Sede Vacante 1181
August 30, 1181 — September 1, 1181
Alexander III was calling for another crusade [Baronius-Theiner 19, sub anno 1180, no. 15-20, pp. 488-490]
King Louis VII of France died on September 18, 1180.
Pope Alexander and the Commune of Rome had been hostile to each other since the beginning of his reign. The Commune supported
and was supported by the Imperial faction as a matter of tradition and policy. The Commune had repeatedly supported the
Anti-popes raised by Frederick Barbarossa during all of Alexander's reign, the most recent being "Innocent III" (Lando
of Sezze) (1179-1180), a Cardinal Deacon of "Victor IV". Alexander had been forced to leave the city of Rome in the
second week of July of 1179, settling in Segni and then Anagni. He moved to Velletri in December, and then in June of
1180 to Tusculum. Some of the cardinals of the schismatic party, who were in Rome, elected "Innocent III" on September
29, 1179 [JL, p. 431], and revived the schism. Alexander sent Cardinal Ugo Pierleone to engage in negotiations with "Innocent
protector, the brother of "Victor IV". A deal was struck, and the brother handed over the stronghold of Palombara to
the pope, in January of 1180, along with its contents, which included "Innocent III" and his entourage.
At the beginning of 1181 Pope Alexander was residing in Tusculum. He was accompanied, among others, by Hubaldus Hostiensis and Theodinus Portuensis, who signed a bull on January 13 [JL 14357]. On June 3, he was at Viterbo, seeking the protection of his friend Christian of Mainz He was accompanied by Bishop Paul of Praeneste (who signed a bull on July 7). On August 15, a bull was issued in favor of the canons of the Church of S. Ambrogio in Milan [JL 14422]; the Cardinals who were with the Pope at Viterbo on that day were:
Albertus, sancte Romane ecclesie presbiter cardinalis et cancellarius.
Petrus, presbiter cardinalis tit. sancte Susanne
Vivianus, presbiter cardinalis tit. sancti Stephani in celio monte
Ard[uinus], presbiter cardinalis tit. sancte Crucis in Ierusalem
Laborans, presbiter cardinalis sancte Marie Transtiberim tit. Calixti
Iacintus, diaconus cardinalis sancte Marie in Cosmydyn
Rainerius, diaconus cardinalis sancti Georgii ad Velum aureum
Matheus, sancte Marie Nove diaconus cardinalis
Two weeks later, on August 30, Pope Alexander died at Civita Castellana, some twenty miles north of Rome [Gregorovius IV. 2, pp. 606-607; Theiner, in Baronius-Theiner, p. 503]. More than half of his reign had been spent in exile. He had not seen Rome in more than two years.
The Continuatio Aquicinctina of the chronicle of Sigebertus Gemblacensis [MGH SS VI, pp. 419-420] states:
Alexander papa senex et plenus dierum, vicesimo ferme ab urbe miliario, in quadam Romanae ecclesiae possessione diem clausit ultimum. Cuius obitu quidam insipientes Romani audito, ei non, ut debuerunt, obviam eum ad urbem deferretur venerunt; et ei maledicentes, luto etiam et lapidibus lecticam, in qua portabatur, lapidantes, vix eum in patriarchio Lateranensi sepeliri permiserunt. Cui successit Humbaldus Ostiensis episcopus, Alexandro aetate senior, quem alterato nomine Lucium tercium appellaverunt.
Panvinio (p. 132) states that twenty-three cardinals participated in the election of August, 1181. Ciaconius-Olduin state (column 1109) that there were twenty-seven participants in the election of Lucius III (Ubaldus Allucingoli). Pannini, in his Chronicle, says that Lucius was elected by 25 Cardinals. None of these is a statement of fact, only a calculation based on a view of the evidence. Salvador Miranda states that there were forty living cardinals, "according to the best correlation of data available now," and that twenty-nine participated in the Election.
I count nineteen cardinals as possible electors, including one uncertainty (Giovanni of S. Angelo), and six (or seven) definite
non-participants. The total number of Cardinals at the death of Alexander III was not more than twenty-seven (and perhaps only twenty-six
- Hubaldus "Allucingoli" (according to Ciaconius, which is doubtful; the name Allucingoli is first
found in Panvinio), [of Lucca], Bishop of Ostia and Velletri, after December 19, 1158. Former Cardinal Priest of S.
Prassede (May 23, 1141- December 19, 1158) [Brixius, 43]; some consider him the same Hubaldus as was created Cardinal Deacon
of S. Adriano in 1138 [Rerum
Italicarum Scriptores III.
1 p. 442 column 2]). He had been legate of Innocent II in Lombardy in 1142. [Cardella I. 2, pp. 27-29]. In May, 1175,
he was sent to Lombardy along with Bernardus of Porto and Guillelmus of S. Pietro ad vincula, to attempt to arrange
a peace with the Lombards [Romualdus Salernitanus, in MGH SS 19, 441] He was one of the cardinals who ratified
the peace between the Pope and Frederick I at Venice on August 1, 1177 [Kehr, Italia Pontificia 6.1, p. 12, no. 54]
- Theodinus [Umbria: Brixius, p. 126], Bishop of Porto e Santa Rufina (1179-1186). Formerly Cardinal Priest of S. Vitale (1166-1179) and before that Cardinal Deacon of S. Maria in Porticu (1165-1166). He and Cardinal Albert presided at the election of Richard, Prior of Dover, as Archbishop of Canterbury (Spring, 1073). He was Apostolic Legate in Hungary in 1226 [A. Theiner, Vetera monumenta historica Hungariam sacram illustrabtua I (Roma 1859), p. 58 no. CXXIII (June 12, 1126)]
- Paolo Scolari, Bishop of Palestrina (first subscribed on January 13, 1181). Educated at S. Maria Maggiore, and made Canon
of the Liberian Basilica [F. Contelori, La gerarchia cardinalizia di Carlo Bartolomeo Piazza (Roma 1703) 221; G. Cappelletti, Le
chiese d' Italia 1
(Venezia 1844), 606]. Formerly, it seems, Cardinal Deacon of SS. Sergio e Bacco (1179-1180) Built the Palace at S. Maria
Maggiore. [future Pope Clement III] [cf. Cardella I. 2, p. 131]
- Alberto di Morra [Beneventanus], Cardinal Priest in the title of S. Lorenzo in Lucina. S.R.E. Cancellarius from 1178 until
his election to the Papacy in 1187 [Cardella I. 2, p. 87; JL, p. 146, 432]. He was Papal Legate in Normandy to King
Henry, along with Cardinal Theodinus of S. Vitale tit. Vestinae, in 1172 [Continuator Aquicinctinus to Sigibert, sub anno 1142]
- Cinzio Papareschi, Cardinal Priest in the title of S. Cecilia. Vincenzo Forcella Inscrizioni delle chiese di Roma Volume
VI, p. 323, no. 1060, cites an inscription from the Church of S. Giacomo in Septimanio (alla Longara) in Trastevere,
which is also cited in part and in a confused fashion by Ciaconius-Olduin (column 1067) with an addition to the effect
that Cardinal Cinzio died under Pope Lucius (OBIIT SVB LVCIO III). The addition is not part of the original inscription,
though the statement is correct. Cardinal Cincius still subscribes as late as June 30, 1182
[Baaken and Schmidt, Lfg. 2, Regesten nr. 281, and p. 585].. Cincius
was a nephew of Pope Innocent II.
- Giovanni da Agnani, Cardinal Priest in the title of S. Marco (1167-1190) [JL 16388], and before that Cardinal Deacon of S.
Maria in Porticu (1159-1166). His successor at S. Maria in Porticu was Cardinal Theodinus, who first subscribes on March
18, 1166 [JL 11266]. In 1190 Clement III made him Bishop of Palestrina [Migne PL 214, p. 407 no. 332]. Giovanni's latest
subscription is March 22, 1196. [Cardella I.2, pp. 94-95].
- Pietro de Bono, Cardinal Priest in the title of S. Susanna. He held the title of Magister [Kehr, IP VII.1, p.
250 no. 5]. He was one of the cardinals who ratified the peace
between the Pope and Frederick I at Venice on August 1, 1177 [Kehr, Italia Pontificia 6.1, p. 12, no. 54] Along with
Peter, Bishop of Tusculum, Legate to the Emperor Frederick I in 1180, instructed to settle a dispute between the Emperor
and WIchmann, Archbishop of Magdeburg [JL 13611-13612 (February 15, 1180)]. He subscribed for Alexander
III on January 13, 1181 [JL 14357]. He subscribed for Alexander III on August 15, 1181, two weeks before his death
[JL 14422], and for Lucius III on September 28, 1181, four weeks after his election [Nachrichten... Göttingen (1910)
p. 256, no. 15].
- Hugo [Ugo, or Ugutio: Kehr, It Pont. 5, p.457 no. 77] Pierleoni, Cardinal Priest in the title of S. Clemente.
Formerly Cardinal Deacon of S. Angelo in Pescheria (1171-1178), was promoted to S. Clemente in 1178. He was
grand-nephew of Pope Anacletus II; son of Cardinal Hugo Pierleoni. Legate
to Scotland, England and France in 1175-1176 [Roberto de Monte MGH SS 6, 524]. Miranda
states he died "toward 1183". His latest known subscription is on March 17, 1182 [Baaken and Schmidt, Lfg. 2, Regesten
nr. 184, and p. 585].
- Laborans [Florentine], Cardinal Priest in the title of S. Maria in Trastevere (1179-after June 26, 1189). Formerly Cardinal Deacon of S. Maria in Porticu. Studied law at Paris. Wrote a work entitled Compilatio decretorum, .which was published on April 30, 1182 [Baronius-Theiner, sub anno 1182, no. 5, p. 502]. Held the degree of Magister.
- Vibianus, Cardinal Priest in the title of S. Stefano al Monte Celio (1175-1184?). He had formerly been Cardinal Deacon of
S. Nicolai in carcere Tulliano (1175), where he succeeded Cardinal Odo, who had served there for twenty years (1154-1174).
His latest known subscription is on May 7, 1184 at Veroli [Baaken and Schmidt, Lfg. 2, Regesten nrs. 1109-1111, and
p. 585]. His successor was Cardinal Johannes, by May 20, 1191.
- Arduinus, Cardinal Priest in the title of S. Croce in Gerusalemme (first attested in subscriptions on October 1, 1178). Is he the same as the Arduinus who subscribed as Cardinal Deacon of S. Maria in Via Lata from July 4 to September 6, 1178?!
- Mathaeus Andegavensis (Mathieu d' Anjou), Cardinal Priest in the title of S. Marcello. (last subscribes in June of 1182)
- Hyacinthus (Giacinto) Bobone, son of Petrus Bubonis de Orsinis, Cardinal Deacon of S. Maria in Cosmedin (1144-1191). Cardinal Protodeacon (primus inter diaconos). On April 27, 1138 he had subscribed as Jacinthus, prior subdiaconorum sacri palatii [JL I, p. 841and 7890].
Peter of Blois [Epistles 123, in Migne, PL 207, columns 366-367]:
Vidimus quamplures in Ecclesia Romana in ordine diaconatus usque ad decrepitam aetatem et exhalationem extremi spiritus ministrasse. Certe dominus Caelestinus, qui hodie sedet, sicut ex ipsius ore frequenter accepi, in officio levitae sexaginta quinque annos expleverat [1126-1191], antequam ipsum Dominus in summi Pontificatus apicem sublimasset.
In the first months of 1177 h
e was one of six cardinals sent by Alexander III from Siponto to Bologna to advise both Frederick I and the Lombards
of his approach for a conference [Romualdus Salernitanus, in MGH SS 19, p. 443]. He was one of the cardinals
who ratified the peace between the Pope and Frederick I at Venice on August 1, 1177 [Kehr, Italia Pontificia 6.1,
p. 12, no. 54]. He subscribed for Lucius III on November 12, 1181 [Baaken
and Schmidt, Lfg. 2, Regesten nr. 15, and p. 565], and on November
29, 1181 at St. Peter's [Kehr, Nachrichten... Gottingen (1900), p.256-257 no. 21].
- Ardicius Rivoltella [Mediolanensis], Cardinal Deacon of S. Teodoro [Zenker, 157-158; Kartusch, pp. 88-89]. He first subscribes
on January 4, 1157 [JL 10240], indicating a creation in December of 1156 by Adrianus IV.. He was legatus
Apostolici Sedis in
Lombardy with Cardinal Ildebrandus of SS. XX Apostolorum [MGH Legum IV. Constitutiones et acta publica (Hannoverae
1893), no. 404, pp. 583-584; JL 12737 (November 1176)]. He was one of the cardinals who ratified the peace between the
Pope and Frederick I at Venice on August 1, 1177 [Kehr, Italia Pontificia 6.1, p. 12, no. 54]. His latest
subscription for Alexander III is on March 21, 1181. He does not subscribe for the new pope, Lucius III, until March
25, 1182 [JL 14618; Baaken and Schmidt, Lfg. 2, Regesten nr. 194, and p. 567]. His latest subscription is on March 13, 1186
On October 16, 1182, Lucius III wrote a letter of
rebuke to the clergy of the Church of Platina (Piadena, Diocese of Cremona), who had been founded and endowed by Cardinal
Ardicius, but who were ingrati et laxas habetis habenas. Ardicius had lodged a complaint against them, since praedictus
cardinalis prelationis super vos officium habeat [Nachrichten...Göttingen (1905), pp. 358-359,
no. 29]; Lucius intervened, however, because the clerics also refused obedience to the mandates of the Bishop of Cremona.
DuCange's Glossarium s.v.
describes the term praelatio as a feature of feudal law; Cardinal Ardicius was patron of the church which he founded,
and he wanted to exercise that right by appointing new members to the foundation. Ganzer [Die Entwicklung des auswärtigen
Kardinalats im hohen Mittelalter,
133-134] makes something entirely different out of the incident; he imagines that Ardicio was named to the Prelacy of
the church, and therefore became one of Ganzer's "auswärtigen
But Ardicio was not named a prelate in 1182; he became a prelate (patron) far earlier, through no action of the papacy
and in no way connected with his cardinalate, by reason of his foundation of the church and college of clerics.
- Ranierius, Cardinal Deacon of S. Giorgio in Velum aureum.
He subscribed for Lucius III on November
29, 1181 at St. Peter's [Kehr, Nachrichten... Gottingen (1900), p.256-257 no. 21]. His latest known subscription
is on December 13, 1182 [Baaken and Schmidt, Lfg. 2, Regesten nr. 402, and p. 585].Cardinal Rainerius was probably promoted
to the title of SS. Giovanni e Paolo, by December 21, 1182 [Brixius, p. 66 nos. 27-28; Kartusch, pp. 373-376, nos. 93-94].
- Mattheus, Cardinal Deacon of S. Maria Nuova (1178–1182). He subscribed for Lucius III on November
29, 1181 at St. Peter's [Kehr, Nachrichten... Gottingen (1900), p.256-257 no. 21]. His latest known subscription
is on January 4, 1182 [Baaken and Schmidt, Lfg. 2, Regesten nr. 85, and p. 585].
- Graziano [Pisanus], Cardinal Deacon of SS. Cosma e Damiano (1178-1203). Nephew of Pope Eugenius III (reigned 1145-1153).
Twice sent as Legate to England, to deal with the conflict between Henry II and Thomas Becket, the first time as Apostolic
Subdeacon and Vice-Chancellor (1169), the second as Cardinal Deacon and Legatus a latere. It was he who placed
England under Interdict because of the assassination of Archbishop Becket [Cardella, 127-128]
Miranda lists three Deacons of SS. Cosma e Damiano under Alexander III: Riso (1170-1176), Gandolfo OSB (1176-1219) and
Graziano (1178-1203). Gandolfo is an absurdity, completely excluded by the genuine Graziano's tenure. "Riso's" existence
depends entirely on a single subscription to a bull of Alexander III in April of 1178 for Syrus, Bishop of Genova [Cardella
I.2, p. 138]. No such bull is registered in Jaffe-Loewenfeld for that time. Might "Riso" be a misreading of "Boso"?
[Boso served from before January 4, 1157 to 1165]. The very same misreading occurs in transcriptions of other bulls [JL
10663 (7169)]. He subscribed for Lucius III on November
29, 1181 at St. Peter's [Kehr, Nachrichten... Gottingen (1900), p. .256-257 no. 21].
- ? Johannes (Giovanni), Cardinal Deacon of S. Angelo in Pescheria (first subscribes in October, 1178). Cardinal Hugo Pierleone,
his predecessor (1171-1178), was promoted to S. Clemente in 1178. The date of the end of Cardinal Giovanni's tenure
at S. Angelo in Pescheria is unknown. His latest subscription appears to be on July 28, 1181, and he does not subscribe
at all under Lucius III.
His successor, Cardinal Hugo, first subscribes on July 14, 1182, which might suggest a Pentecost
promotion [JL 14681; Baaken and Schmidt, Lfg. 2, Regesten nr. 291, and p. 569; Kartusch, p. 204].
- Rainerius, Cardinal Deacon of S. Adriano (from September 22, 1178 until 1182). He subscribed for Lucius III on November
29, 1181 at St. Peter's [Kehr, Nachrichten... Gottingen (1900), p. .256-257 no. 21]. His latest subscription is
on July 15, 1182 [Baaken
and Schmidt, Lfg. 2, Regesten nr. 294, and p. 569]. His predecessor was Cardinal Cinthius (1161-after September 6,
1178), who had been promoted to S. Caecilia. His successor, Cardinal Gerardus, does not begin to subscribe until January
2, 1183 [Baaken and Schmidt, Lfg. 2, Regesten nr. 440, and p. 571]., indicating that he was named cardinal on December
17, 1181 [Kartusch, p. 374].
Salvador Miranda attempts to sneak in a "Cardinal
created on September 22, 1178, whom he makes die in "†1178 (?)", but there was no such person; it was a paleographical
corruption in a single manuscript.
Cardinals not attending:
- Guillaume de Champagne (ca. 1135-1202), "Blanches-Mains", fourth son of Thibault Comte de Champagne and Maude
(Mahaud) de Flandre. Former Bishop of Chartres (1164-1175). Archbishop of Reims (October, 1175-1202) [Gislebertus Montensis, Chronicon
Hanoniense, sub anno 1175: Bouquet, Recueil des historiens des Gaules et de la France 13, p. 576; MGH SS
21, p. 525. Chronicon Alberici, in Bouquet, p. 713]. Cardinal
Priest in the title of S. Sabina since 1179 [JL 13369 (April 6, 1179)] [Migne, PL 200, 1228 (JL 13371, April
8, 1179)] [JL 13383 (April 14, 1179)]). He participated in the III Lateran Council of March 5-19, 1179 [Mansi, Sacrorum
Conciliorum 22, 239 and 464], and was made Cardinal in the second session, March 7 [JL, p. 339]. Governor of the State
in France (1183). When Pope Lucius expressed a desire to meet with him, King Philip II replied that there was no one
in his kingdom dearer to him than his uncle the Cardinal, who was his vigilant eye in his Councils, and the Cardinal
was not allowed to go. He did finally go in 1184 (not in 1185, as Duchesne reports; subscriptions show him in Verona
in the second half of 1184, from August 18 to December 11 [Baaken and Schmidt, Papstregesten 1124-1198, Teil 4 Lfg.
2, pp. 578-582)].
- Konrad von Wittelsbach, consanguineus Imperatoris [Frederici], de Bavaria oriundus. Count Palatine of the Rheinland. Bishop of Sabina (1166-1200), Archbishop of Mainz (November 1163-October 25, 1200) and Salzburg. Brought up in the Church of Salzburg (Christiani Chronicum Moguntinum, in P. Jaffé, Bibliotheca Germanica III, p. 693). In the early part of his career he was embroiled in the schism between Alexander III and the Imperial supporters "Victor IV" in Germany, and was forced to flee to Rome. He was one of the cardinals who ratified the peace between the Pope and Frederick I at Venice on August 1, 1177 [Kehr, Italia Pontificia 6.1, p. 12, no. 54]. He was one of the cardinals who ratified the peace between the Pope and Frederick I at Venice on August 1, 1177 [Kehr, Italia Pontificia 6.1, p. 12, no. 54] On August 9, 1177 it was agreed that he should have the Archbishopric of Salzburg [A. v. Meiler, Regesta archiepiscoporum Salisburgensium (Wien 1866), p. 127-129], since he was exiled from Mainz (which was given to Archbishop Christian, who died in 1183, after which Conrad was able to regain his seat in Mainz). He subscribed documents for Urban III in the first three months of 1186. He did not subscribe papal documents at all for Gregory VIII or Clement III, and only once for Celestine III (in February, 1197). He died at the end of 1200 [cf. Innocent III, Epistolae III. 4: Migne, PL 214, columns 873-876 (mid-October, 1200) (Potthast 1148); Potthast 1179 (November, 1200)]; and Theiner (editor), Vetera monumenta Slavorum I, no. 246 (Potthast 1225)]. In the Catalogus Moguntinus and in the Annales Moguntini (P. Jaffé, Bibliotheca Germanica III, p. 4 and p. 708), the date of his death is given as 1200 [See also J. F. Böhmer, Regesta archiepiscoporum maguntiniensium (Innsbruck 1886), pp. 119-120]..
- Pierre Ithier [Chartres] (Pietro da Pavia), Canon Reg., Bishop of Tusculum (Frascati). Former Cardinal Priest of S. Crisogono
(1173-1179) [JL 13441]. Legate to the Emperor Frederick I in 1180 and 1181, instructed to settle a dispute between the
Emperor and WIchmann, Archbishop of Magdeburg [JL 13611-13612 (February 15, 1180)]. He does not begin to subscribe again
until February 12, 1182. [K. Ganzer, Die Entwicklung des auswärtigen Kardinalats im hohen Mittelalter, 123-125]
His latest known subscription is on August 2, 1182 [Baaken and Schmidt, Lfg. 2, Regesten nr. 303, and p. 585].
- Henri de Marsiac [de Castro Marsiaco], O.Cist., Bishop of Albano. Former Abbot of Altacomba in Savoy (1161), then of Clairvaux (1176) [Gallia Christiana 4 (Parisiis 1728), 802-803], elevated at the III Lateran Council on March 7, 1179, in the second session [Mansi Sacrorum Conciliorum nova et amplissima collectio 22, 234; JL, p. 339]. Legate in southern France against the Albigensians. According to his Cistercian biography, he returned from this Legateship only after the death of Alexander III, when Pope Lucius was already on the throne [Migne PL 185, 1553]. Mansi, Sacrorum Conciliorum 22, cols. 467-472 (1180-1182) See M. Costen, The Cathars and the Albigensian Crusade (Manchester 1997), pp. 105-106. Cardinal Henri last appears in the subscriptiones of Alexander III on December 8, 1179, and does not appear in the subscriptiones of Lucius III until August of 1182 [JL p. 431]. Bruel, Recueil des chartes de l' Abbaye de Cluny 5 (Paris 1894) no. 4284, appears to indicate that Cardinal Henri is still in France in July of 1181. According to his Cistercian biography, he was a candidate for the papacy after the death of Urban III in 1187. His surviving works: Migne, Patrologiae Series Latina Tomus CCIV, cols. 204-402. His Cistercian biography: Migne, PL 185, columns 1553-1554.
- Sy(mon) Borelli [Sangrino], Cardinal Deacon of "S. Mariae in Dominica et Sublacensis abbas" (from before 1157,
perhaps created by Eugenius III; d. ca. 1183) [Cardella I. 2, p. 96; Watterich, 461; Doeberl, MGS IV, p. 150 n.;
Ganzer, pp. 102-104; Zenker, pp. 140-141] He supported Cardinal Octavianus in the schism of 1159 for the first few months.
But with numerous gifts to his abbey of Subiaco [Kehr, Italia Pontificia II, nos. 45-55, pp. 95-97],
he switched sides, by early 1160 [K. Ganzer. Die
Entwicklung des auswärtigen Kardinalats im hohen Mittelalter, 102-104]. He does not appear in the subscriptions
of Alexandeer III (1159-1181) or of Lucius III (1181-1185), suggesting that he devoted himself entirely to his monastic
responsibilities. But apparently he was still alive on December 3, 1182 [Kehr IP II,
p. 97, no. 58].
- ?? Bernardus, Cardinal Deacon of S. Nicola in Carcere Tulliano (first subscribed in October, 1178). The date of the end
of his tenure at S. Nicola is unknown; his latest known subscription seems to be that of August 22, 1179 [Nachrichten
der K. Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften zu Gottingen, phil.-hist. Klasse (1910), no. 85, pp. 109-111]. His successor,
Petrus Diani, first signs on April 20, 1185. There is a good chance that Bernardus was dead by the time of the Election
of September 1, 1181.
- Rogerius, OSB Cas., Cardinal Priest in the title of S. Eusebio. Former Abbot of Montecassino, appointed Archbishop of
Benevento in 1179 by Alexander III [F. Ughelli, Italia sacra VIII (Venetiis 1721), 126]; he held the
post until December 25, 1221 [cf. G. Cappelletti, Le chiese d' Italia III (1844), pp. 82-87]. His predecessor was
Lombardus, who was appointed in 1171 and resigned before July 27, 1179 [Ughelli, Italia sacra VIII, 121-123]. He
did not subscribe any papal documents. [Eubel, Hierarchia Catholica I, p. 3 n.1, and p. 5 n.2, does not consider
him as one of the Cardinals alive at the time of the Election of 1198, or as one of the Cardinals alive at the time
of the Election of 1216—though he survives until 1121; cf. Brixius, p. 66]. Ganzer, pp. 129-131, believes that he
was not a cardinal during his archbishopric. He is called Cardinal of S. Eusebio is in E. Gattula, Historia
Abbatiae Cassiniensis Pars prima (Venetiis 1733). 399, which Gattula quotes from the Register of Petrus Diaconus,
and notes that the document is in a later hand, quamquam recentiori charactere [text also in Ughelli VIII, 126].
[Italia Sacra VIII, 126] also mentions the existence of a second text, which was later published by Stefano Borgia, in Memorie
istoriche della pontificia città di Benevento Parte III (Roma 1769) 185-187. [My thanks to Tomasz Karlikowski for drawing
this to my attention]. A letter of Philippus, Bishop of Troia and Rector of Benevento notes that, in accordance with a papal mandate, Pater
noster d(omi)nus Roggerius dei gratia sancti Eusebii Cardinalis Beneventanus Episcopus suspenderat ab officio iudicatus [Petrum
Malaina]. The document was found by Norbert Kamp, Kirche und Monarchie im staufischen Konigreich Sizilien (1973), p. 206.
There is no question, therefore, that Rogerius was a Cardinal of S. Eusebio from 1180 to his death in 1221. Ughelli mentions a third
document, dated 1220, but it has not been located. In any case, there is no evidence that Cardinal Rogerius attended the Election of
1216, or 1198, or 1187, or 1187, or 1181.
- ? ? Leonas, OSB, Abbot of San Clemente a Casauria (Casa-Auri), a monastery on an island in the Pescara River in the Abruzzi [F. I. Calore, "L' abbazia di San Clemente a Casauria," Archivio storico dell' arte 4 (Roma 1891), 9-36]. According to the Chronicon of the monastery, written by the monk of San Clemente, Iohannes Bernardi, in the last quarter of the XII century, Leonas was "a son of the Roman Church", in which he had been educated as a boy. He was later a professed monk of S. Clemente, and was elected Abbot in 1155. Since S. Clemente was a direct dependency of the Holy See, however, only the Pope could approve his election and authorize his consecration. Initially Pope Adrian IV was unwilling to confirm the election, but when the monks renewed their appeal in a public consistory, he agreed. On the tenth day after his election, Leonas had to assemble an army to defend his monastery from the marauding sons of Berardus de Castellione and conduct a siege of the town of Bitorritum. When Pope Adrian IV was at Beneventum (November 21, 1155 to July 10, 1156), Leonas appeared at the Curia for consecration and was granted the mitre and staff. His abbey was frequently harassed by the local nobility, and he had to appeal both to King William of Sicily and Pope Adrian for support, both material and spiritual [e.g. Migne, PL 200, column 558 no. 594; column 657 no. 705; column 1236 no. 1423].
Until March 21, 1170, Leonas was only a Subdeacon of the Holy Roman Church, despite his high position in the south-east. For another Subdeacon S.R.E. of high position, see the case of Obertus of Monza, Archipresbyter Modoetiensis (Modoiciensis) et S.R.E. Subdiaconus (Kehr, Italia Pontificia 5, p. 457-458 nos. 78-82; p. 467 no.32; p. 468 no. 37; Italia Pontificia 6.1, p. 147 no. 17); see also Petrus, subdiac. sedis apost., the praepositus of. S. Antonino in Piacenza (Kehr, Italia Pontificia 5, p. 480, nos. 40-41; p. 513, no. 25). The title Subdiaconus S.R.E. does not necessarily mean that a person is only in minor orders; there is, for example, the case of Iohannes de Azzo of the titulus of S. Marcello in Rome, who is archipresbyter praedictae ecclesiae et Romanus subdiaconus et presbyter gratia Dei eiusdem ecclesiae [T. von Sickel, Studi e documenti di storia e diritto 7 (Roma 1886), p. 109 (November 3, 1138)].
But as to Subdeacon Leonas, on the Saturday before Passion Sunday of that year, when Pope Alexander III was staying at Veroli (March 16 to September 12, 1170; see V. Caperna, Storia di Veroli (Veroli 1907), pp. 220-229), he was elevated to the rank of deacon: apud Verulas a Domno Papa Alexandro in Diaconum Apostolicae Sedis est promotus duodecimo Calendas Aprilis [March 21, 1170], sabbato ante Dominicam de Passione. An inscription on a marble plaque in the Basilica of S. Erasmus at Veroli, cited by Lorenzo Cardella [ I. 2, p. 115], is said to state:
Alexander III. P. M. ex Apulia redux, aedibus hujus Bassilicae successit, Leonem Hypodiaconum abatem Casauriensem in eadem Basilica inter S. R. E. Cardinales cooptavit anno MCLXX. Sabbato ante Dominicam Passionis.
a text which is similar to that of the Chronicon Casauriense, though clearly wrong as to the Abbot's real name (Leonatem). The time at which the memorial was placed, and consequently its authority, is not known. It was surely, however, after the living memory of Leonatas, whose name is improperly represented. The Chronicon Fossae Novae [Muratori, Rerum Italicarum Scriptores 7, columns 873-874], which refers to the same events, does not however mention cardinals, saying only:
1170. Indictione tertia, mense Martio die 15 Kal. Aprilis [March 18] venit Alexander Papa Verulas, ordinavit ibi Archiepiscopos, Episcopos, Abbates et alios ordines. Hoc autem anno misit Imperator Constantinopolitanus nepotem suam cum Episcopis Graecis, et cum comitibus, et cum multis militibus, et cum magna pecunia ad Alexandrum Papam, ut daret eam in conjugio Odoni Frajapanis de Roma, qui apud Verulas eam conjugavit, et tunc ipse Odon cum ea reversus est Romam. Postea praedictus Papa Alexander fecit fabricare Ecclesiam apud Verulas ex sua pecunia pro elephantiosis, in qua obtulit multa dona. Quinto Id. Martii Papa Alexander venit ad Ecclesiam Sancti Petri de Canneto et profectus est ad Verulas. Septimo Id. Madii tam vehemens fuit terraemotus, quod plerosque muros civitatis destruxit, quod etiam per se sonaverunt campanae decem diebus. Stante mense Madio pars Ripae arsit.
It is pointed out by Ganzer (p. 120) that in papal documents Leonas is referred to only as "venerabilis abbas S. Clementis de Piscaria", never as Cardinal. Neither is there a reference anywhere to any Deaconry to which he might have been assigned as Cardinal Deacon. Neither does Iohannes Bernardi the Chronicler, who worked with Abbot Leonas for most of his life, mention a cardinalate. He does, however, say that, at the II Lateran Council [March 3-19, 1179], Leonas had a seat with the Cardinal Deacons: Quando Domnus Alexander Papa Romae synodum celebravit, Domnus Leonas Piscariensis Abbas inter Diaconos Cardinales in eodem Concilio celebrem locum habuit. The language is odd. It does not say that he was a Cardinal Deacon (and indeed we never hear of a Deaconry being assigned to him), only that he was seated with the Cardinal Deacons. But he was a Diaconus Sanctae Romanae Ecclesiae according to the Chronicon, and that would be his proper place, as a member of the Papal Chapel and Apostolic Deacon. Why would the fact be mentioned, unless it were an honor for Leonas? (N.B. Seating arrangements at councils were not yet firmly fixed in the twelfth century. See J. Catalano, Sacrarum Ceremoniarum sive rituum ecclesiasticorum sanctae Romanae Ecclesiae libri tres Tomus I [Romae 1750), 373-375). In the 1130's and 1140's, according to Benedictus, Canon and Cantor of St. Peter's Basilica [Mabillon, Museum Italicum II (1724), p. 129], the seating arrangements during a solemn papal feast was: Dato presbyterio, intrant ad mensam praeparatam. Episcopi et cardinales sedent in dextra parte; archidiaconus et diaconus et primicerius et prior basilicarius et prior regionarius in sinistra, omnis ordo in suo loco.
Strangest of all is that, during the time he was in Rome for the Ecumenical Council, Abbot Leonas never, so far as we know, subscribed a single document—though the second edition of Jaffe lists no fewer than thirty-two documents for the month of March, 1179 . On March 20, 1179, to take just one item, twenty-two cardinals subscribe, but not Abbot Leonas [Antonio López Ferreiro, Historia de la santa a. m. Iglesia de Santiago de Compostela Tomo IV (Santiago 1901), Apéndices, no. LII pp. 133-134].
According to Ioannes Diaconus, in addition to the Archdeacon, there were six Palatine Deacons and twelve Regionary Deacons, all of whom were Canons of the Lateran Basilica. There were also twenty-one Subdeacons Sanctae Romanae Ecclesiae— seven Subdiaconi Palatini, seven members of the Schola Cantorum, and seven Subdiaconi Regionarii. These subdeacons and deacons appear from time to time in subscription lists. They also appear in the Ordo Romanus, for example in that of Benedictus, Canon and Cantor of St. Peter's, writing between 1133 and 1143 [Mabillon, Museum Italicum II, pp. 121-122]:
Dominica de Gaudete, statio ad sanctum Petrum. Cum dominus Papa cum omnibus scholis ad Vesperum venit, ibique dominus manet: tunc dominus Pontifex accipit xx solidos de confessione, et expendium curiae, et equorum suorum. Cardinales vero et diaconi, primicerius cum schola, subdiaconi basilicarii et subdiaconi regionarii, et acolythi accipiunt quinque solidos den. Papiensium, quod vocatur coenaria: et archidiaconus accipit xviii denarios pro responsoriis, qui expenduntur per manus suas; et canonici ecclesiae debent habere de presbyterio xii sol. de eadem confessione.
Under Eugenius III there is apparently a Bercharchus S. R. E. Diaconus [JL II, p. 20; Burchardus?]. The Subdeacons sometimes do double duty as notarii or scriptores. An example of a subdiaconal signature is that of Cardinal Jacintus: on April 27, 1138 he had subscribed as Jacinthus, prior subdiaconorum sacri palatii [JL I, p. 841and no. 7890]. Another is one that was signed at Veroli on April 2, 1170, eleven days after Leonas' promotion, per manum Gratiani S. R. E. Subdiac.[JL 11758]
But as to Leonas' own use of the title Cardinal Deacon, it is only in two local documents from
the Abruzzi inserted into the Chronicon where the title of Cardinal appears. On November 23, 1171, Leonas actually subscribes
for Pallerio of Palena, Leonas Sanctae Romanae Ecclesiae Diaconus Cardinalis et Abbas Monasterii Sancti Clementis in Piscaria. In
a grant to the monastery of S. Clemente of June 8, 1177, there is a reference to Domno Leonati Sanctae Romanae Ecclesiae Diacono
Cardinali, eiusdem Monasterii religioso Abbati. These two documents, however, are known only through Muratori's "additamenta" to
the Chronicon (which are contained in the Manuscript E of the Chronicon; see Kehr, IP 4, p. 300), in Rerum
Italicarum Scriptores II. 2, columns 1012 and 1116-1118—they are copies, not the original documents themselves.
According to another chronicle, the Chronica Monasterii S. Bartholomaei de Carpineto [Ughelli Italia
Sacra X, Additamenta , column 373], Pope Alexander III assigned to the Bishop of Teramo and Domino Leonati Sanctae Romanae
Ecclesiae Diacono Cardinali et Abbati S. Clementis de Piscaria concordia the responsibility of being iudices dati in
a boundary case in the Abruzzi. The Bishop's name comes first, probably because he was a bishop and Leonas only a deacon and abbot.
Leonas was certainly no legatus a latere of the Apostolic See, as one might expect of a Cardinal, even in relatively minor
matters, and especially in the reign of Alexander III. It is amazing how many of the testimonies to these dubious cardinals (and popes,
for that matter) appear only in monastic chronicles—as though they were posthumous awards, like the title of Saint.
There is perhaps another consideration. The monastery of S. Clemente was directly dependent upon the Holy See—which may have something to do with the claim of the title "cardinal". There is, for example, the case of a newly-appointed "cardinal" Provost of a church in the fief of the Fieschi, Counts of Lavania Facino dicto Cardinali, preposito ecclesie sancti Salvatoris de Lavania, Januensis diocesis, whose eminence is accounted for when Pope Benedict XI mentions in his letter to Facinus vacante siquidem nuper prepositura ecclesie sancti Salvatoris de Lavania, ad Romanam Ecclesiam nullo medio pertinentis, Januensis diocesis... [Registre de Benoit XI, no. 948, p. 567 (June 1, 1304)]. This is the sort of "cardinalate" that the Abbots of S. Trinité de Vendôme enjoyed, the Abbots of Cluny claimed (though with the title of "cardinal" in only one case), and Abbots of Montecassino sometimes claimed, and the Abbey of Majorismonasterii in Tours had—not the personal status of a Roman Cardinal Priest or Cardinal Deacon. The title "cardinal" and the designation "cardinalatial" claimed direct rule by the Pope himself, the feudal status of tenant-in-chief.
In any case, considering the distance between Pescara and Rome, and the swiftness of the Election, it is completely unlikely that Abbot Leonas, even if he were a cardinal, participated in the Election of 1181. He died, according to the chronicler, Iohannes Bernardi, on the Feast of the Annunciation, March 25, 1182, and was buried in the Cloister of his abbey church. [In general, see: Ganzer, 119-121, no. 48]
Dubii Salvatoris Mirandae
In his list of Cardinals present and absent at the Election of 1181, Salvador Miranda (Librarian Emeritus, Florida International University) states that there were forty living cardinals, and he names eleven cardinals who did not participate in the Election:
-Pietro di Miso
, title of S. Lorenzo in Damaso, (absent).
, title of S. Pietro in Vincoli, (absent?).
, O.S.B., deacon of Ss. Cosma e Damiano, (absent).
, title of S. Lorenzo in Lucina, (absent?).
, deacon of S. Maria in Via Lata, (absent).
-Herbert of Bosham
, deaconry not known, (absent).
, O.S.B.Cas., title of S. Eusebio, (absent).
-Guillaume de Champagne
, title of S. Sabina, archbishop of Reims, France, (absent).
, title of S. Pudenziana, (absent).
, title of Ss. XII Apostoli, (absent).
, deacon of S. Maria in Portico, (absent).
His list is in need of severe pruning.
- Ardoino, Cardinal Deacon of S. Maria in Via Lata. He signed his last subscription (according to Salvador Miranda) on September 6, 1178, and he was absent from the Election of 1181. However, Arduinus, Cardinal Priest of Santa Croce in Gerusalemme, signed his first subscription on October 1, 1178, and his latest on January 4, 1183, and (according to Miranda) he was present at the Election of 1181. They are, however, one and the same person, with a promotion in September of 1178.
Arduinus the Cardinal Deacon should be deleted from the list of Cardinals of 1181.
The following were not cardinals in 1181:
- Petrus de Miso, Cardinal Priest in the title of S. Lorenzo in Damaso He subscribes 1166-1174. Salvador
Miranda, relying on the Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1928, states that Petrus also subscribed in June and July of
1182, while forgetting that he had also assigned S. Lorenzo in Damaso to Cardinal Pedro de Cardona (1181-1183) and
at the same time to Cardinal Uberto Allucingoli (early 1182 to 1185) [Cf. Ciaconius-Olduin I, col. 1114]. That makes
three cardinals in the same titulus at the same time. It is obvious that Cardella is right, that Petrus de Miso died
during the reign of Alexander III, and did not participate in the Election of 1181.
Petrus de Miso had previously
been Cardinal Deacon of S. Eustachio [Cardella I. 2, p. 93, who states that he died under Alexander III]; his latest
subscription as Cardinal Deacon is on August 1, 1165 [Brixius, p. 59; Zenker, 175-176]. He had supported
Alexander III in the disputed election of 1159, and was sent along with Cardinal Julius, Bishop of Palestrina, into
Hungary, to defend Alexander against the schismatics. He was at Salona on July 2, 1161 [JL 10669], and at Spalato on
September 1, 1161 [JL 10676].
- Theobaldus [Thibaud], OSB.Clun., Cardinal Priest in the title of "S. Croce in Gerusalemme (?) ", according to Salvador Miranda. Cardella I.2, p. 133-134, points out that he was a Benedictine, a Cistercian, or a Cluniac. He is made a creation of Lucius III by Panvinio, which is certainly true of his appointment as Bishop of Ostia; he appears in inscription of July 13, 1183, as Bishop of Ostia [Ciaconius-Olduin, 1113].
Robert of Thorigny (Robertus de Monte), Abbot of Mont S. Michel (d. 1186) writes sub anno 1185 [MGH SS 6, 534]: Teobaldus abbas Cluniacensis factus est episcopus cardinalis Hostiensis; cui successit filius comitis de Claromonte (Hughes IV de Clermont). The Theobald who was Abbot of Cluny served as Abbot from 1180-1184. See Gallia Christiana 4 (Paris 1728), 1142-1143. See also the diploma of Philip II, King of France [Alexandre Bruel, Recueil des chartes de l' Abbaye de Cluny 5 (Paris 1894) no. 4277 (1180); 4278 (1180) where the King refers to Theobaldus venerabilis Abbas Cluniacensis; no. 4279 (1180), an agreement between Count Gerard of Macon and Theobaudus venerabilis Abbas Cluniacensis; in no. 4287 (June 18, 1182), Bishop Ademar of Saintes (Xantonensis) calls him venerabilis domini Tebbaudi, Cluniacensis abbatis. The Chronicle of Cluny erroneously has it that Theobaldus governed the Abbey for only one year, 1179, that he was elected Bishop of Ostia in 1179, and that he died on November 4, 1180 [Bruel, p. 657 n. 1].
Was he a Cardinal Priest before his elevation to the See of Ostia? Frizoni stated that he had been made Cardinal Priest of Santa Croce in Jerusalem in 1179. But this assignment has come to be seen as an impossibility, since evidence exists that the Cardinal Priest of S. Croce from at least October 1, 1178 to January 4, 1183, based on subscriptions to papal documents, was Cardinal Arduinus. Thus, Theobaldus could not have attended the Conclave of 1181 as Cardinal Priest of Santa Croce, if he attended at all. Ciaconius-Olduin (column 1100) would have him be Cardinal Priest of S. Croce before 1170, ante annum 1170. But this merely compounds the problem. The incumbent at S. Croce from at least June 28, 1144 to September 9, 1170 was Cardinal Hubaldus. The only possible space for Theobaldus is between September, 1170 and September 1178, in which case he still would not be a Cardinal at the Election of 1181. And this is the conjecture that one finds in Salvador Miranda's biographical note: Theobaldus (he puts it) was created cardinal priest of Santa Croce in Gerusalemme in the consistory of 1171, and he resigned his title "toward 1178"; and yet he participated in the papal election of 1181. But this is nonsense, and for two reasons: (1) there is no positive evidence either for his appointment or his resignation; and (2) he was Abbot of Cluny from 1180 to 1184, and, one must presume, governing his monastery in Champagne and his Order, rather than hanging about in Rome waiting for Alexander III to die so that he could participate in the Election. The best proof is that, on July 28, 1181, a month before he died, Pope Alexander sent a mandate to Abbot Theobaldus of Cluny and his monks [JL 14419 (9372)]. Abbot Theobaldus is not addressed as a Cardinal (in contrast to Archbishop Guillaume de Champagne of Reims, who is), and, clearly, he was not in Rome but receiving his mail at Cluny.
- Herbert of Bosham [Sussex, England]. He is named as a Cardinal Deacon by Salvador Miranda, who states that
his deaconry is not known, nor did he subscribe any documents. Herbert had been secretary of Thomas Becket and his
strongest supporter. He spent the four years immediately after Becket's assassination outside of England in self-imposed exile.
He was much disliked by King Henry II, and there is every reason to think that the King would have been very displeased
at any preferment shown to Herbert. There is considerable doubt that he was ever a Cardinal [Ciaconius-Olduin,
1094; Cardella I.2, p. 122; Williams, Lives of the English Cardinals I, 199].
As J. A. Giles points out [Herberti de Boseham S. Thomae Cantuariensis clerici a secretis Opera quae exstant omnia Vol. II (Oxonii 1846), vi and xi.], the story of Herbert's cardinalate derives from "an absurd corruption of the text of the Catalogus eruditorum in the edition of Lupus." (C. Lupus [Wolf] Bruxelles 1682). See; L. Stephen and S. Lee (editors), Dictionary of National Biography 26 (1891) 166-168. James Craigie Robertson, Materials for the History of Thomas Becket III (London 1877) xvii-xxiii.
He is said to have been elected to the See of Benevento, but Ferdinando Ughelli [Italia Sacra VIII
123, 125-126] did not believe he was either a cardinal or Archbishop of Benevento. There is only a tiny window for him
in 1179, between the resignation of Archbishop Lombardus and the installation of Archbishop Rogerius—who was the real Cardinal
of Benevento in 1181. For those who did not believe the tale that Herbert was offered and refused the See of Benevento,
they can point to (equally unlikely) stories that Herbert was made Bishop of Cosenza or of Compsa. He also, according
to another tale, became pope under the name Urban III [Robertson, xxi]. Uberto Crivelli of Milan was Urban III. In arguing
about an alleged cardinalate, the default position ought to be "not a cardinal", and the burden ought to be on the supporter
of a cardinalate to demonstrate the claim.
- Eguillino, Cardinal Priest in the title of S. Pietro in Vincoli. This person does not exist. A
manuscript was miscopied (paleographical error). The person referred to in the ms. was Guillelmus Matenego of S. Pietro
in Vincoli (1162 to 1176), former Cardinal Deacon of S. Maria in Via Lata (1159-1162); he was promoted to the see of
Porto and S. Rufina (1176-1177). Cardella knew this [I. 2, p. 92]. Salvador Miranda's entry in his Biographical Dictionary
for 1164 is confusing and erroneous; he knows the truth, and he perpetuates error. He makes "Eguillino" the successor
of Cardinal Guillelmus at S. Pietro in Vincoli "after 1176", while in fact they are the same person, and he makes him die "before 1182". He need
not have been so harsh; there is a vacancy from 1176 until the creation of Cardinal Petrus of S. Pietro in Vincoli
in 1188 by Clement III [Kartusch, p. 324-325].
- Rolando Paparoni [of Siena (Panvinio) or France (others)], Cardinal Deacon of S. Maria in Porticu. He first subscribes 1185, four years after the Election, as Cardinal Deacon of S. Maria in Porticu [Jaffe-Loewenfeld p. 146]. The Cardinal Deacon of S. Maria in Porticu, who subscribed up to at least July 27, 1179, was Cardinal Laborans, at which point he was promoted to S. Maria trans Tiberim (earliest subscription with his new title on February 26, 1180).
Salvador Miranda, depending entirely on the Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1928, puts Rolando's
creation at the end of 1180 and his promotion to the title of SS. Silvestro e Martino ai Monti in 1184.
This scenario is contrary to the documentary evidence. I see no positive reason to make him a creation of Alexander
III; and the promotion to Cardinal Priest in 1184 is contradicted by the subscriptions. There was no cardinal of SS. Silvestro
e Martino under Lucius III [cf. Baaken and Schmidt, Lfg. 2, pp. 565-584] Cardella
[I. 2, pp. 153-154], in fact, makes Rolando's creation as a Cardinal Deacon part of Lucius III's Second Creation, which
took place in December, 1183 (according to Chacon) or Ash Wednesday, 1184, in Verona (according to Panvinio). It was actually
in March of 1185.
This alleged creation of cardinals at the end of 1180 was composed (according to Miranda) of only two cardinals. One, Rolando, has been shown to be nothing but an unjustified guess. The other was Cardinal Bernaredus, named Bishop of Palestrina, who died shortly after his creation. Cardinal Bernaredus is also called Berneredo, Bernaredo, Bernero, and Benemeredo [G. Cappelletti, Le chiese d' Italia 1 (Venezia 1844), 606]. He had earlier been the Abbot of SS. Crispinus and Crispinianus at Soissons when he came to Rome for the III Lateran Council in 1179. But he was named Cardinal in 1179, not at the end of 1180. He subscribes to papal documents as Bishop of Palestrina from May 4, 1179 to July 11, 1180 [JL, p. 145]. Peter of Celle knew Cardinal Bernaredus, wrote to him, and wrote to Peter of Pavia, Bishop of Tusculum, about Bernaredus' death [Epistolae IX. 6: Patrologiae 202, columns 541-549].
There was, in fact, a promotion (not a creation) of one cardinal at the end of 1180, but it was that of Paolo Scolari, Cardinal Deacon of SS. Sergius and Bacchus (since 1179, before October 17), who succeeded Bernaredus as Bishop of Palestrina. He first subscribes on January 13, 1181, and died in the second half of March, 1191. Both of Miranda's creations of 1180 are fictitious.
- Gandolfo, OSB, "Cardinal Deacon of Ss. Cosma e Damiano". The Cardinal Deacon of SS. Cosma e
Damiano from 1178-1203 was Cardinal Graziano. Gandolfo is a mirage. He was, however, a real person, the Abbot
of S. Sisto in Piacenza.
- Robertus, "Cardinal Priest in the title of S. Pudenziana." Ciaconius-Olduin (column 1102) and Cardella (p. 139), followed exactly by Salvador Miranda, base his entry on the record of his signature on a bull of 1170; this is impossible, since the Cardinal Priest of S. Pudenziana from 1166 to 1178 was Cardinal Boso, as the record of subscriptions shows [JL p. 145]. Both Chacon and Cardella may be dismissed from discussion. Miranda then cites "another two [papal bulls] issued in April 1179", but he gives no references. It is curious that, according to Miranda, "Cardinal Robert" was created in March 1179, just in time to sign the two bulls of April 1179. There is no evidence whatsoever that "he" was alive in 1181. On what basis does Miranda say that he did not participate in the Election of 1181? The only other item in Miranda "bibliography" besides Chacon and Cardella is the Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1928. It must be presumed that that is the source of Miranda's information. But the Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1928, is nothing but a compilation, not a scholarly investigation, and it is riddled with so many errors and fancies that it is laughable. A scholar must cite his sources, and Miranda has not done so. Indeed, Miranda engages in contradictions, placing the name of Cardinal Boso of S. Pudenziana on the list of Cardinals present at the Election of 1181, forgetting perhaps that he had made Robertus the Cardinal of S. Pudenziana too. "Robert"'s death "before 1188" is not a fact, only an easy inference, since there was a Cardinal Priest at S. Pudenziana in 1188, Jordanus (Giordano) de Ceccano, OCist. One may reasonably doubt the existence of "Cardinal Robert of S. Pudenziana", to say nothing of his participation in the election of 1181.
- Ildebertus [His name is actually Ildebrandus (Hiltprandus) Crassus], presbiter cardinalis basilicae XII apostolorum
[Brixius, pp. 55 and 109]. Formerly Cardinal Deacon of S. Eustachio (1152-1156). He subscribes from 1153-1177. On his
list of Consistories
for the Creation of Cardinals, Salvador Miranda gives the date of his death as 1177. In his Biographical Dictionary of
the Cardinals created in 1152, Miranda twice states that Ildebrandus died in 1177. According to the Necrology of
S. Maria de Reno [G. Trombelli, Memorie istoriche concernenti le due Canoniche di S. Maria de Reno e di S. Salvatore (Bologna
1752), p. 223 and 351], he died on November 8, 1178. Therefore, he was not at the Election of 1181. Neither was St.
successor was Pandulphus (1182-1201) [Kehr, Nachrichten der K. Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften zu Gottingen,
phil.-hist. Klasse (1903), no. 6, p. 110 (Velletri, April/May, 1183); Malaczek, 79-80; cf. Kartusch, 307-310, who is
wrong on several particulars].
- Petrus, "Cardinal Priest in the title of S. Lorenzo in Lucina". The title, however, was held by Cardinal Albertus de Morra from 1158 until he became Pope Gregory VIII in 1187. The title, then, cannot be bestowed on "Cardinal Peter". But what of the person? The dismal authors of the list of cardinals in the Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1928 appear to know of a bull, dated May 25, 1178, signed by this Cardinal Peter—a further demonstration of their unreliability. Miranda includes Petrus as a participant in the Election of 1181, with no evidence to support his statement, and in the knowledge (expressed in his biographical notice on Cardinal Albertus) of Albertus' tenure. Petrus did not exist.
- Giovanni, Cardinal Priest in the title of SS. Giovanni e Paolo. A real cardinal. When Julius, Bishop of Palestrina, who was
acting as Vicar of Rome for Alexander III while he was in France, died, Cardinal Giovanni was named to replace him
Alexandri III PP"; RIS III. 2, 456]. Archpriest of the Vatican Basilica [JL 13060 (8586), April 30, 1178]. Salvador
Miranda gives the date of his death as "before January 4, 1181" [following J. Brixius, Die Mitglieder p.
55], based on Jaffe-Loewenfeld 14356 (January 4, 1181): it refers to : P(aulo) episcopo Praenestino, aliisque heredibus
bon(ae) mem(oriae) Jo(hannis) SS. Io(hannis) et Pa(uli) cardinalis presbyteri. And yet Miranda notes a subscription of
March 27, 1181 [which, however, does not contain the desired subscription of Cardinal Iohannes], and allows Cardinal
Iohannes to participate in the Papal Election in the Summer of 1181. One cannot have it both ways. In fact, Cardinal
Iohannes was dead.
His successor, Cardinal Rainerius, first subscribes in August of 1182; this Cardinal Rainerius is probably the same
Rainerius who was Cardinal Deacon of S. Adriano (whom Miranda buries in 1182). He cannot be the Cardinal Rainerius
of S. Georgio in Velum aureum, who is still subscribing with that Deaconry on December 7, 1182.
- Hugo of Bologna (called Ricasoli, without warrant), Cardinal Deacon of S. Eustachio. See Archbishop Romuald of Salerno, in MGH SS 19, p. 443 and p. 446. A real cardinal, Hugo died at Beneventum in December of 1177 or January of 1178 [Romuald, p. 459] [Brixius p. 121 note 158 and p. 118 note 147].
- Uberto Crivelli [Mediolanensis] was not yet a cardinal. His earliest known subscription as Cardinal Priest
of S. Lorenzo is on January 2, 1183 [Baaken and Schmidt, Lfg. 2, Regesten nr. 440, and p. 585]. He subscribes as Hubertus
presbiter cardinalis tit. sancti Laurencii in Damaso in a bull of February 5, 1183 [Pflugk-Harttung, Acta
pontificum Romanorum inedita III (1888), no. 333, pp. 303-304]; and as Mediolanensis archiepiscopus et presbyter
cardinalis in a bull of November 11, 1185 [Th. Lejeune, Documents et rapports de la Société paléontologique
et archéologique de Charleroi 12 (1883), no. xxvi, 335-339]. G. Novaes, Elementi III, p. 123,
states that he was made Cardinal Priest of S. Lorenzo in Damaso in 1171, but the date is not possible, since Cardinal
Petrus was the incumbent in that title until after July 17, 1174. Additionally, he signs himself Ubertus Archdeacon
of Milan in 1178 [F. Ughelli, Italia Sacra 4, columns 166-167]. Ughelli [Italia Sacra 4, columns
165-169] and J A. Sassi [II, 599-607], followed by Moroni, believe that he was made a cardinal by Lucius III in
December, 1182 [Moroni, Dizionario
storico-ecclesiastica 86, p. 10] He was still Archdeacon of Milan on October 3, 1182 [Kehr, Italia Pontificia V,
p. 467 no. 32], and thus he was not present at the Election of 1181. Hubertus was elected Archbishop of Milan on
January 9, 1185, after the decease of his predecessor, Archbishop Galdinus on November 28, 1184 [G. Cappelletti, Le
chiese d' Italia XI (1844), p 183] Uberto Crivelli became Pope Urban III (1185-1187).
Pope Alexander III died in exile, but his body and the Cardinals returned to Rome, over considerable objections of the
Romans. The procession, in fact, was stoned by the populace. There was trouble all around. The Prefect of the City was
John, a member of the family of the Lords of Vico; the Prefect was no longer appointed by the Pope, nor was he a papal
official. The office had been restored by Frederick Barbarossa, and the new Prefect, John of Vico, was an appointee of
the Emperor [Gregorovius IV. 2, p. 588]. And John had been at odds personally with Pope Alexander III. [Gregorovius IV. 2, pp.
The Election took place, in accordance with the Constitution of Pope Bonifatius III [Liber Pontificalis, MGH 5,
p. 164 ed. Mommsen], on the third day after the death of Pope Alexander, that is on September 1, 1181 [Gaufredus Vosiensis,
in MGH SS 26, 203]. For the first time, the Constitution of Alexander III, which had been issued during the Third Lateran Council (1179), was applied, requiring a two-thirds vote of the participating cardinals, "majoris et sanioris partis debet sententia praevalere." Hubaldus
Allucingoli was elected.
He was about 71 years of age, and had been a cardinal since the time of Innocent II (died 1143). He had been appointed
Bishop of Ostia and Velletri by Pope Adrian IV in 1159.
It had been the demands of the Romans which caused Lucius III to flee the city, to be crowned at Velletri (the Sunday after
his election, September 6, 1181) [Annales Casinienses, in MGH SS 19, 312], Since he himself had been
the Bishop of Ostia, he was crowned by Cardinal Theodinus, the Bishop of Porto, and by the Archpriest of Ostia.
About the Coronation, we have only the brief notice of Gaufredus de Bruil, Prior of Vigeois (Vosiensis, in the Diocese
of Limoges) [MGH
SS 26, 203; J. Catalano, Sacrorum Caeremoniarum sive Rituum Ecclesiasticorum S. R. E. (Romae 1750) p. 110; Baronius-Theiner,
Feria III eligitur Humbaldus, qui Pontifex erat Ostiae et Veliternensis urbium. Sequenti Dominica prima Septembris coronatur et insignitur a Theodino Episcopo Portuensi et ab Archpresbytero Ostiensi juxta consuetudinem, et ab universo populo et Clero laudatur, Lucius III. Lucensis Tuscus vocatus.
He was able to return to the Lateran by November 2, 1181, and except for a brief
period between November, 1181, and March 12, 1182, he spent his entire reign outside of Rome (Gregorovius IV.2, pp. 609-612)..
He died in Verona on November 25, 1185 [JL p. 492].
Katrin Baaken & Ulrich Schmidt, Regesta Imperii 4. Lothar III und altere Staufer, Abt. 4: Papstregesten 1124-1198, Teil
4.: 1181-1198, Lieferung 1.: 1181-1184 (Koln: Bohlau 2003); Lieferung 2. 1184-1185 (2006).
Philippus Jaffé (editor) , Regesta pontificum Romanorum ab condita ecclesia ad annum post Christum natum MCXCVIII (Berolini
1851). Philippus Jaffé (editor) Regesta Pontificum Romanorum (editionem secundam correctam et auctam auspiciis Guilelmi Wattenbach; curaverunt S. Loewenfeld, F. Kaltenbrunner, P. Ewald) (Lipsiae: Veit et comp. 1885) [JL]. [contains summaries of subscriptiones, arranged by Pope]. Paulus Fridolin Kehr, Regesta Pontificum Romanorum. Italia Pontificia IV. Umbria, Picenum, Marcia (Berolini 1901).
J. D. Mansi (editor), Sacrorum Conciliorum nova et amplissima collectio editio novissima 22 (Venetiis: apud Antonium Zatta 1778).
Johann M. Watterich, (editor), Pontificum Romanorum qui fuerunt inde ab exeunte saeculo IX usque ad finem saeculi XIII vitae ab aequalibus conscriptae Tomus II (Lipsiae 1862). [Watterich]
Augustinus Theiner (editor), Caesaris S. R. E. Cardinalis Baronii, Od. Raynaldi et Jac. Laderchii Annales Ecclesiastici Tomus Nonusdecimus 1147-1198 (Barri-Ducis: Ludovicus Guerin 1880) [Baronius-Theiner].
Enrico Fuselli (editor), Il chronicon di S. Bartolomeo di Carpineto (L'Aquila 1996).
Bartolomeo Platina, Historia B. Platinae de vitis pontificum Romanorum ... Onuphrii Panvinii ... cui etiam nunc accessit supplementum ... per Antonium Cicarellam (Coloniae Agrippinae: sumptibus Petri Cholini, 1626). Bartolomeo Platina, Storia delle vite de' Pontefici edizione novissima Tomo terzo (Venezia: Domenico Ferrarin, 1763). Onuphrio Panvinio, Epitome Pontificum Romanorum a S. Petro usque ad Paulum IIII. Gestorum (videlicet) electionisque singulorum & Conclavium compendiaria narratio (Venice: Jacob Strada 1557). Chrysostomos Henriquez, "Monumenta sacra Claraevallensis abbatia et Epitaphia Sanctorum et Virorum illustrium qui ibidem Sepulti Sunt", Sancti Ordinis Cisterciensis (Bruxelles 1623). Alphonsus Ciaconius [Alfonso Chacon], Vitae et Res Gestae Pontificum Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalium ... ab Augustino Oldoino Societatis Iesu recognitae Tomus Primus (Romae: sumptibus Philippi et Antonii de Rubeis 1677) [Volume 1 of the 4 volume edition]. Lorenzo Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa Tomo primo Parte secondo (Roma: Pagliarini 1792). Johannes Matthias Brixius,. Die Mitglieder des Kardinalkollegiums von 1130-1181 (Berlin: R. Trenkel, 1912).
F. Gregorovius, History of Rome in the Middle Ages, Volume IV.2 second edition, revised (London: George Bell, 1896) Book VIII, Chapter vi. 3, pp. 608-622.
Josephus Antonius Sassi, Archiepiscoporum Mediolanensium Series historico-chronologica Tomus secundus (Mediolani 1755).
C. Will, Conrad von Wittelsbach, Cardinalbischof von Mainz und von Salzburg (Regensburg 1880). J.
M. Brixius, Die Mitglieder des Kardinalkollegiums von 1130-1181 (Berlin 1912). K.
Ganzer, Die Entwicklung des auswärtigen Kardinalats im hohen Mittelalter (Tübingen 1963)
Hermann Reuter, Geschichte Alexanders des Dritten und der Kirche seiner Zeit. Dritter Band (Leipzig 1864). [esp. pp. 458-507]