died in 1208, based on a subscription reported by Potthast [Potthast 3472 (July 25, 1208)]. But the document in question [E. Gattola, Historia Abbatiae Cassinensis Pars prima (Venetiis 1733) 419] does not in fact contain the subscription of Petrus tit. S. Ceciliae. His latest real subscription appears to be that of November 2, 1206. See W. Malaczek, "Diani, Pietro " in Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani 39 (1991).
  6. Jordanus (Giordano) de Ceccano, OCist. Cardinal Priest of S. Pudenziana tit. Pastoris. Legate of Pope Clement III iin 1189 along with Cardinal Petrus to settle problems between the Church of Trier (Archbishop Folmar and the Pope) and the Emperor Frederick Barbarossa; a second Legate, Cardinal Soffredo of S. Maria in Via Lata, had to be sent to the Emperor, who was not cooperative (Gesta Trevirorum 109, Watterich II, 703-704). See: Volkert Pfaff, "Ceccano, Giordano da," Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani 23 (1979) (retrieved 2/27/2013).
  7. Iohannes Felix (Giovanni Felici) [Romanus], Cardinal Priest in the title of S. Susanna (1189-1194). His predecessor was Cardinal Alex(ius) [whose latest subscription was on March 23, 1189: JL 16396]. He subscribes as Ioannes Felix in Bullarium Romanum (Turin edition) II, xiv, p. 95. Cardinal Iohannes latest known subscription is on June 28, 1194.
  8. Johannes [Lombardus], Bishop of Viterbo e Toscanella (1188-1199), Cardinal Priest in the title of S. Clemente. He and Cardinal Gregory a S. Apostolo of S. Maria in porticu settled a dispute between the Archbishop of Spalato (Split in Dalmatia) and his clergy on June 15, 1196 [JL 17404]. [Cappelletti, Chiese d'Italia 6, pp. 96-106] Later Cardinal Bishop of Albano (1199-1210) [Eubel I, p. 35]. [Cardella I. 2, pp. 165-166]
  9. Rufinus, Cardinal Priest in the title of S. Prassede, Bishop of Rimini [JL 16531 (December 7, 1190)]. He first subscribes for Celestine III on May 9, 1191. His latest known subscription is on July 26, 1191.
  10. Guido Papareschi (de Papa) [Romanus] Cardinal Priest of S. Maria in Trastevere. He was a relative of Innocent II. He was apparently appointed by Clement III in his last Consistory (1190) to succeed Cardinal Laborans (who last subscribes on June 26, 1189). Guido subscribes on February 17, 1191 [Jaffe-Loewenfeld, p. 535]. The Guido of S. Maria in Trastevere continues to subscribe with that title until May 6, 1206, which is exactly when Guido Papareschi was appointed Cardinal Bishop of Palestrina (1206-1217) [Cf. Eubel, Hierarchia catholica I editio altera, p. 37 n.2; cf. p. 3 n.4; and an electoral letter of Honorius III] [Cardella I. 2, pp. 168-171.  See Hurter, Storia di Papa Innocenzo III, p. 72 and n. 492: "Ciacconio ed altri anco accurati scrittori confondono questo Guido con Guido De la Poirée legato in Germania. Guido de Papa portava il titolo di Santa Maria Transtiberim."]. He subscribed for Celestine III on April 20, 1191.
          There is another Guido, a Cardinal Deacon whose Deaconry is unknown, who subscribes for Clement III on December 7, 1190—hence the confusion between the careers of Guido Papareschi and Guy Paré. The Cardinal Deacon Guido does not subscribe documents at all under Celestine III (1191-1198), which is probably why Jaffe has him die on February 17, 1191 [Jaffe-Loewenfeld, p. 535]. If one chooses to make Guy Paré the Cardinal Priest of S. Maria in Trastevere, then Guido Papareschi was not a Cardinal until he was named Bishop of Palestrina in 1206. To complicate matters further, Potthast makes Cardinal Guy Paré subscribe a document in 1200 as Bishop of Palestrina [Potthast , p. 462 and no. 1159].
  11. Hugo [Romanus}. He first appears in a bull of February 17, 1191 [JL 16671; JL II, p. 536; Kartusch p. 201 n.3]. He subscribed for Celestine III on July 24, 1191 [Nachrichten...Gottingen (1911), Beiheft, pp. 103 ff., nr. 65].  He subscribed until January 1206. [Kartusch, pp. 200-202; cf. Ciaconius-Olduin I, 1159, who make him a creation of Celestine III, as did Onuphrio Panvinio].
  12. Romanus, Cardinal Priest in the title of S. Anastasia. He subscribes for Celestine III on May 15, 1191, His latest known subscription is in October, 1194.
  13. Cynthius (Cencius) de Cinciis [Romanus], Cardinal Priest in the title of S. Lorenzo in Lucina (1191-1217) [JL 16671 (February 17, 1191); Eubel I, p. 3 n. 1 and p. 43; Pflugk-Harttung, Iter Italicum (1883), no. 89, pp. 510-511 (March 26, 1196)], promoted to Bishop of Porto (1217-1218) [Eubel I, p. 36]. Legate to Sweden in 1191-1192 (JL 16781).
  14. Joannes de Salerno, OSBCas., Cardinal Priest in the title of S. Stefano al Monte Celio (from December, 1190).  Formerly Cardinal Deacon S.R.E. (September-December, 1190). He subscribed for Innocent III on March 23, 1198 [G. Canboni, in N. D'Acunto (editor), Papato e monachesimo esente nei secoli centrali del medioevo (Firenze 2003), 102]. Legate in Scotland 1201-1202. Roger of Hoveden criticizes him for his greed for money. The Chronicle of Melrose, sub anno 1202, accuses him of judicial corruption: Apud Melros honorifice susceptus, per 50 noctes et amplius commoratus est; maxime ut controversiam inter monachos de Kelcon et monachos de Melros pacificaret: qui utrique parti bene pollicitans, nulli satisfaciens, quamplurima dona, scilicet auri et argenti, necnon equorum plurimorum, ab utraque parte auferens, nulli quicquam commoditatis conferens, litem penitus indeterminatam reliquit. His latest known subscription is on April 22, 1208.
  15. Ovicio (Ugo) (Bobone) [Romanus], Cardinal Priest in the title of SS. Silvestro e Martino ai Monti.[Schiaparelli, Archivio della r. società della storia patria 25 (1902) no. 78, p. 345 (January 12, 1191): Ovicio quondam noster concanonicus cardinalis presbiter Sancti Martini.].JL 16671 (February 17, 1191) [absent according to Salvador Miranda—no reason given]

  16. Hyacinthus (Giacinto) Bobone [Romanus], son of Petrus Bubonis de Orsinis, Cardinal Deacon of S. Maria in Cosmedin (1144-1191). Cardinal Protodeacon (primus inter diaconos). On April 27, 1138 he had subscribed as Jacinthus, prior subdiaconorum sacri palatii [JL I, p. 841and 7890]. Peter of Blois [Epistles 123, in Migne, PL 207, columns 366-367]:
    Vidimus quamplures in Ecclesia Romana in ordine diaconatus usque ad decrepitam aetatem et exhalationem extremi spiritus ministrasse. Certe dominus Caelestinus, qui hodie sedet, sicut ex ipsius ore frequenter accepi, in officio levitae sexaginta quinque annos expleverat [1126-1191], antequam ipsum Dominus in summi Pontificatus apicem sublimasset.
    He was in his mid-80's.
  17. Graziano [Pisanus], Cardinal Deacon of SS. Cosma e Damiano (1178-1203). Nephew of Pope Eugenius III (reigned 1145-1153). A survivor, with Konrad of Wittelsbach, of the creature of Alexander III. Twice sent as Legate to England, to deal with the conflict between Henry II and Thomas Becket, the first time as Apostolic Subdeacon and Vice-Chancellor (1169), the second as Cardinal Deacon and Legatus a latere. It was he who placed England under Interdict because of the assassination of Archbishop Becket [Cardella, 127-128; H. tillmann, Die päpstlichen Legaten in England bis zur Beendigung der Legation Gualas (1218) (Bonn 1926), 45, 64, 68, 215, 277, 280, 301]. In 1187 and 1188 he was Clement III's legate in northern Italy; he is attested at Ferrara, Piacenza and Padua [November 5, 1187: Kehr, IP 7. 1, p. 198 no.3]. In general see Tommaso di Carpegna Falconieri, "Graziano da Pisa," Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani 59 (2003) (retrieved 3/1/2013).
  18. Gerardo [Lucca], Cardinal Deacon of S. Adriano (1182–after April 1204) [JL 16419 (June 6, 1189); 16681 (May 2, 1191)]. Rector of Benevento early in the reign of Celestine III.
  19. Soffredus, Cardinal Deacon of S. Maria in Via lata. Soffredus of Pistoia (not Soffredus of Pisa) who was made Cardinal Deacon of S. Maria in Via Lata by Lucius III [Cardella, 148-149] (1182-1193), where he was succeeded by Petrus Capuanus, who in 1205 became Cardinal Priest of S. Marcello [Cavazzi, S. Maria in Via Lata (1908) , p. 401]. It was Soffredus of Pisa who was sent to Pisa and Genoa (May 6, 1188: JL 16238; JL 16314) along with Cardinal Petrus Diani of S. Cecilia to settle a dispute; their mediation was successful (JL 16363). He was promoted to the Titulus of S. Prassede in 1193. He died on December 14, 1210 [Beani, 22-23 and n. 1]. Franciscus Antonius Zacharias, Bibliotheca Pistoriensis (Augustae Taurinorum 1752), p. 97: Calendarium alterum Pistoriense: December 14: Soffredus tt. S. Praxedis presbiter card. qui dedit huic Ecclesiae altare viaticum, in quo sunt 44 Capilli B.M.V., anno 1210.
  20. Johannes Malabranca [Romanus], Cardinal Deacon of S. Teodoro (since 1188). His latest known subscription is on November 11, 1192.
  21. Gregorio [Romanus], Cardinal Deacon of S. Angelo in Pescheria. The virtues or accomplishments that brought him a cardinalate are completely unknown. Sent by Pope Celestine III as Legate in Spain, where he celebrated a Synod at Salamanca (1192); he was in the Iberian peninsula until 1194. (died under Innocent III. His latest subscription is in July, 1202). [Cardella II.1, pp. 173-174]
  22. Gregorio Carelli (di Monte Carello) [Tuscan], Cardinal Deacon of S. Giorgio in Velabro (1190-1211)
  23. Bernardo, Cardinal Deacon of S. Maria Nova
  24. Lotharius dei Conti di Segni (aged 37; born 1171 or 1172), son of Count Thrasmund, Conte di Segni. He studied Theology in Paris (with Pierre de Corbeil) and Law in Bologna (with Uguccione da Pisa). Ordained Apostolic Subdeacon by Gregory VIII (1187). Made Cardinal Deacon of SS. Sergio e Bacco by Clement III at the age of 29 (1190). Over the next two years he restored the Church of his Deaconry; after he became pope, he added the colonnaded portico in front of the church. The deaconry was passed on to his relative Ottaviano de' Conti di Segni in 1205. He was a regular signatory of documents during the reign of Celestine III, indicating that his principal occupation was in conducting the regular business of the Church in the Curia (died July 16, 1216)
  25. Gregorio Galgano de San Apostolo (1188- ca. 1202), Cardinal Deacon of S. Maria in Porticu. [Cardella, pp. 159-160]
  26. Gregorio Crescenzi [Romanus], Cardinal Deacon of S. Maria in Aquiro. {Cardella, pp. 164-165]
  27. Egidius di Anagnia, Cardinal Deacon of S. Nicola in Carcere Tulliano. He subscribed for Celestine III on April 20, 1191. His latest known subscription is in October, 1194.
  28. Niccolò, Cardinal Deacon of S. Lucia in Orphea on the Esquiline (Silice) [JL 16671 (February 17, 1191)]. succeeded by Cardinal Centius Savelli

Those probably not present at the Election:

  1. ? Petrus Gallocia (Galluzzi) [Romanus], Bishop of Porto e Santa Rufina (1190-1211). Apparently he had been named a Cardinal in the Consistory of March, 1188, but had not been assigned a post until he became Bishop of Porto in 1190 ["Documenti per la storia ecclesiastica e civile di Roma," Studi e documenti di storia e diritto 7 (1886), at p. 198 and 208 (October 5, 1188 and February 18, 1189); Maleczek, Papst und Kardinalskolleg von 1191 bis 1216: die Kardinäle unter Coelestin III. und Innocenz III, p. 95; Annibale Hari, "Gallozia (Gallocia, Gallucia), Pietro," Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani 51 (1998) (retrieved 2/27/2013)]. He subscribes as Bishop of Porto for the first time on August 20, 1190. He had been Rector Campaniae before becoming a Cardinal. He was present as Cardinal Bishop of S. Rufina at Christmas Mass in St. Peter's in 1190 [Schiaparelli, Archivio della r. società della storia patria 25 (1902) no. 77, p. 344: Cardinal Petrus Gallocia Sancte Rufine episcopus in nocte Nativitatis Domini interesset officiis (December 25, 1190).
          Tomasz Karlikowski, however, has an attractive and not unlikely hypothesis.  He believes that a Petrus (Gallocia, in fact) had been created Cardinal Priest of S. Lorenzo in Damaso;  this Cardinal Petrus subscribed from April 5, 1188, to July 23, 1190, at which point he seems to disappear.  The coincidence of the disappearance of Petrus of S. Lorenzo and the appearance of Petrus of Porto is too much to believe.   Actually Petrus Gallocia was promoted to Cardinal Bishop of Porto.
          He served under Celestine III as Legatus a latere in Constantinople (1192-1193; he has returned by January 27,1193: JL 16950 (10407)] He assisted at the dediation of the high altar in S. Eustachio by Celestine III [Inscriptiones Romanae infimi aevi  I, p. xlii-xliii no. 54: Celestine III, Octavianus Hostiensis, Petrus Gallocia Portuensis, and Iohannes Albanensis (1196)].
         At the time of the Election of 1191 he was possibly with King Henry in Tuscany, engaged in negotiations for his coronation as Emperor, and, of course, in the matter of Tusculum.  He witnessed an imperial charter on March 8, 1191, at Castrum Sancti Quirici (San Quirico d'Orcia [Regesta Imperii IV: Lothar III. und altere Staufer (1125-1197), RI IV.3 no. 141].  That he was still with the King of the Romans at the time of the death of Pope Clement is only a conjecture by Ina Friedlaender, Die päpstlichen Legaten in Deutschland und Italien am Ende des XII. Jahrhunderts (1181-1198) (Berlin 1928), pp. 72-73. There is no positive evidence. He might jut as well have returned to Rome after March 8 to report his failure.
  2. Konrad von Wittelsbach, consanguineus Imperatoris [Frederici], de Bavaria oriundus. Count Palatine of the Rheinland. Archbishop of Mainz (November 1163-October 25, 1200) and Salzburg (1177-1183). Brought up in the Church of Salzburg (Christiani Chronicum Moguntinum, in P. Jaffé, Bibliotheca Germanica III, p. 693). Cardinal Priest of S. Marcello (1165), then Cardinal Bishop of Sabina (1166-1200) [Kartusch, 126-133; Maleczek, 67]. In the early part of his career he was embroiled in the schism between Alexander III and "Victor IV" and his Imperial supporters in Germany, and was forced to flee to Rome. In 1177 it was agreed that he should have the Archbishopric of Salzburg, since he was exiled from Mainz (which was given to Archbishop Christian, who died in 1183, after which Conrad was able to regain his seat in Mainz). He subscribed documents for Urban III in the first three months of 1186. He did not subscribe papal documents at all for Gregory VIII or Clement III, and only once for Celestine III (in February, 1197). He died at the end of 1200 [cf. Innocent III, Epistolae III. 4: Migne, PL 214, columns 873-876 (mid-October, 1200) (Potthast 1148); Potthast 1179 (November, 1200)]; and Theiner (editor), Vetera monumenta Slavorum I, no. 246 (Potthast 1225)]. In the Catalogus Moguntinus and in the Annales Moguntini (P. Jaffé, Bibliotheca Germanica III, p. 4 and p. 708), the date of his death is given as 1200.
          On March 1, 1190, King Henry had been in Mainz and granted the Cardinal Archbishop the right to coin money, and on the same day he held a Reichstag (Toeche, Kaiser Heinrich VI, p. 645 no. 72). Cardinal Conrad was sent to Apulia after Easter, 1190, on orders of King Henry to investigate the situation with 'King Tancred', but he had returned to Germany (Annales Colonenses, in MGH SS 17, p. 798): Post pascha (April 1, 1190) rex [Henricus] Moguntinum archiepiscopum et Ditherium cancellarium premittit in Apuliam ad explorandum eventum rerum. sed ortis inter eos simultatibus, Moguntiacus statim revertitur, cancellarius in Novembri redit, omnia facilia captu indicans. Cardinal Conrad, therefore, was most probably in Germany at the time of the Election of 1191 (cf. P. Jaffé, Bibliotheca Germanica III, pp. 413-414). He was in Rome from January 31, 1197 to February 9, 1197, as subscriptions indicate.
  3. Guillaume de Champagne (ca. 1135-1202), "Blanches-Mains", fourth son of Thibault Comte de Champagne and Maude (Mahaud) de Flandre. Former Bishop of Chartres (1164-1176). Archbishop of Reims (1176-1202). Cardinal Priest in the title of S. Sabina since 1179 [JL 13369 (April 6, 1179)] [Migne, PL 200, 1228 (JL 13371, April 8, 1179)] [JL 13383 (April 14, 1179)]). He participated in the III Lateran Council of March 5-19, 1179 [Mansi, Sacrorum Conciliorum 22, 239 and 464], and was made Cardinal on the second day, March 7 [JL, p. 339]. Governor of the State in France (1183). When Pope Lucius expressed a desire to meet with him, King Philip II replied that there was no one in his kingdom dearer to him than his uncle the Cardinal, who was his vigilant eye in his Councils, and the Cardinal was not allowed to go. He did finally go in 1184 (not in 1185, as Duchesne reports; subscriptions show him in Verona with Lucius III in the last three months of 1184). The Cardinal and his sister, the Queen Mother Adela of Champagne, were regents of France when Philip II went on Crusade in 1190-1191 (Rigordus, de Gestis Philippi Regis, in: Recueil des historiens des Gaules 17, p. 30). He could not have been in Rome in March, 1191, for the Election of Pope Celestine III. King Philip was still in Italy on his way to the Crusade [cf. François Duchesne, Histoire de tous les Cardinaux françois de naissance (Paris 1660), p. 165-168] [In general, see Maleczek, Papst und Kardinalskolleg, 64-68; Kartusch, 424-427]
  4. Adelardo "Cattaneo", of Verona, cardinalis sancte Romane ecclesie, bishop of Verona, and, according to Miranda, retired from the titulus of S. Marcello [cf. Eubel I, p. 3. n. 1]. He signed bulls for Lucius III in 1185 [Jaffé, Regesta pontificum II, p. 431; Lucius died on November 21, 1185], for Urban III [Jaffé, p. 493; Urban died on October 20, 1187], for Gregory VIII [October-December 17, 1187], and Clement III, until October 29, 1188 [Jaffé, 536].
          By 1193, the Cardinal Priest of S. Marcello was Cardinal Fidantius [Jaffé, p. 577; Pflugk-Harttung, Acta pontificum Romanorum inedita I (1880), no. 435, pp. 374 (JL 17341); Pflugk-Harttung, Iter Italicum (1883), no. 87, pp. 509-510]. On June 14, 1195, Fidantius was legatus of Celectine III in Lombardy [Kehr, Italia Pontificia 5, p. 422 no. 8]. Innocent III wrote four letters on May 10, 1202, to A(delardo) Sanctae Romanae Ecclesiae Cardinali, Veronensi Episcopo [Migne, Patrologiae 214, columns 985-988; Potthast nr. 1674]. In his biographical notice of Raoul de Neuville, Salvador Miranda explains at n. 1 that "the practice of resigning the cardinalatial title when appointed to a diocese was followed by some cardinals in the 12th and 13th centuries", citing the Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1928 for Cardinal Adelardo Cattaneo in 1188—which is in fact merely the date of his latest known subscription (The "practice" was not followed by Stephen Langton of Canterbury or Guy Paré of Rheims, Bishop of Palestrina [Gallia Christiana 10 (1717), Instrumenta cols. 53-56 (July 6, 1204) = Potthast 2269]). Note that, according to the evidence cited, Adelardus continues to be a Cardinal of the Holy Roman Church; it is only his titulus that he resigns. Migne remarks [column 985 n. 109] that Cardinal Adelard died in 1211 or 1212. The latest document with his subscription seems to be one of July 17, 1212 [Ganzer, 140]. Kartusch [p. 65 and n. 38] states, "Adelard soll ende1211 oder Anfang 1112 gestorben sein." And, as Eubel points out on p. 522, Cardinal Adelardus' successor, Bishop Norandinus, was already bishop-elect of Verona on October 13, 1214, and held it until September 22, 1224.
  5. Rogerius, OSB Cas., Cardinal Priest in the title of S. Eusebio. Aappointed Archbishop of Benevento in 1179 by Alexander III [F. Ughelli, Italia sacra VIII (Venetiis 1721), 126]; he held the post until December 25, 1221 [cf. G. Cappelletti, Le chiese d' Italia III (1844), pp. 82-87]. His predecessor was Lombardus, who was appointed in 1171 and resigned before July 27, 1179 [Ughelli, Italia sacra VIII, 121-123]. He did not subscribe any papal documents. [Eubel, Hierarchia Catholica I, p. 3 n.1, and p. 5 n.2, does not consider him as one of the Cardinals alive at the time of the Election of 1198, or as one of the Cardinals alive at the time of the Election of 1216—though he survives until 1121; cf. Brixius, p. 66]. Ganzer, pp. 129-131, believes that he was not a cardinal during his archbishopric. He is called Cardinal of S. Eusebio is in E. Gattula, Historia Abbatiae Cassiniensis Pars prima (Venetiis 1733). 399, which Gattula quotes from the Register of Petrus Diaconus, and notes that the document is in a later hand, quamquam recentiori charactere [text also in Ughelli VIII, 126]. Ughelli [Italia Sacra VIII, 126] also mentions the existence of a second text, which was later published by Stefano Borgia, in Memorie istoriche della pontificia città di Benevento Parte III (Roma 1769) 185-187. [My thanks to Tomasz Karlikowske for drawing this to my attention]. A letter of Philippus, Bishop of Troia and Rector of Benevento notes that, in accordance with a papal mandate, Pater noster d(omi)nus Roggerius dei gratia sancti Eusebii Cardinalis Beneventanus Episcopus suspenderat ab officio iudicatus [Petrum Malaina]. The document was found by Norbert Kamp, Kirche und Monarchie im staufischen Konigreich Sizilien (1973), p. 206. There is no question, therefore, that Rogerius was a Cardinal of S. Eusebio from 1180 to his death in 1221. Ughelli mentions a third document, dated 1220, but it has not been located. In any case, there is no evidence that Cardinal Rogerius attended the Election of 1216, or 1198, or 1187, or 1187, or 1181.
  6. (Magister) Melior [Pisanus], Cardinal Priest of SS. Ioannis et Pauli. He held the title of Magister, as a document testifies in which he arranges for Masses for the souls of Lucius III and Cardinal Teodinus of Porto [May 10, 1186 (Kehr Italia Pontificia VII. 1, p. 247 no. 8)]. Archdeacon of Laon and Archdeacon of Reims, he had been made a Cardinal by Lucius III in 1185 [Th. Lejeune, Documents et rapports de la Société paléontologique et archéologique de Charleroi 12 (1883), no. xxvi, 335-339 (November 11, 1185)], and was S.R. E. Camerarius from 1184-1187. In the year of the Election of 1191, he was in northern Tuscany;  on March 1, 1191, at Pisa, he signs the treaty between Henry VI and the Pisitans as magister Melior cardinalis Massanus episcopus [Regesta Imperii IV: Lothar III. und altere Staufer (1125-1197), RI IV.3 no. 138;  MGH Constitutiones I, pp. 472-477, no. 333]. He was sent as Legate to France by Celestine III, escorting Queen Berengaria of England and Joanna, widow of King William of Sicily (March or April, 1193). In 1194 he arranged a truce between Richard I of England and Philip Augustus of France. He had been sent again as Legate to France in the Spring of 1195 with his associate the Subdeacon and Papal Notary Centius who was special Papal Legate [Letter of Celestine III to Archbishop Walter of Rouen, March 13, 1195 (Recueil des historiens des Gaules 19, p. 340)] to deal with King Philip Augustus' embarassing marital situation. Melior was back in Rome in 1196: he subscribed bulls on February 9 and 13, 1196 [Migne Patrologiae 206, 1141 and 1146], March 7, 1196 [JL 17341], on May 11 [Migne Patrologiae 206, 1168], and again at the beginning of summer, on June 24, 1196 [J. Courtois, Chartes de l' Abbaye de Saint-Étienne de Dijon   Tome 1.1 (Paris 1908), p. 126], and again on December 13, 1196 [Migne Patrologiae 206, 1192] . Cardinal Melior was in Rome in the winter of 1196/7, and subscribed two bulls on February 1, 1197 [Migne PL 206, nos. 292 and 293, columns 1199 and 1200; JL 17488]. Sent to France again in 1197, he excommunicated Count Baldwin of Flanders and laid the Interdict on his lands [Lettres d' Étienne de Tournai (ed. Jules de Silve) no. 242, pp. 298-300 and 468 (1197, before July 1)]. Stephen of Tournai in obedience to the Pope and to Cardinal William of Champagne also placed an interdict on the lands of Count Baldwin and excommunicated him [Lettres d' Étienne de Tournai (ed. Jules de Silve) no. 14]. Baldwin of Flanders had just entered into a treaty of alliance with King Richard I of England (Recueil des historiens des Gaules 17, pp. 46-49; Rymer Foedera I, p. 30). In the summer of 1197, Baldwin was invading northeastern France; Arras and Tournai were under siege [Lettres d' Étienne de Tournai (ed. Jules de Silve) nos. 265-267]. In a letter to King Philip of May 17, 1198 (Ep. I, 171; Migne Patrologiae Latinae 214, column 149), Innocent III speaks of Cardinal Melior as bonae memoriae M. sanctor. Ioannis et Pauli presbyterum cardinalem, tunc apostolicae sedis legatus. There is a lamentable tendency among scholars to declare a person dead the day after he signs his latest extant document.
  7. ? Petrus, Cardinal Priest in the tite of S. Pietro in Vincoli. Created by Clement III in 1188.  He had been in Germany as papal legate in 1191, and was on his way back to Rome in the late winter of 1190/1191.  He was apparently authorized by Pope Clement to negotiate with King Henry, along with Cardinal Bishop Petrus Gallocia.  They witnessed an imperial charter on March 8, 1191, at Castrum Sancti Quirici (San Quirico d'Orcia [Regesta Imperii IV: Lothar III. und altere Staufer (1125-1197), RI IV.3 no. 141].
         At the time of the Election of 1191 he was possibly still with King Henry in Tuscany, engaged in negotiations for his coronation as Emperor, and, of course, in the matter of Tusculum.  That he was still with the King of the Romans at the time of the death of Pope Clement is only a conjecture by Ina Friedlaender, Die päpstlichen Legaten in Deutschland und Italien am Ende des XII. Jahrhunderts (1181-1198) (Berlin 1928), p. 72-73. There is no positive evidence. He might jut as well have returned to Rome to report his failure. 
          He first subscribes for Celestine III on May 9, 1191. His latest known subscription is on July 26, 1191. [Kartusch, 324-325].  His successor, Cardinal Bernardus, first subscribed (on present evidence) on March 5, 1193 (and continued until after 1204).
  8. Roffredo dell'Isola, OSB, Cardinal Priest in the title of Ss. Marcellino e Pietro [1191–ca. 1200, according to Eubel, 44, who is clearly wrong); cf. Potthast 2076 (January 1, 1204) and Potthast 3471 a letter to Roffredo from Innocent III (July 25, 1208)]. He was Abbot of Montecassino (1188-1210) [e.g. JL 16648, where the cardinalate is also mentioned], and was likely at Montecassino on the day of the death and burial of Celestine III and election of Innocent III. Roffridus was, in fact, more of a general than a priest. He was a principal commander in the south for Emperor Henry VI, whose death on September 28, 1197, brought on a crisis in the south. It would have been positively dangerous for Roffridus' interests to be in Rome in January of 1198 (See Tosti, Storia della Badia di Monte-Cassino, I, pp.219-228) . Then, on the death of the Empress Constanza (November, 1198), the protection of her only son, Frederick of Sicily, fell to the Abbot as representative on the spot of Pope Innocent III, who had been named guardian of Frederick in the Empress' will. Ryccardus of S. Germano [MGH 19, p. 330; p. 69 ed. A. Gaudenzi (Napoli 1888)] says that in 1198 Pope Innocent sent two cardinals south to Roffredo with a troop of soldiers to be used against Markward of Annweiler, Count of the Abruzzi, agent of Philip of Swabia. In 1202 he and Cardinal Petrus Galloze were legates in Apulia [Ryccardus de S. Germano sub anno 1202; p. 70 ed. Gaudenzi]. In January, 1208, Cardinal Roffredo and an army reduced the city of Sora to obedience to Pope Innocent III; later that year, on June 23, Innocent visited S. Germano, and was received by the Cardinal [Ryccardus de S. Germano sub anno 1208; p. 73-74 ed. Gaudenzi]. Ryccardus of S. Germano states that Cardinal Abbot Roffredo died on May 30, 1209 [Ryccardus de S. Germano sub anno 1202; p. 75-76 ed. Gaudenzi], but this is not possible. He actually died on May 30, 1210 [Ganzer, 141-145]. [In general, see Maleczek, Papst und Kardinalskolleg, 68]

In addition, Salvador Miranda lists as cardinals:

  • a Cardinal Gerardo, O.Cist. (also called Maynardus), deacon of SS. Cosma e Damiano. But the office was already competently filled by Graziano [Pisanus], Cardinal Deacon of SS. Cosma e Damiano (1178-1203), nephew of Pope Eugenius III (reigned 1145-1153), who is well-attested by numerous subscriptions. There was only one Gerardus in the decade, and he was the well-attested Cardinal Deacon of S. Adriano [JL 16419 (June 6, 1189); 16681 (May 2, 1191)]. [Ciaconius-Olduin, I, column 1150]
  • Giovanni Barrata, deaconry not known (He subscribes for Celestine III in March, 1193, again without deaconry. Is he perhaps actually just S.R.E. Diaconus?).
  • Niccolò, created in September 1190, "no specific deaconry assigned" [Actually, the deaconry is not mentioned in his subscription to JL 16531 (December 7, 1190) a bull in favor of the Monastery of S. Benedetto Po, but he was Cardinal Deacon S. Lucia in Orphea on the Esquiline (Silice) in a bull of February 17, 1191 (JL 16671)]. Salvador Miranda lists a second Niccolò, the nephew of Clement III, created in September 1190, with "no specific deaconry assigned". No surviving document has both Nicholases on the same document, and indeed the Nicolaus of S. Lucia is no longer heard from at all after that one signature. Might it not be that there is only one Niccolò, the nephew of Clement III, and that his deaconry was changed to a more prestigeous one (S. Maria in Cosmedin) by Celestine III at the beginning of his reign (perhaps in gratitude for electoral support)? S. Maria in Cosmedin had been Celestine III's Deaconry before he was elected pope. Nicholas of S. Maria in Cosmedin subscribes from May 20, 1191. [JL 16721 (June 13, 1191); Bullarium Romanum 3, p. 79 (August 5, 1192)]
  • a Gandolfo, OSB, yet another deacon of SS. Cosma e Damiano (whose existence is known only to the Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1928, p. 147, that most malodorous of "authorities", which is self-contradictory). This "cardinal" is complete nonsense; Miranda's list of cardinals is agglutinative and uncritical, and not in accord with the surviving documents.

In addition, Salvador Miranda lists three cardinals, who were certainly not present at the Election of 1191:

  • Simeone Paltinieri, title not known. (Olduin points out, in Ciaconius-Olduin Volume I, column 1122, that the knowledge of this "cardinal" comes entirely from one Bernardinus Scardeonius, an author from Padua. But where Scardeonius got the story, Olduin does not know: "at unde Scardeonius id acceperit, notum nobis non est." When Andrea Victorelli revised Ciaconius, he identified this Simon Paltinieri with the real cardinal of the same name, who had been a Canon of Padua, and who was Cardinal Priest of SS. Silvestri e Martini (1261-1277). There is no evidence to support the existence of the Simeone Paltinieri under Lucius III. [See Cardella I. 2, p. 155] Simeone Paltinieri was not a Cardinal in 1198.

  • Henri de Sully, OCist., son of Archambault III Comte de Bourbon; nephew of Thibault the Great, Comte de Champagne. His brother was Eudes (some say Maurice), Bishop of Paris. [See Plongeron et Pietri, Le Diocèse de Paris I (Paris 1987), 102]. He had been Abbot of Chalis in the Diocese of Sens. In 1183, he was elected Archbishop of Bourges, and consecrated by the Legate, Lamberto Crivelli, Archbishop of Milan (who became Pope Urban III in 1185). The confirmation of his privileges as archbishop and primate is made in a bull of Lucius III, dated January 3, 1184 (Pflugk-Harttung, Acta pontificum Romanorum inedita I, no. 355, pp. 311-313); he is addressed as: venerabili fratri Henrico, Bituricensis ecclesiae archiepiscopo.(There were two other bulls of the same date: Catalogue général des manuscrits des bibliothèques publiques de France, Tome XXXVII. seconde partie [Paris 1905], p. 826)   Urban III allegedly made Henri a Cardinal in 1186 and Legatus in Aquitaine, but his alleged titulus as cardinal, if any, is unknown, and indeed most authorities never speak of him as a cardinal.
          Antoine Touron, OP, Histoire des hommes illustres de l'Ordre de Saint Dominique (Paris 1743) p. 405, states that Henri de Sully was named Bishop of Albano by Urban III. There was indeed an Henricus Albanensis under Urban III, and he had been Legate in France, but he had been subscribing bulls since the time of Alexander III in 1179, and continued to do so until 1187; he was succeeded as Bishop of Albano by Albinus Albanensis in 1189. Clearly, Henricus Albanensis is a different person from Henri de Sully. Is it possible, however, that this casual mistake (not originally Touron's, but part of the Cistercian tradition) brought about the assignment of the title of cardinal to Henri de Sully?
          In papal letters and bulls addressed to him, Henri de Sully is never called Cardinal, only archbishop, primate, and legate. This is in constrast to the habit of the papal chancery with reference to Cardinal Guillaume, Archbishop of Reims: venerabilis fratris nostri W(illelmi) Remensis archiepiscopi, S. Sabinae cardinali, apostolicae sedis legati, where the title of Cardinal is always mentioned.  Panvinius and Ciaconius have no knowledge of Henri's cardinalate; but cf. François Duchesne, Histoire de tous les Cardinaux françois de naissance (Paris 1660), pp. 183-184. Ciaconius-Olduin I, column 1128, traces the information about the cardinalate to the Cistercian writer, Gaspare Iongelino [Purpura Sancti Bernardi (Cologne 1644)].   It seems that Sully never came to Rome. He did not participate in the Election of 1191, or any papal election. His name should be deleted from any list of cardinals. Henri de Sully died on September 13, 1199 [not 1200].

  • Guido de Papa (Papareschi) was a Cardinal and was probably present at the Election of 1191.
But the Cardinal Guido who was not present was not Guido Papareschi. It was Guido Paré (Guy Paré), who was not present likely because he was not yet a cardinal. He was not yet even Abbot of Citeaux and Master General of the Cistercians:
  • Guido (Guy Paré or Poré), OCist., fifteenth Abbot of Citeaux (1194-1200). Miranda lists him as Abbot and Abbot General in 1190, when he was allegedly named Cardinal. He was neither. The abbot of Clairvaux from 1190-1194 was Abbot William III. And thus, there is little logical reason why he should be picked out by Clement III to be a cardinal. In 1190, his achievements were still in the future. Salvador Miranda makes Paré the Cardinal who subscribes that bull on February 17, 1191 (see above under Guido Papareschi) [Jaffe-Loewenfeld, p. 535] and the Cardinal of S. Maria in Trastevere. He was Legate in France in 1199. Legate in Germany in 1201 [Cf. Migne, PL 214, columns 957-958 n. 19]. He died on July 30, 1206 [Eubel I, p. 37]. He died at Gand of the plague and was buried in the Church in his monastery of Citeaux.
          When Guy Paré did finally come to Rome, after the conclusion of his Generalate, in the reign of Innocent III, he was appointed Bishop of Palestrina [Gallia Christiana 10 (1717), Instrumenta cols. 53-56 (July 6, 1204) = Potthast 2269] (The See of Palestrina had been occupied by Cardinal Johannes [Giovanni de' Conti di Segni] until after March 22, 1196). Davidsohn (p. 58, 61) apparently does not consider Guy a Cardinal in 1196. But when he was appointed Archbishop of Reims in 1204, he is again conspicuous by his absence in France. [In general see: François Duchesne, Histoire de tous les Cardinaux françois de naissance (Paris 1660), p. 185-188; Cardella, pp. 174-176]
          Cardella notes an attractive alternate view of Oudin, in which Guy was made a cardinal by Innocent III in 1198, while, rather than before, he was Abbot of Citeaux. Cardinal Guy could not have been subscribing documents in Rome throughout the 1190s while also being the Abbot General of the Cistercians and Abbot of Citeaux.

    The inscriptions on his tomb read:
    Nobis donatus de culmine pontificatus
    Rhemis translatus jacet hic vir Guido beatus.

    CORPUS B. Guidonis de Paré, quondam Cardinalis et Legati in Germania ex monacho et abbate hujus coenobii assumpti in archiepiscopum Rhemensem; obiit Gandavi anno
    M. CCVI.

    It is astonishing that scholars should insist that a Cardinal Guy from central France should just happen to show up at papal elections, while one from the city of Rome itself (Guido Papareschi) is nowhere to be found time and time again.


Nothing is known about the election, except that it was accomplished quickly, in one day. Perhaps that date was March 30, which could have been the day after the burial of Pope Clement III, his death taking place on March 28. Nothing is known about the internal dynamics of the election. Nothing that is, unless something can be extracted from a remark of Ralph de Diceto (Radulfus de Diceto, Dean of St. Paul's, London) [MGH 27, p. 280]:

Clemente papa tertio rebus humanis exempto, Iacintus, inter diaconos ecclesie Romane primus, ne scisma subitum in Ecclesia Dei consurgeret, se fieri papam vix tandem consensit; quem Octovianus Ostiensis episcopus die pasche consecravit episcopum; qui vocatus est Celestinus papa tertius.

Why the Cardinals chose a man in his mid-80s is unfathomable—unless perhaps, as Ralph might seem to suggest, that there was an irreconcilable difference between two parties, and Hyacinthus (however conventionally unwilling) was elected as the aged compromise candidate. This would leave the contenders with time to regroup and prepare for another election. A person in his mid-80's could not be expected to survive for a long time, certainly not eight years. On the other hand, Ralph might just be embroidering a bald chronological notice with the obvious inference that there are often two sides in an election. It is certain, however, that the Election was accomplished amid the greatest tension. The Emperor was was on his way to Rome with his army, and the citizens of Rome were arrogantly refusing to admit him unless their demands about Tusculum were satisfied.

Investiture and Coronation

Roger of Hoveden notes the ordination, consecration and coronation of the new pope [Volume III, p. 123 ed. Stubbs]:

Mense Aprilis, quarto idus ejusdem mensis, feria quarta, obiit Clemens papa tertius, cui successit Jacintus, diaconus cardinalis Sanctae Mariae in Cosmedin et in ipsa vigilia Paschae ordinatus est in sacerdotem; et in Romanum pontificem consecratus est ab Octoviano Histiensi episcopo, et vocatus est Coelestinus papa tertius.  

Celestine III was ordained a priest on Holy Saturday April 13, 1191, he was consecrated bishop by Ottaviano, Cardinal Bishop of Ostia, on Easter Sunday, April 14, 1196 [cf. Baronius-Theiner, sub anno 1191, no. 4-5, p. 602], and crowned as pope. Next day, he crowned Henry VI and Constantia as Roman Emperor and Empress.



J.-P. Migne (editor), Patrologiae Latinae Tomus CCVI: Coelestinus III Pontifex Maximus, etc. (Paris 1855) "Gesta Innocentii PP. III.," J.-P. Migne (editor) Patrologiae Latinae Tomus CCXIV: Innocentius III Pontifex Maximus (Paris 1890), xvii-ccxxviii. ['ab auctore anonymo, sed coaetaneo, scripta"]   V. Pfaff, "Die Gesta Innocenz' III und das Testament Heinrichs VI.," Zeitschrift der Savigny-Stiftung. Kanonische Abteilung I (1964) 78-126.

Bartolomeo Platina, Historia B. Platinae de vitis pontificum Romanorum ... Onuphrii Panvinii ... cui etiam nunc accessit supplementum ... per Antonium Cicarellam (Coloniae Agrippinae: sumptibus Petri Cholini, 1626). Bartolomeo Platina, Storia delle vite de' Pontefici edizione novissima Tomo terzo (Venezia: Domenico Ferrarin, 1763). Onuphrio Panvinio, Epitome Pontificum Romanorum a S. Petro usque ad Paulum IIII. Gestorum (videlicet) electionisque singulorum & Conclavium compendiaria narratio (Venice: Jacob Strada 1557).  Alphonsus Ciaconius [Alfonso Chacon], Vitae et Res Gestae Pontificum Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalium ... ab Augustino Oldoino Societatis Iesu recognitae Tomus Primus (Romae: sumptibus Philippi et Antonii de Rubeis 1677) [Volume 1 of the 4 volume edition]. Lorenzo Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa Tomo primo Parte secondo (Roma: Pagliarini 1792).

William Stubbs (editor), Chronica Magistri Rogeri de Houedene Vol. III (London 1870). 

William Stubbs (Editor), The Historical Works of Master Ralph de Diceto 2 Volumes (London 1876)

Augustinus Theiner (editor), Caesaris S. R. E. Cardinalis Baronii, Od. Raynaldi et Jac. Laderchii Annales Ecclesiastici   Tomus Vigesimus 1147-1198 (Barri-Ducis: Ludovicus Guerin 1880) [Baronius-Theiner].

MGH: G. H. Pertz (editor), Monumenta Germaniae Historica: Scriptorum Tomus XVIIII (Hannover 1866). [Ryccardus de S. Germano, Chronica].   Monumenta Germaniae Historica SS 23 (1863), 333-383 [Urspurgensium Chronocon].

Ludovico Antonio Muratori, Annali d' Italia Volume 17 (Firenze: Leonardo Marchini 1827), esp. 288-293.

Augustin Theiner (editor), Vetera monumenta Slavorum Meridionalium historiam illustrantia, maximam partem nondum edita ex tabularis Vaticanis deprompta collecta ac serie chronologica disposita I (Roma: Typis Vaticanis 1863).

Philippus Jaffé (editor) , Bibliotheca Germanica III: Monumenta Moguntina (Berlin: Weidmann 1866).

S. Loewenfeld (editor), Epistolae pontificum Romanorum ineditae (Lipsiae: Veit 1885).

Johann M. Watterich, (editor), Pontificum Romanorum qui fuerunt inde ab exeunte saeculo IX usque ad finem saeculi XIII vitae ab aequalibus conscriptae Tomus II (Lipsiae 1862). [Watterich]

Aloysius Tomassetti (editor), Bullarum, Diplomatum, et Privilegiorum sanctorum Romanorum Pontificum Taurinensis Editio III (Turin 1858), pp. 593 ff. [Bullarium Romanum]

Walther Holtzmann (editor), Papsturkunden in England I (Göttingen 1931) [Abhandlungen  N.F. 25, no. 2].

Katrin Baaken, "Zu Wahl, Weihe und Krönung Papst Cölestins III.,"   Deutsches Archiv für Erforschung des Mittelalters 41 (1985), 203-211.   V. Pfaff, "Celestino III," Enciclopedia dei Papi II (Roma 2000), 320-326.  Ovidio Capitani, "Celestino III," Federiciano (2005), in the Treccani Enciclopedia (retrieved February 27, 2013). John Doran and ‎Damian J. Smith, Pope Celestine III (1191-1198), Diplomat and Pastor (Farnham, England ; Burlington, VT : Ashgate, 2008).

Ed. Winkelmann, "Zwolf Papstbriefe zur Geschichte Friedrichs II und seiner Nachkommen," Forschungen zur deutschen Geschichte 15 (1875), pp. 373-389.  L. Schiaparelli, "Cartario di S. Pietro in Vaticano," Archivio della r. società della storia patria 25 (1902) 273-354.   A. Siguret, "Étude sur la correspondance diplomatique des papes avec les Archevêques de Bourges de Nicolas Ier à Innocent III," Revue du Berry 31 (1902), 145-320.

Joseph Felten, Papst Gregor IX. (Freiburg i.B. 1886). Eduard Winkelmann, Philipp von Schwaben und Otto IV. von Braunschweig two volumes (Leipzig 1873). Friedrich Hurter, Geschichte Papst Innocenz III und seiner Zeitgenossen Band I (Hamburg 1834). Federico Hurter, Storia di Papa Innocenzo III e de' sui contemporanei   terza edizione riveduta ed ampliata Tomo I (Milano 1857).   J. Clausen, Papst Honorius III (1216-1227. Eine Monographie (Bonn: P. Hauptmann 1895). Achille Luchaire, Innocent III. Rome et l' Italie (Paris 1904).

Paul Fabre, Étude sur le Liber censuum de l' Église romain (Paris: E. Thorin 1892).

F. Gregorovius, History of Rome in the Middle Ages, Volume IV. 2 [translated from the fourth German edition by A. Hamilton] (London: George Bell, 1896) Book IX, Chapter 3, pp. 96-128.   J. B. Sägmüller, Thätigkeit und Stellung der Kardinale bis Papst Bonifaz VIII. (Freiburg i.Br.: Herder 1896). Karl Wenck, review of Sägmüller, Thätigkeit, in Göttingsche gelehrte Anzeiger 163 (1900) 139-175.   Karl Holder, Die Designation der Nachfolger durch die Päpste (Freiburg: Weith 1892). Stephen Kuttner, "Cardinalis: the History of a canonical concept," Traditio 3 (1945) 129-214.

Gioanni Lampugnani, Sulla vita di Guala Bicchieri, patrizio vercellese (Vercelli 1842). Gaetano Beani, "Il cardinale Soffredo," Bulletino storico pistoiese 4 (1902), 9-23. Werner Maleczek, Petrus Capuanus: Kardinal, Legat am vierten Kreuzzug, Theologie (†1214) (Vienna 1988); revised version: Pietro Capuano: Patrizio amalfitano, Cardinale, Legato alla Quarto Crociata Teologo (†1214) (Amalfi 1997). Cardinal Melior: Religieux Bénédictins de la Congrégation de Saint-Maur (editors), Histoire littéraire de la France Tome XV (Paris: Didot 1820), pp. 316-319. C. Will, Conrad von Wittelsbach, Cardinalbischof von Mainz und von Salzburg (Regensburg 1880).

Conradus Eubel, OFM Conv., Hierarchia Catholici Medii Aevi...ab anno 1198 usque ad annum 1431 perducta   editio altera (Monasterii 1913) 7-8.  

Robert Davidsohn, Philipp II August von Frankreich und Ingeborg (Stuttgart 1888). Theodor Toeche, Kaiser Heinrich VI (Leipzig 1867). Ugo Balzani, The Popes and the Hohenstaufen (New York: Longmans 1898).

March 10, 2016 4:40 AM

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