Sede Vacante 1187

December 17, 1187–December 19, 1187

Lateran Palace in Middle Ages
Clement III (Paolo Scolari) brought the Papacy back to the Lateran Palace


Gregory VIII succeeded to the Papal Throne at a moment of extreme crisis. Urban III, in his high-minded and uncompromising way, had paid no attention to the realities of his situation. The popes had been expelled from Rome, and the city was in the hands of a Commune which was hostile to papal political pretensions. Pope Lucius had not even been able to maintain himself in the Roman Campagna. With Archbishop Christian of Mainz dead (1183), the Papacy had no German commander who could lead a papal army to assert its rights. The popes were now living in Lombardy, which was Imperial territory, and the Emperor, Frederick Barbarossa had been campaigning there vigorously for years, hoping to recoup all of his losses, real and psychological, from his defeat at the Battle of Legnano in 1176. His son, Henry (Heinrich VI) was only in his early twenties, and already an accomplished military commander. In 1187 he had campaigned in southern Tuscany and the Campagna with considerable success. When Urban III decided to exercise his spleen against his enemy the Emperor, he maneuvered himself into an impossible situation, politically, diplomatically, and personally. He and his court were trapped in Verona.

The Annales Romani [Watterich II, 691] report that, immediately on his election, Gregory VIII (Alberto di Morra) began to reverse the policy of the previous two reigns and attempt to restore the Roman Church. Indeed he had been elected specifically because he had been friendly toward and useful to the Emperor.  Gervase of Canterbury writes that Cardinal Albert di Morra had a good deal of credit with the Emperor, and it was he who had been keeping the Emperor briefed on the confidential doings of the Roman Curia [ed. Stubbs II, p. 402; Watterich II, p. 684]:

Sciebant enim cardinales quod idem Albertus multam imperatoris haberet gratiam, eo quod ipsius semper fovens partem, eidem omnia Romanae curiae revelaret secreta.

He immediately promised King Henry that he would grant him the Imperial crown, which had been denied him by Urban III, stating that it was not the business of the Pope and Cardinals to take up arms and wage war, but to spend their time in charity and prayer. This concession, which cost him nothing but which was an object of great value to Frederick and Henry, brought about an immediate change in the political climate, however artificial and temporary. Robert of Auxerre reported in his Chronicle [Watterich II, 691]:

Audita eius promotione laetatus est admodum Fredericus Augustus, eo quod virum discretum et iustitiae zelatorem cognosceret sibique benevolum et omnibus, si viveret, profuturum.

The Emperor gave immediate orders to his various officials to show the new Pope every respect and to supply him from Imperial resources as he journeyed through his territories. The Pope, it seemed, might be going back to Rome. Henry did the same, granting the Pope and his Court free passage throughout the entire Roman Empire [Annales Romani: MGH SS 5, p. 479; Watterich II, 692]. The papal suite left Ferrara on November 16, and were in Bologna on the 18th. On the 22nd they were at Modena, and at Parma on the 26th.

On November 30, Gregory was at Foro Novo, whence he wrote to Volcmar (Folmar) of Trier, inhibiting him from launching any additional excommunications or depositions, for the sake of the Oriental Church, the good will of the Emperor, and many other reasons [Watterich II, 690; JL 16075].]

Death of Pope Gregory VIII

The Pope and his entire Curia, accompanied by Leo Monumenti, the Roman consul, and Anselm, a German Count, set out for the south. They stopped at Lucca on December 7, where the Pope had the un-Christian pleasure of turning the Anti-pope Victor IV (Octavianus), who had died in 1164, out of his tomb [Nicolaus, Canon of Amiens, Chronica, in continuation of Sigibert: MGH SS 6, p. 474; Watterich II, 692].   They managed to get as far as Pisa, on December 10, 1187. The Pope's intention was to settle a dispute which was being carried on between Pisa and Genoa [Annales Romani: MGH 5, p. 480; Watterich II, 692; Chronicon breve Pisanum sub anno 1186, in Ughelli Italia Sacra 10, Anecdota, 121]:

Gregorius Octavus Papa ingressus urbem Pisanam, receptus est ab eisdem Pisanis cum magno honore 4. Id. Decembr., et mortuus est Pisis 16 Kalen. Januar. [December 17, 1187]

The Annales Romani [Watterich II, p. 692] reports, however, that he was stricken by a sudden illness (repentino morbo) and died. He had reigned only fifty-seven days. He was buried in the Cathedral of Pisa [Nicolaus, Canon of Amiens, Chronica, MGH VI, 474]. His monument was unfortunately destroyed in the fire of 1600.

The Cardinals

No new cardinals had been created in the 57 day reign of Gregory VIII. The College of Cardinals, therefore, was basically the same as in the October Election, without Cardinal de Morra (Gregory VIII) and Cardinal Petrus de Bono (who died on November 20, 1187) [G. G. Trombelli, Memorie istoriche cocern. le due canoniche di S. Maria di Reno e di S. Salvatore (Bologna 1752), p. 227; J. Brixius, Mitglieder, p. 65]. Ciaconius-Olduin (columns 1133-1134) provides a list of the cardinales "qui interfuerunt comitiis in quibus electus est Clemens Papa Tertius"; the list contains twenty-two names; it still includes Petrus de Bono. The latest known subscription lists for Gregory VIII, from Pisa [JL 16093 and Kehr IP VI. 2, p. 383 no. 10] indicate that the following cardinals were certainly in his suite at Pisa on December 11 and 14, 1187: Paulus and Theobaldus; Laborans and Melior; Jacinthus, Gratianus, Octavianus, Petrus, and Radulfus.

Cardinals attending:

  1. Konrad von Wittelsbach, consanguineus Imperatoris [Frederici], de Bavaria oriundus. Count Palatine of the Rheinland. Bishop of Sabina, Archbishop of Mainz (November 1163-October 25, 1200) and Salzburg. Brought up in the Church of Salzburg (Christiani Chronicum Moguntinum, in P. Jaffé, Bibliotheca Germanica III, p. 693). In the early part of his career he was embroiled in the schism between Alexander III and "Victor IV" and his Imperial supporters in Germany, and was forced to flee to Rome. In 1177 it was agreed that he should have the Archbishopric of Salzburg, since he was exiled from Mainz (which was given to Archbishop Christian, who died in 1183, after which Conrad was able to regain his seat in Mainz). He subscribed documents for Urban III in the first three months of 1186 [PL 202, 1351 (January 11, 1186)]. He did not subscribe papal documents at all for Gregory VIII or Clement III, and only once for Celestine III (in February, 1197). He died at the end of 1200 [cf. Innocent III, Epistolae III. 4: Migne, PL 214, columns 873-876 (mid-October, 1200) (Potthast 1148); Potthast 1179 (November, 1200)]; and Theiner (editor), Vetera monumenta Slavorum I, no. 246 (Potthast 1225)]. In the Catalogus Moguntinus and in the Annales Moguntini (P. Jaffé, Bibliotheca Germanica III, p. 4 and p. 708), the date of his death is given as 1200. Cardinal Konrad was, of course, hostile to the Emperor, because of the dispute over the See of Mainz. He was no friend of Archbishop Christian or of Christian's patron, Pope Lucius III. He probably did not participate in the Elections of 1187.
  2. Henri de Marsiac [de Castro Marsiaco], O.Cist., Bishop of Albano. Former Abbot of Altacomba [Hautecombe] in Savoy (1161), of Clairvaux (1176) [Gallia Christiana 4 (Parisiis 1728), 802-803], elevated at the III Lateran Council on March 7, 1179, in the second session {Mansi Sacrorum Conciliorum nova et amplissima collectio 22, 234; JL, p. 339].  Gregory VIII sent him to Germany to preach the Crusade (Watterich II, p. 682). His surviving works: Migne, Patrologiae Series Latina Tomus CCIV, cols. 204-402. He died on July 14, 1188. [One may ignore Henriquez, 1554, who wrongly puts his death "circa annum Domini 1186"]
  3. Paolo Scolari, Bishop of Palestrina (first subscribed on January 13, 1181). Educated at S. Maria Maggiore, and made Canon of the Liberian Basilica [F. Contelori, La gerarchia cardinalizia di Carlo Bartolomeo Piazza (Roma 1703) 221; G. Cappelletti, Le chiese d' Italia 1 (Venezia 1844), 606]. He was Archpriest of the Liberian Basilica (S. Maria Maggiore) [Annales Romani sub anno 1188, Watterich II, 693]. Formerly, it seems, Cardinal Deacon of SS. Sergio e Bacco (1179-1180) Built the Episcopal Palace in Palestrina. [future Pope Clement III] [cf. Cardella I. 2, p. 131; Geyer, p. 3]
  4. Theobaldus [Thibaud], OSB.Clun.   Cardella I. 2, p. 133-134. He is made a creation of Lucius III by Panvinio, which is certainly true of his appointment as Bishop of Ostia; he appears in inscription of July 13, 1183, as Bishop of Ostia [Ciaconius-Olduin, 1113]. He subscribes from June 15, 1184 to October 29, 1188. He died at the end of 1188 of the pestilence [Epistolae Cantuarienses, no. ccxcii, pp. 275]

  5. Giovanni dei Conti di Segni, Cardinal Priest in the title of S. Marco (1167-1190) [JL 16388], and before that Cardinal Deacon of S. Maria in Porticu (1159-1167) His latest subscription is March 22, 1196. [Cardella I.2, pp. 94-95]. Protopriest.
  6. Laborans [Florentine], Cardinal Priest in the title of S. Maria in Trastevere (1179-after June 26, 1189). Formerly Cardinal Deacon of S. Maria in Porticu. Studied law at Paris. Wrote a work entitled Compilatio decretorum, .which was published on April 30, 1182 [Baronius-Theiner, sub anno 1182, no. 5, p. 502]. Held the degree of Magister.
  7. Albinus, Cardinal Priest of S. Croce in Gerusalemme (1185-1189). Previously Cardinal Deacon of S. Maria Nova (1182-1185). [His name is omitted from Ciaconius-Olduin's list, and he seems to stop subscribing for Urban III on October 24, 1186. Miranda lists him as "present"]
  8. Pandulfus, Cardinal Priest in the title of Ss. XII Apostoli (1182-1201).
  9. Melior, Cardinal Priest of SS. Ioannis et Pauli. Archdeacon of Laon and Archdeacon of Reims, he had been made a Cardinal by Lucius III in 1185 [Th. Lejeune, Documents et rapports de la Société paléontologique et archéologique de Charleroi 12 (1883), no. xxvi, 335-339 (November 11, 1185)].
  10. Adelardo "Cattaneo", of Verona,. Cardinal Priest in the Title of S. Marcello. Cardinal Adelardus signed bulls for Lucius III in 1185 [Jaffé, Regesta pontificum II, p. 431; Lucius died on November 21, 1185] as Cardinal Priest of S. Marcello. His earliest subscription is on March 23, 1185 [Kartusch, p. 63 and n. 5]. He then subscribed for Urban III [Jaffé, p. 493; Urban died on October 20, 1187], for Gregory VIII [October-December 17, 1187], and Clement III, until October 29, 1188 [Jaffé, 536]. By 1193, the Cardinal Priest of S. Marcello was Cardinal Fidantius [Jaffé, p. 577; Julius von Pflugk-Harttung, Acta pontificum Romanorum inedita I (1880), no. 435, pp. 374 [JL 17341]. Cardinal Fidantius' successor, Petrus, began to subscribe documents on November 23, 1201 [Potthast, Regesta Pontificum p. 464]. Innocent III wrote four letters on May 10, 1202, to A(delardo) Sanctae Romanae Ecclesiae Cardinali, Veronensi Episcopo [Migne, Patrologiae 214, columns 985-988; Potthast nr. 1674]. In his biographical notice of Raoul de Neuville, Salvador Miranda explains at n. 1 that "the practice of resigning the cardinalatial title when appointed to a diocese was followed by some cardinals in the 12th and 13th centuries", citing the Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1928 for Cardinal Adelardo Cattaneo in 1888 (The "practice" was not followed by Guillaume de Champagne of Reims, Stephen Langton of Canterbury or Guy Paré of Rheims, Bishop of Palestrina [Gallia Christiana 10 (1717), Instrumenta cols. 53-56 (July 6, 1204) = Potthast 2269]). Note that, according to the evidence cited, Adelardus continues to be a Cardinal of the Holy Roman Church; it is only his titulus that he resigns. Migne remarks [column 985 n. 109] that Cardinal Adelardus died in 1211 or 1212. The latest document with his subscription seems to be one of July 17, 1212 [Ganzer, 140]. Kartusch [p. 65 and n. 38] states, "Adelard soll ende1211 oder Anfang 1112 gestorben sein." And, as Eubel points out on p. 522, Cardinal Adelardus' successor, Bishop Norandinus, was already bishop-elect of Verona on October 13, 1214, and held it until September 22, 1224. The date usually found for Adelardus' death, however, is 1214. An inscription on Cardinal Adelardus' tomb in the Basilica of S. Zeno in Verona, to which his remains were transferred in 1642, states that he died in 1225; this inscription is not contemporary with Cardinal Adelardus. He was originally buried simply, and then his body was transferred to an appropriate marble monument, from which it was re-transferred in 1642; concerning the inscription Ciaconius states (column 1119): "eo enim anno non obiit Adelardus, sed eo anno ac die in eo tumulo ejus cadaver reclusum fuisse indicat". It should be noted that Eubel, Hierarchia Catholica I, p. 3 n.1, leaves the date of Adelard's death an open question. He subscribed for Gregory VIII at Ferrara on November 3, 1187 [C. Pierucci e A. Polverari, Carte di Fonte Avellana   2 (1140-1202) (Roma 1977), p. 234], indicating that he had left his beloved Verona and was with the Papal Court. He does not subscribe, however, while the Curia was at Bologna, Modena, or Parma. There is no evidence as to whether he might have been in Pisa for the Election of December 19, 1187. He did subscribe for Clement III, on October 28 and 29, 1188 [Jaffé, 536]—at which time he was in Rome, and that is ten months after the Election of Clement III at Pisa.

  11. Jacinthus (Hyacinthus, Giacinto) Bobone [Romanus], son of Petrus Bubonis de Orsinis, Cardinal Deacon of S. Maria in Cosmedin (1144-1191). Cardinal Protodeacon (primus inter diaconos). On April 27, 1138 he had subscribed as Jacinthus, prior subdiaconorum sacri palatii [JL I, p. 841and 7890].
        Peter of Blois [Epistles 123, in Migne, PL 207, columns 366-367]:
    Vidimus quamplures in Ecclesia Romana in ordine diaconatus usque ad decrepitam aetatem et exhalationem extremi spiritus ministrasse. Certe dominus Caelestinus, qui hodie sedet, sicut ex ipsius ore frequenter accepi, in officio levitae sexaginta quinque annos expleverat [1126-1191], antequam ipsum Dominus in summi Pontificatus apicem sublimasset.
  12. Gratianus (Graziano) [Pisanus], Cardinal Deacon of SS. Cosma e Damiano (1178-1203). Nephew of Pope Eugenius III (reigned 1145-1153). In general see Tommaso di Carpegna Falconieri, "Graziano da Pisa," Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani 59 (2003) (retrieved 3/1/2013).
  13. Bobo (Andrea Boboni) [Romanus], deacon of S. Angelo in Pescheria (1182-1188). He was succeeded by Cardinal Gregorius (1188-1202). Sent by Pope Urban III to France along with Cardinal Soffredus to deal with the hostilities between Henry II of England and Philip Augustus of France.
  14. Ottaviano di Paolo dei Conti di Segni [Romanus], Cardinal Deacon of SS. Sergio e Bacco (1182-1189/90), later Cardinal Bishop of Ostia e Velletri (1189-1206). His successor, Cardinal Lotharius dei Conti, first subscribes on December 7, 1190. Cardinal Lotharius' successor was his cousin, Ottaviano dei Conti di Segni (1205-1231). Clearly, SS. Sergius and Bacchus was a 'family' deanery at the end of the XII century. Sent by Lucius III to England and by Celestine III to Normandy [Baronius-Theiner, pp. 560-561]
  15. Soffredus, Cardinal Deacon of S. Maria in Via lata. Soffredus of Pisa (not Soffredus of Pistoia) who was made Cardinal Deacon of S. Maria in Via Lata by Lucius III [Cardella, 148-149] (1182-1193), where he was succeeded by Petrus Capuanus, who in 1205 became Cardinal Priest of S. Marcello. [Cavazzi, S. Maria in Via Lata (1908) , p. 401]. He was sent by Pope Urban III to France along with Cardinal Bobo to deal with the hostilities between Henry II of England and Philip Augustus of France.
  16. ? Rolando, OSB, Cardinal Deacon of S. Maria in Porticu (1185–after September, 1187), Bishop of Dol (1177-1187) [Hauréau, Gallia Christiana 14 (Paris 1866) 1051], he was not enthroned, due to a long dispute with the Archbishop of Tours, who claimed Dol as a suffragan diocese. His creation dates apparently from March 15, 1185 His earliest subscription is on March 31, 1185 [Baaken and Schmidt, Lfg. 2, Regesten nr. 1558, and pp. 582 and 586; cf. Kartusch, pp. 382-384],
          Rolandus was sent to Scotland while still Dolensis electus in 1182, to make peace between King William and John, Archbishop of St. Andrews, but Archbishop Hugo, the occupant of the seat, appealed to Rome. Rolandus wrote a letter to Pope Lucius with all the details, in which he calls himself Suae Sanctitatis servus et alumnus, Apostolicae Sedis subdiaconum minimus. Rollandus was still Dolensis electus in a charter of 1184 which he granted to the monks of St. Michael de periculo maris; the charter was witnessed in the Chapter House at Dol [Gallia Christiana 14, instrumenta, col. 248 no III]. Appeals and counterappeals kept the case running until January, 1199 [Gallia Christiana 14, instrumenta, col. 249-257, no IV; Roger of Hoveden, ed. Stubbs, IV, pp. 100-103; Gallia Christiana 14, 1051]. Rolandus' latest known subscription is on September 21, 1187 [Nachrichten von der k. Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften zu Göttingen . Phil.-hist. Klasse (1908), pp. 282-285, no. 33]. Rolando's successor in the Deaconry, Cardinal Gregorius, first subscribes on April 12, 1188. Was he alive or dead on December 17-19, 1187?
  17. Petrus Diani [quem docta Placentia mundo edidit, according to his tombstone in S. Cecilia], Cardinal Deacon of S. Niccolo in Carcere Tulliano (1185-1188), and then Cardinal Priest in the title of S. Cecilia (1188-1208). See Malaczek, "Diani, Pietro " in Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani 39 (1991).
  18. Radulfus (Ridolfo) Nigelli [Pisanus], Cardinal Deacon of S. Giorgio in Velabro (1185-1188). Promoted to be Cardinal Priest of S. Prassede in 1188 [Epistolae Cantuarienses, no. ccxcii, pp. 276]. He was dispatched by Pope Clement to England on December 10, 1188 [Epistolae Cantuarienses, no. ccxci, pp. 274; JL 16360], with Legantine powers to settle the dispute between Archbishop Baldwin of Canterbury and the Monks of Canterbury. He had fallen ill at Pavia and died on December 30, 1188, at Mortara [Epistolae Cantuarienses, no. ccxcii, pp. 276].

Cardinals not attending:

  1. Rogerius, OSB Cas., Cardinal Priest in the title of S. Eusebio. Former Abbot of Montecassino, appointed Archbishop of Benevento in 1179 by Alexander III [F. Ughelli, Italia sacra VIII (Venetiis 1721), 126]; he held the post until December 25, 1221 [cf. G. Cappelletti, Le chiese d' Italia III (1844), pp. 82-87]. His predecessor was Lombardus, who was appointed in 1171 and resigned before July 27, 1179 [Ughelli, Italia sacra VIII, 121-123]. He did not subscribe any papal documents. [Eubel, Hierarchia Catholica I, p. 3 n.1, and p. 5 n.2, does not consider him as one of the Cardinals alive at the time of the Election of 1198, or as one of the Cardinals alive at the time of the Election of 1216—though he survives until 1121; cf. Brixius, p. 66]. Ganzer, pp. 129-131, believes that he was not a cardinal during his archbishopric. He is called Cardinal of S. Eusebio is in E. Gattula, Historia Abbatiae Cassiniensis Pars prima (Venetiis 1733). 399, which Gattula quotes from the Register of Petrus Diaconus, and notes that the document is in a later hand, quamquam recentiori charactere [text also in Ughelli VIII, 126]. Ughelli [Italia Sacra VIII, 126] also mentions the existence of a second text, which was later published by Stefano Borgia, in Memorie istoriche della pontificia città di Benevento Parte III (Roma 1769) 185-187. [My thanks to Tomasz Karlikowske for drawing this to my attention]. A letter of Philippus, Bishop of Troia and Rector of Benevento notes that, in accordance with a papal mandate, Pater noster d(omi)nus Roggerius dei gratia sancti Eusebii Cardinalis Beneventanus Episcopus suspenderat ab officio iudicatus [Petrum Malaina]. The document was found by Norbert Kamp, Kirche und Monarchie im staufischen Konigreich Sizilien (1973), p. 206. There is no question, therefore, that Rogerius was a Cardinal of S. Eusebio from 1180 to his death in 1221. Ughelli mentions a third document, dated 1220, but it has not been located. In any case, there is no evidence that Cardinal Rogerius attended the Election of 1216, or 1198, or 1187, or 1187, or 1181.
  2. Guillaume de Champagne (ca. 1135-1202), "Blanches-Mains", fourth son of Thibault Comte de Champagne and Maude (Mahaud) de Flandre. Former Bishop of Chartres (1164-1176). Archbishop of Reims (1176-1202). Cardinal Priest in the title of S. Sabina since 1179 [JL 13369 (April 6, 1179)] [Migne, PL 200, 1228 (JL 13371, April 8, 1179)] [JL 13383 (April 14, 1179)]). He participated in the III Lateran Council of March 5-19, 1179 [Mansi, Sacrorum Conciliorum 22, 239 and 464], and was made Cardinal in the second session, March 7 [JL, p. 339]. Governor of the State in France (1183). When Pope Lucius expressed a desire to meet with him, King Philip II replied that there was no one in his kingdom dearer to him than his uncle the Cardinal, who was his vigilant eye in his Councils, and the Cardinal was not allowed to go. He did finally go to Italy in 1184 (not in 1185, as Duchesne reports; subscriptions show him in Verona in the second half of 1184, from August 18 to December 11 [Baaken and Schmidt, Lfg. 2, pp. 578-582]). He may have been back in France by April 15, 1185: JL 15402-15405. The last of these documents is a mandate to Cardinal Guillaume of Reims and the Abbot of Maioris-Monasterii (Tours), which would make no sense unless Guillaume were in France. There is no reason to think that he was in Ferrara in December of 1187, since he had completed his ad limina visit in the Fall of 1184. As the Uncle of the King of France, he had a good deal of business of his own, helping to rule France and the French church as papal legate.
  3. Gerardo Allucingoli [Lucca], Cardinal Deacon of S. Adriano (1182–after April 1204) [JL 16419 (June 6, 1189); 16681 (May 2, 1191)]. Rector of Benevento early in the reign of Celestine III. He was probably absent from the Election, since he was Papal Vicar in Rome.

Dubii Salvatoris Mirandae

In his list of Cardinals present and absent at the Election of December, 1187, Salvador Miranda (Librarian Emeritus, Florida International University) states that there were thirty-two living cardinals (he forgets Roger of Beneventum), and he names eleven cardinals who did not participate in the Election:

-Gandolfo, O.S.B., title not known.
-Pietro, title of S. Lorenzo in Lucina.
-Roberto, title of S. Pudenziana.
-Rolando Paparoni, title of Ss. Silvestro e Martino ai Monti.
-Raniero, title not known.
-Simeone Paltinieri, title not known.
-Giovanni, title of S. Marco.
-Roberto, bishop of Porto e Santa Rufina.
-Henri de Sully, O.Cist., title not known.
-Ugo Geremei, deacon of S. Teodoro.
-Boson, deacon of S. Angelo in Pescheria.

The following ten, however, were not cardinals in 1187:

There is one genuine cardinal among the spurii:

The Election

Pope Gregory had died on December 18. The Election of his successor took place in the Cathedral of Pisa, on the third day after his death, Saturday, December 20, in accordance with the requirments of the Consititution of Symmachus I [Chronicon breve Pisanum sub anno 1186; Ughelli Italia Sacra 10, Anecdota, 121]:

Gregorius Octavus Papa ingressus urbem Pisanam, receptus est ab eisdem Pisanis cum magno honore 4. Id. Decembr., et mortuus est Pisis 16 Kalen. Januar., et 14 Kal. ejusdem Dominus Paulus Praenestinus Episcopus in Ecclesia sanctae Mariae Pisarum majoris Ecclesiae Pontificalem cathedram est adeptus, levatus ab hospitio sancti Pauli de ripa Arna, et largiente Domino vocatus est Clemens Papa Tertius.

Horace Mann (X, p. 342 n. 2) takes the participial phrase levatus ab hospitio sancti Pauli de ripa Arna as indicating that Cardinal Petrus Scolari was not present at his own election, but rather on his sickbed in the Hospital of S. Paul. He makes the participle into a consecutive clause. The crabbed Latin of the chronicler, however, means nothing more than that the Cardinal had to be carried to the Cathedral for the election. The hospitium was a place of hospitality, a guesthouse, run by the Vallambrosian monks, not an infirmary. It was exactly the sort of place that a Cardinal, travelling through Pisa, would seek accommodations from as he stopped in the city.

The Annales Romani adds some important information [Watterich II, p. 693]:

Mox episcopi et cardinales una cum Leone Monumenti eligerunt Pontificem episcopum Penestrinensem Paulum Iohannis Scolarii; qui fuit archipresbyter Sancte Marie ad Presepe, natus Romanus de regione Pineae; cui posuerunt nomen Clementem Tertium Papam.

However minimal it was, the election of Cardinal Paolo Scolari was accomplished with the participation of Roman citizens, that is, of Leo Monumenti, Consul (Prefect) of the City. Leo Monumenti is called Romanus Princeps in the Chronicon Altinate or Chronicon Venetum, the leader of a delegation of nineteen Romans at the Peace of Venice between Frederick I and Alexander III in 1177 [MGH SS 14, 1-69; Archivio storico italiano VIII (1845), 183; Gregorovius, p. 615 n.]. Since Leo Monumenti was a friend and agent of the Emperor Frederick, there is reason to think that the election of December, 1187, may have been managed in his favor by Leo. The candidate of the anti-imperial party may have been Cardinal Theobaldus, OSB.Clun., Bishop of Ostia, a Frenchman who had been Abbot of Cluny only four years earlier. It is possible that Cardinal Henri de Marsiac, O.Cist., Bishop of Albano was also a candidate. His Cistercian biography [Migne PL 185, 1553] states: Tandem Domino Lucio post quatuor annos mortuo, et Urbano ei in Papatum succedente, ipsoque infra duos annos velociter de3functo, sanior pars Cardinalium voluit ipsum in Papam eligere. Ipse totis viribus rentiens, signoque cricis se muniens, affirmavit se nullum aliud officium assumere nisi terrae Hierosolymorum succurere, et cruces ubique praedicare.

One may speculate that Cardinal Paolo Scolari was chosen precisely because he was a Roman, and the only Cardinal-Bishop who was a Roman. He had the rank, the prestige, and the family connections in Rome that no other cardinal could match. The opportunity of returning to Rome could not be missed, and it would be far easier to negotiate and accomplish with a Roman speaking to Romans.


The inauguration (consecratio) of the new Pope (he was already a bishop) took place on the day after the election, Sunday, December 20, 1187 [Chronicle of Melrose: ed. Stevenson p. 96]

Immediately upon his election according to Roger of Hoveden, Clement sent ambassadors to Rome to negotiate a peace between the Papacy and the Commune. Clement III was able to strike a treaty with the Senators and People of Rome, which was signed on May 31, 1188 [text in F. Vitale, Storia diplomatica dei senatori di Roma I (Roma 1791), pp. 63-67; L. Olivieri, Il Senato Romano I (Roma 1886), 171-175; Baronius-Theiner 19, sub anno 1188, nos. 22-26, pp. 572-574; Migne PL 204, 1507-1510; Geyer, pp. 5-10]. It was a major capitulation to the demands of the Commune. There also seems to have been a general amnesty, dated October 27, 1188, for all senators who had engaged in actions against Pope Lucius III against any damages owed [F. Vitale, Storia diplomatica dei senatori di Roma I (Roma 1791), pp. 67-68; Gregorovius, p. 618 n. 1] In 1888 and 1189, there were a series of legal acts, settling disputes and claims against the Papacy for damages of various sorts. A committee of Cardinals sat on October 5, 1188 and February 18, 1189, to deal with the matters ["Documenti per la storia ecclesiastica e civile di Roma," Studi e documenti di storia e diritto 7 (1886), xii-xx, pp. 195-208, at p. 198 and 208]. The cardinals included:
                    Octavianus [dei Conti di Segni], of SS. Sergius and Bacchus
                    Petrus Gallocia
                    Gregorius [Galganus de Sancto Apostolo] of Santa Maria in Porticu
                    Johannes Malabranca,
                    Gregorius [Crescentius], of S. Maria in Aquiro

The new Pope, Clement III, set out for Rome in the third week of January, 1188.   He was at Siena on the 26th of January, and was installed in the Lateran by February 11, 1188. He was received by the Romans with great happiness [Annales Romani, sub anno 1188: MGH SS 5, 480; Watterich II, 693]:

Quem Romani tam maiores quam minores, clerici ac laici, Iudei etiam magno cum gaudio, cum canticis et laudibus, ut mox est, eum benigne susceperunt.

It is in connection with this new pope that the famous Cencius Camerarius (the future Honorius III) first appears in the historical record. On January 22, 1188, even before Clement III arrived in Rome, Cencius was at work at the Lateran, reforming the conduct of the ostiarii of the Basilica, administrante domino Cencio Domni Papae Camerario [Muratori, Antiquitates Italiae I (Arretii 1773), "Dissertatio quarta", 201-202; Watterich II, 693 n. 5]. He became Cardinal Deacon of S. Lucia in Orphea at the Consistory of 1192 [Eubel I, p. 3 n. 1] or February 20, 1193.

The return to Rome was not an unalloyed benefit to the College of Cardinals. Roger of Hoveden (II, 353 ed. Stubbs) indicates that there was a plague in Rome and the neighborhood in the summer of 1188 that carried off many cardinals (including Theobaldus of Ostia) and men of the more wealthy classes. One of these was Hugh, the deposed and degraded bishop of St. Andrews in Scotland, who was in Rome seeking absolution from the anathema pronounced against him. He was absolved by Pope Clement, but he and many of his household died, thereby bringing to an end at long last the struggle with King William of Scotland over the Archbishopric. Similarly, the entire contingent of monks, including the Prior, sent by the Cathedral at Canterbury to argue their case against Archbishop Baldwin, was killed {Epistolae Cantuarienses ed Stubbs, no. cclxxiv (September 1188), cclxxviii (September 1188), cclxxxviii (after November 4, 1188)].



J. L. A. Huillard-Bréholles (editor), Chronicon Placentinum et Chronicon de rebus in Italia gestis (Parisiis: Henricus Plon 1856), 137-138. 

B. Pallasticci (editor), Chronica tria Placentina a Johanne Codagnello, ab Anonymo, et a Guerino conscripta (Parmae: 1859), 11-13. 

Philippus Jaffé (editor) , Regesta pontificum Romanorum ab condita ecclesia ad annum post Christum natum MCXCVIII (Berolini 1851). Philippus Jaffé (editor) Regesta Pontificum Romanorum (editionem secundam correctam et auctam auspiciis Guilelmi Wattenbach; curaverunt S. Loewenfeld, F. Kaltenbrunner, P. Ewald) (Lipsiae: Veit et comp. 1885) [JL]. [contains summaries of subscriptiones, arranged by Pope]

J. D. Mansi (editor), Sacrorum Conciliorum nova et amplissima collectio editio novissima 22 (Venetiis: apud Antonium Zatta 1778).

Johann M. Watterich, (editor), Pontificum Romanorum qui fuerunt inde ab exeunte saeculo IX usque ad finem saeculi XIII vitae ab aequalibus conscriptae Tomus II (Lipsiae 1862). [Watterich]

Augustinus Theiner (editor), Caesaris S. R. E. Cardinalis Baronii, Od. Raynaldi et Jac. Laderchii Annales Ecclesiastici   Tomus Nonusdecimus 1147-1198 (Barri-Ducis: Ludovicus Guerin 1880) [Baronius-Theiner].

William Stubbs (editor), Chronica Magistri Rogeri de Houedene Vol. II (London 1869) 

William Stubbs (editor), Epistolae Cantuarienses (London 1865) [Chronicles and Memorials of the Reign of Richard I, Volume II (Rolls Series)].

Bartolomeo Platina, Historia B. Platinae de vitis pontificum Romanorum ... Onuphrii Panvinii ... cui etiam nunc accessit supplementum ... per Antonium Cicarellam (Coloniae Agrippinae: sumptibus Petri Cholini, 1626). Bartolomeo Platina, Storia delle vite de' Pontefici edizione novissima Tomo terzo (Venezia: Domenico Ferrarin, 1763). Onuphrio Panvinio, Epitome Pontificum Romanorum a S. Petro usque ad Paulum IIII. Gestorum (videlicet) electionisque singulorum & Conclavium compendiaria narratio (Venice: Jacob Strada 1557). Chrysostomos Henriquez, "Monumenta sacra Claraevallensis abbatia et Epitaphia Sanctorum et Virorum illustrium qui ibidem Sepulti Sunt", Fasciculus Sanctorum Ordinis Cisterciensis (Bruxelles 1623).  Alphonsus Ciaconius [Alfonso Chacon], Vitae et Res Gestae Pontificum Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalium ... ab Augustino Oldoino Societatis Iesu recognitae Tomus Primus (Romae: sumptibus Philippi et Antonii de Rubeis 1677) [Volume 1 of the 4 volume edition]. Lorenzo Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa Tomo primo Parte secondo (Roma: Pagliarini 1792). Johannes Matthias Brixius,. Die Mitglieder des Kardinalkollegiums von 1130-1181 (Berlin: R. Trenkel, 1912). . Werner Maleczek, Papst und Kardinalskolleg von 1191 bis 1216 (Wien 1984).

Johannes Geyer, Papst Clemens III (1187-1191) (Berlin 1914) [Jenaer Historische Arbeiten, Heft 7]. G. Kleeman, Papst Gregor VIII (Bonn 1912). F. Gregorovius, History of Rome in the Middle Ages, Volume IV.2 second edition, revised (London: George Bell, 1896) Book VIII, Chapter vi. 3, pp. 608-622. Horace K. Mann, Lives of the Popes in the Middle Ages Vol. X 1159-1198 (London 1914).


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