January 25—mid March, 1138
As early as 1133, Pope Anacletus II (Pierleone) had appealed to a general council to decide the issue of legitimacy between himself and Innocent II. In the meantime, however, Innocent II (Papareschi), who had won the adherence of the German king, was brought back to Rome and installed at the Lateran on April 30, 1133, by King Lothar and his army (Annals of Hildesheim, MGH SS III, p. 115). The "Vita S. Norberti Magdeburg. Archiepiscopi' by an anonymous and contemporaneous Praemonstratensian author [Migne, PL 170, 1338] states that the initiative lay with King Lothar and the German princes:
... consilio inito a rege Lothario et sanctae fidei principibus, ne cognitio et robur fidelium Christianourm his modernis temporibus illa peste mortifera [i.e. schismate] periret, expeditionem in Italia ordinaverunt, ut ipsum sacrilegum, quem gladius spiritualis, quo jam saepissime percussus fuerat, penetrare non poterat, materialis saltem perforaret. Cum eo et aliis tam episcopis quam archiepiscopis, ex praecepto et obedientia Innocentii pastoris catholici, pontifex Norbertus profectus est. Transitisque castris et urbibus absque intolerabili offendiculo, cum magno coetu praeuntis et subsequentis exercitus, Romam, papam venerabilem Innocentium secum deducentes, perveniunt. Ubi cum impetu grandi et manu forti introeuntes, ipsum eumdem papam in sancta sede, invitis hostibus et adversariis omnibus, posuerant. Sed et ipsum Lotharium regem pontifex in sede positus, et alii qui cum eo venerant, in Romanum Imperatorem consecraverunt.
The allegiance and military assistance had its price. On June 4, 1133, Innocent crowned King Lothar as Emperor of the Romans. The coronation, though, was carried out, contrary to custom, at the Lateran Basilica, since the Vatican Basilica was unsafe for the Innocentian party, considering that Anacletus and his supporters held the Castel S. Angelo and other fortresses. The procession that followed the coronation took a route to S. Sabina on the Aventine instead [Annales Magdeburgenses, sub anno1133; MGH SS 16, 184]. On June 8, 1133, Innocent granted Lothar and his son Henry lifetime enfoeffment in the lands which Countess Mathilda of Tuscany had given to the Church [Theiner, Codex diplomaticus xiii, p. 12; Doeberl, MGS IV, 17-20], the real quid for the quo. The negotiations had been conducted through the mediation of Archbishop Norbert Magdeburg, and took six weeks to finalize [Annales Magdeburgenses, sub anno1133; MGH SS 16, 184]. Lothar departed Rome for Germany, and was back in Würzburg by September 8, 1133. But, also in September, Innocent, who was unable to maintain his position in Rome without troops, was back in northern Tuscany at Siena, having been forced to flee again from Rome. In November he was back in residence in Pisa. He had clearly been rejected by the People of Rome a second time.
Finally, on May 30, 1135, at a highly partisan assembly engineered by Innocent, the Council of Pisa ratified the election of Innocent II and hurled excommunications at Anacletus and all who had been ordained or consecrated by him, as well as at Roger of Sicily and anyone who helped him in his war against King Lothar (Mansi, Sacrorum Conciliorum 21, columns 483-492; JL pp. 865-866). But there was a price demanded of Innocent for Lothar' support: the surrender of territory under the feudal suzerainty of the Church of Rome into the hands of the German Emperor (Gregorovius, 434-436; cf. Jaffé, Bibliotheca rerum Germanicarum V, 522-523; Monumenta Germanae Selecta IV, 16-20 MGH Leges IV Const. 1, pp.166-176).
In September, 1136, the Emperor Lothar summoned his vassals to assemble at Piacenza. He wrote to the Archbishop of Arles, whose fidelity was in doubt (MGH Leges IV, Constitutiones I, no. 118):
Saepenumero scripsimus vobis, requirentes fidelitatis et subiectionis tuae debitum. Quod quia non mancipatur effectui, vis, quantum in te est, potestatem imperii nostri in partibus tuis satis indiscrete contemnere. Quod quantum divinis et himanis legibus contrarium sit, si recte adverteris, ipse nosti. Nos itaque, Dei annuente celementia et principum nostrorum suppeditante industira [potestatem] Romani Imperii, quae apud vos tam adtenuata est et oblivioni proxima, prout oportet, reparare curabimus, adeo ut fideles nostros debitis honoremus beneficiis et eos, qui rebellare conantur, viribus nostris affligamus. Ea propter tibi tamquam fideli et principi nostro mandando praecipimus, quatenus in festo sancti Michaelis [September 29] in Placentia cum militia tua nobis occurras, animatus tam ecclesiae quam imperio debitum consilium et auxilium .... exercendis. Igitur consilio principum ... dilectum capellanum nostrum tibi direximus, quem quasi a latere nostro delegatum in omnibus audias et ei fidem adhibeas; sciens ori certi [quod si te] nostro conspectui non praesentaveris, et subventioni ecclesiae Romanae debitisque imperii obsequiis nisi adfueris, offensam nostram graviter incurristi, et nos de eiusdem ecclesiae consilio et principum nostrorum in te animadvertemus.
Innocent, however, continued to reside in Pisa until March of 1137. He then followed Lothar's armies (The Emperor was again accompanied by German clergy: three archbishops and eight bishops) in the war against the Norman Kingdom of Sicily (as Anacletus followed the Norman armies, from 1134 to 1137), and was again brought back to Roman territory by Imperial military force (Jaffé, Geschichte, p. 179). After notable successes in the south, Lothar and Innocent returned in triumph to Roman territory and arrived in the neighborhood of Tivoli on October 3, 1137, where Innocent was left by the Emperor. He finally reached Rome on November 1. The Emperor, however, fell ill at Trent and died in an alpine hut in Breitenwang, Bavaria, on December 4, 1137, rediens ab Apulia Saracenis occisis et eiectis, as his tombstone claimed (Bernhardi, p. 786-789; Gregorovius, p. 439). The bargain between Lothar and Innocent and the two wars it caused proved futile. Roger reclaimed his kingdom in South Italy within a few months.
Pope Anacletus II died on January 25, 1138 (Baronius-Theiner, p. 561). Orderic Vitalis provides some details, that his death came suddenly as he was seated on his throne (XIII. xxxv):
Petrus Anacletus, qui sedem apostolicam fere VII annis usurpavit, in cathedra sedens, VIII kalendas februarii, subita morte decessit, atque, ut fertur, a fratribus suis filiis videlicet Petri Leonis, quorum in Urbe Roma maxima potestas est, ita occultatur, ut ubi cadaver ejus sepultum sit ignoretur.
This detail about being seated on his throne when overcome suddenly (a stroke or a heart attack?) is reported by no other source. One wonders whether Orderic learned it from some witness, or whether he simply made it up as decorative material for a rather bare notice. An even more suspicious narrative is provided by Bernard of Bonneville (Baronius-Theiner, p. 555, sub anno 1138, no. 1), who imagines the Angel of Death of the Exodus visiting the houses of the children of Israel during the tenth plague, but in coming to the house of the Pierleoni it finds no blood smeared on the doorposts. It therefore enters and strikes down Anacletus II, though he is given three days to repent (sed datur per triduum poenitentiae locus). He failed to repent, died, was given a modest funeral (miserabili pompa), and was buried in a hidden place. These biblically inspired passages, so beloved of Bernard and his admirers, carry no historical weight. Was it three days, or no time at all, between being stricken and dying? It was also a triduum between the betrayal of Anacletus by his most distinguished supporter, Cardinal Petrus Pisanus, and Anacletus' death (according to St. Antoninus of Florence, AA SS Augusti 4, pp. 164-165):
Abbas Sanctus Bernardus ipsum Petrum Pisanum Papae Innocentio reconciliavit. Post triduum Petrus Leonis impoenitens moritur.
S. Antoninus' statement, however, does not appear to be borne out by other information. The second edition of Jaffe's Regesta Pontificum (p. 840 and 878) indicates that Cardinal Petrus Pisanus was reconciled with and signed documents for Innocent II on January 12, 1138, which was thirteen days, not three days, before the death of Anacletus II.
The "Life of Innocent II," by Cardinal Boso, states only that Anacletus died a few days after Innocent's return to Rome. It was in fact eighty-six days. "A few days" is Boso's standard phrase in the absence of an actual chronology (Watterich II, p. 178):
Tanto igitur triumpho suffragantibus beati Petri meritis habito, imperator ad Alamanniam et Pontifex ad Urbem cum gloria redierunt [November 1, 1137]. Post paucos autem dies Petrus haeresiarcha in errore suo defunctus est et occulte sepultus. [January 25, 1138] Cuius sectatores cum tabescerent et in se ipsis deficerent, ut honorabilius possent cum Innocentio Papa componere, unum ex suis idolum erexerunt, quem Romani Carnicervum derisorie appellarunt. Evolutis autem paucis diebus poenitentia ducti ad pedes eiusdem Pontificis ipsum idolum adduxerunt et ab ecclesia misericorditer sunt recepti. Tunc universa civitas conversa est ad Innocentium tamquam ad pastorem et episcopum animarum suarum. Audita est vox laetitiae in toto orbe, quia Deo auctore factum est unum ovile et unus pastor. Unde tanta pax per studium et potentiam ipsius Papae in eadem Urbe viguit, quanta non reminiscitur a longis retro temporibus extitisse.
Boso's sources believed that the Cardinals of Pope Anacletus (Roman obedience) proceeded to elect a successor solely so that they might have a bargaining chip with which they could approach Innocent II to end their disagreement and end the schism. Boso alleges that they were brought to the feet of Innocent within a few days in penitence and that they were received mercifully. In actuality it took eight weeks of negotiation by Bernard of Clairvaux and others to obtain that result.
At the meeting which took place in the late morning of April 14, 1130, which had been intended as a part of the funeral of Pope Honorius II, who had died during the night. When they heard of the illicit and uncanonical events that had taken place during the night and early morning, the assembly became an Electoral Meeting. Cardinal Petrus, the Bishop of Porto and the senior Cardinal Bishop, presided and nominated Cardinal Petrus Petri Leonis (Pierleone) for the office of Supreme Pontiff. The nomination won the approval of the majority of the other cardinals:
Petrus Portuensis episcopus
Gregorius (Conti) presbiter cardinalis tituli sanctorum apostolorum Philippi et Jacobi
Saxo cardinalis tituli sancti Stephani
Petrus cardinalis tituli sancti Marcelli
Comes cardinalis tituli sanctae Sabinae
Gregorius cardinalis tituli sanctae Balbinae
Crescentius cardinalis tituli sanctorum Marcellini et Petri
Lictefridus cardinalis tituli sancti Vitalis
Petrus Pisanus cardinalis tituli sanctae Susannae
Matheus cardinalis tituli sancti apostoli Petri ad vincula
Heinricus cardinalis sanctarum Aquilae et Priscae
Gregorius cardinalis diaconus sancti Eustachii et prior
Jonathas cardinalis diaconus sanctorum Cosmae et Damiani
Angelus cardinalis diaconus sanctae Mariae in Dominica
as well as by the Bishops of Sutri and Todi, who were present, as well as members of the clergy of the Lateran Basilica, the Vatican Basilica, the Basilica of Santa Croce in Gerusalemme, and other archpriests and priests and other clergy of the City of Rome, to the number of 290. In addition, the magistrates and citizens of Rome were present, and they gave their consent to the Election. Anacletus II was eventually joined by other cardinals: Aegidius, Cardinal Bishop of Tusculum, Desiderius Sanctae Praxedis, Lictefredus Sancti Vitalis, Petrus S. Adriani, and Comes (Conte) Sanctae Sabinae, who were not present at the election. According to Onuphrio Panvinio, Epitome Pontificum Romanorum (Venetiis 1557), pp. 105-106, twenty-four cardinals eventually joined the Roman Obedience of Anacletus II (Jaffé, Regesta pontificum Romanorum p. 599). The opposition pope, Innocent II, had only sixteen cardinals on his side, and did not enjoy the consent and support either of the Roman magistrates or the Roman People. His election was, moreover, uncanonical.
The Cardinals who were loyal to Pope Anacletus were:
During his reign Pope Anacletus II created new cardinals (four of which were promotions). Ciaconius-Olduinus, column 1009, state that there were two creations, in 1130 and 1131, with a total of twelve cardinals, four of whom were promotions; this, however, is very far from accurate:
It is worth noting that Anacletus II had only two Cardinal Bishops in his following, Petrus, BIshop of Porto, and Aegidius, Bishop of Tusculum (Aegidius later served under Innocent II, after Anacletus' death, which might suggest that he had little or no part in the affairs of Anacletus II; he died between 1139 and 1142). When Petrus died, Anacletus replaced him with Cardinal Ioannes. It would have been Cardinal Ioannes who presided over the Election of 1138.
There were two cardinal deacons of S. Cosmas et Damianus at the same time: Matthaeus cardinalis et diaconus SS. Cosmae et Damiani infra templum Romuli [in the Forum Pacis: Armellini, Chiese di Roma, pp. 195-197], and Pandolphus cardinalis diaconus SS. Cosmae et Damiani martyrum [perhaps in mica aurea (Montorio) , the church and abbey in Trastevere: Armellini, 198-200]. They appear as subscribers to the same document: Migne, Patrologiae Latinae Cursus Completus Tomus 179, column 727 [JL 8418 (5967)]
The "Life of Innocent II," by Cardinal Boso states (Watterich II, p. 178):
Tanto igitur triumpho suffragantibus beati Petri meritis habito, imperator ad Alamanniam et Pontifex ad Urbem cum gloria redierunt [November 1, 1137]. Post paucos autem dies [sic! 86 days] Petrus haeresiarcha in errore suo defunctus est [January 25, 1138] et occulte sepultus. Cuius sectatores cum tabescerent et in se ipsis deficerent, ut honorabilius possent cum Innocentio Papa componere, unum ex suis idolum erexerunt, quem Romani Carnicervum derisorie appellarunt. Evolutis autem paucis diebus poenitentia ducti ad pedes eiusdem Pontificis ipsum idolum adduxerunt et ab ecclesia misericorditer sunt recepti. Tunc universa civitas conversa est ad Innocentium tamquam ad pastorem et episcopum animarum suarum. Audita est vox laetitiae in toto orbe, quia Deo auctore factum est unum ovile et unus pastor. Unde tanta pax per studium et potentiam ipsius Papae in eadem Urbe viguit, quanta non reminiscitur a longis retro temporibus extitisse.
Cardinal Petrus Pisanus had in fact "deserted" Pope Anacletus, some thirteen days or so before the latter's death. He had already been approached to do so by Bernard of Clairvaux, when they were both at Salerno in November/December of 1137, for the debate before King Roger of Sicily concerning the rival claims of Pope Anacletus II and Innocent II. Bernard had been one of the agents of Innocent, and Petrus one of the agents of Anacletus. But Bernard had not succeeded in his designs. They met again in Rome in early January, and—according to St. Antoninus of Florence—three days before the actual death of Anacletus (January 22, 1138), but in the belief that he was already dead, Petrus Pisanus agreed to be reconciled to Innocent II. (AA SS Augusti 4, pp. 164-165):
Abbas Sanctus Bernardus ipsum Petrum Pisanum Papae Innocentio reconciliavit. Post triduum Petrus Leonis impoenitens moritur.
The evidence of the subscriptiones (Jaffe's Regesta Pontificum (second edition p. 840 and 878), however, indicates that Cardinal Petrus Pisanus signed documents of Innocent II on January 12, 1138, which was thirteen days, not three days, before the death of Anacletus II. This was a minor triumph for Bernard and for Innocent. But it may not have been a spiritual conversion. Petrus Pisanus could well have become aware of the physical condition of Anacletus upon his arrival in Rome, and may have been forced to recalculate his position as leader of Anacletus' faction. He may well have decided on strategical grounds that it was a better move to join the faction of Innocent than to depend upon the election of a successor to Anacletus. Was there, after all, a candidate for Anacletus' throne who was up to the difficult task?
The Beneventan Chronicle by Falco has the following entry (Watterich II, p. 246):
Anno 1138 et novo anno pontificatus domini Innocentii secundi summi pontificis, mense Martio primae indictionis. Cum praedictus Anacletus mortuus esset, cardinales sui, consilio accepto a fratribus ipsius Anacleti, ad regem misit Rogerium ipsius Anacleti mortem significantes, ut si ei placeret, papam constituerent. Rex itaque ut domini papae Innocentii partem impediret, voluntati eorum assensit, et papam eligendi potestatem dedit; qui Romam reversi fautoribus eorum congregatis; medio mense Martio, Gregorium cardinalem papam sibi, et invasorem constituerunt, Victoremque eum vocaverunt. Sed Dei misericordia auxiliante, haeresis illa, et invasio pauco tempore regnavit. Diebus autem non multis evolutis, fratres praedicti Anacleti, tantam cognoscentes turbationem, in se reversi, Domino favente, cum praedicto domino Innocentio papa pacis firmamentum composuerunt, et ipsi, et omnes ejus adversarii ad ejus fidelitatem conversi sunt, et sceleratus ille, qui sub Victoris nomine apparuit, vestem et mitram deposuit, et ad voluntatem pontificis Innocentii pervenit. Sicque gaudio magno et gloria exsultationis tota Romana civitas exsultavit, et pontifex ipse Innocentius ad unitatem Ecclesiae et concordiam, auxiliante Domino, perducitur.
Anacletus II died on January 25, 1138. The Cardinals of the Roman obedience were uncertain as to how they should proceed upon the death of their leader. They consulted with Anacletus' brothers. They then sent a message to King Roger of Sicily, announcing the death of the Pope, and that, if it were agreeable to him, they would elect a new pope. And so the King, with the purpose of frustrating the activities of the party of Innocent II, agreed to their intention, and gave them his consent to elect a pope (It should be remembered that, at the time, there was no Emperor). The embassy returned to Rome and assembled their supporters. The senior Cardinal Bishop was Cardinal Giovanni of Porto. In mid-March, the Cardinals elected Cardinal Gregory Conti, Cardinal Priest of XII Apostolorum, one of the most senior of the cardinals. He had taken part in the Concilium Guastallensis (Lombardy), on October 22, 1106 [Jaffé, I editio altera, p. 726] and the Lateran Synod of 1112. This apparently cost him his title, which was only restored to him by Calixtus II. At the debate organized for Roger of Sicily in November, 1137, he had been one of the cardinals presenting the case for Anacletus II. He assumed the name of Victor IV. It cannot be determined on present evidence how many or which cardinals took place in the election. There is no indication in the sources where the election took place, though it is not unlikely that it took place either in the Vatican Palace or in the Castel S. Angelo, both of which were under the control of the Pierleone.
A few days later, however, the brothers of Pope Anacletus, paid off by money provided by Innocent II (so said Peter the Deacon of Montecassino: Innocentius autem immensa in filios Petri Leonis et in his qui eis adhaerebant pecunia profligata, illos ad suam partem attraxit), changed sides and went over to Innocent's party. The Cardinals, realizing the changed circumstances, had no option but to submit to Innocent II. An agreement was worked out. They and their leader, Victor IV, appeared before Innocent. Victor removed his papal mitre and vestments, and submitted himself to Innocent, along with his following, who were received mercifully by the Church (ab ecclesia misericorditer sunt recepti, in the words of Cardinal Boso [Watterich II, p. 178]).
Several of the Anacletan cardinals subsequently appear among the subscriptores to bulls of Innocent II:
All of these cardinals, except Cardinal Matthaeus, were "old" cardinals, whose promotions to the cardinalate preceded the schism. Except for Petrus Pisanus, all of these cardinals sign documents between April 22, 1138 and March 18, 1139, the period between the end of the schism and the meeting of the Lateran Synod. Even Petrus is dropped by April 11, 1139.
Innocent II was finally recognized as pope by all of the Cardinals who had participated in the elections of 1130. The nine-year-long schism was over.
After the election of Cardinal Gregory of SS. Apostoli as Victor IV, according to Petrus Diaconus (Chronicon IV. 130), Innocent purchased the support of the sons of Petrus Leonis (Anacletus' brothers) , and therefore the Anacletan Cardinals, who had been relying on them for aid, were forced to go over to the side of Innocent. They first obtained a promise from Innocent that he would not deprive them of their offices, which would diminish their incomes.:
Eo etiam tempore Petrus filius Petri Leonis himanis rebus exemptus, diem clausit extremum, et in loco illius fautores ejus Gregorium cardinalem tituli Apostolorum sibi praeficientes, Victorem appellari decernunt. Innocentius autem immensa in filios Petri Leonis et in his qui eis adhaerebant pecunia profligata, illos ad suam partem attraxit, sicque cardinales qui jam dicto filio Petri Leonis communicaverant, omni auxilio destituti, Innocentii vestigiis advolvuntur: sacramento a parte illius prius accepto, ne illos officio privaret, ne bonis diminueret.
In April, 1139, Pope Innocent II held a Lenten synod at the Lateran (which was later counted as the Concilium Lateranense II). Otto, Bishop of Freising (VII. 23), remarks that around a thousand bishops were present, a gross exaggeration (Baronius-Theiner, sub anno 1139, no. iv, p. 566):
proxima media Quadragesima Synodus maxima circiter mille Episcoporum Roma, praesidente summo Pontifice Innocentio celebratur: ibique post multa salutifera decreta promulgata, schismatici qui parti Petri Leonis faverant, damnantur.
The Beneventan Chronicle has a similar entry, adding that the excommunication against the followers of Anacletus II was extended as well to the followers of King Roger of Sicily:
Hoc anno praefatus Apostolicus Innocentius, octavo die intrante mensis Aprilis Romae Synodum celebravit. Ad cujus sacri conventus praesentiam archiepiscopi, episcopi, et abbates innumeri convenerunt: ibique inter caetera, quae Spiritu sancto mediante statuta sunt, vinculis excommunicationis alligavit regem Rogerium praedictus Apostolicus Innocentius in praesentia omnium Catholicorum virorum qui convenerunt, et omnes ejus sequaces."
Moreover, Canon 30 of the decrees of the Council stated that the consecrations and ordinations carried out by Anacletus and his supporters were voided (Baronius-Theiner, p. 568-569):
Ad haec ordinationes factas a Petro Leonis et aliis schismaticis et haereticis, evacuamus et irritas esse censemus.
The Chronicon Morginiacensis (Baronius-Theiner, p. 576; Watterich II, 250-252) goes so far as to quote Innocent's speech before the Council:
... Vos, inquam, quorum astuta provisio super curam animarum invigilat, quibus ipsius authenticae nuncupationis dignitas proprietatem operationis inoculat. Nostis, quia Roma caput est mundi et quia a Romani Pontificis licentia ecclesiastici honoris celsitudo quasi foeudalis iuris consuetudine suscipitur et sine eius permissione legaliter non tenetur. Scitis etiam, quia eius proprium est, ut dissentientes pacificet et confusa sapienter disponat et ordinet. Porro, impossibile est, ut unguentum in barbam descendat, si in capite non redundat. Debile namque caput totum dat debile corpus. Neque in usu est, ut quemlibet aegrotum ille medicus curet, quem eiusdem infirmitatis cruciatus tenet. Et si a Deo per malitiam Pontifex summus disiungitur, vix effici potest, ut per eum Deo alii reconcilientur. Igitur quotiescumque veternosus hostis contra pacem, quae a Deo in terra hominibus obnae voluntatis datur, et adversus canonica instituta venenosum caput conatur attollere, toties ab illa forti muliere, quae a Salomone commendatur, zelo iustitiae conteri debet, ne si primo aut secundo conflictu impune superaverit, perniciosius postmodum insolescat.... Qui enim ecclesiae non diligit unitatem, non habet Dei caritatem. Verba siquidem Augustini testantur, quoniam quisquis a catholica ecclesia fuerit separatus, quantumlibet laudabiliter se vivere aestimet, hoc solo scelere, quod a Christi unitate disiunctus est, non habet vitam in se, sed ira Dei manet super eum. Eorum igitur, qui tales sunt, improbanda temeritas nostri livoris, imo iustae indignationis incentiva causa extitit, qui, ruptis divinae ordinationis vinculis, sacerdotalis reverentiae curam non habentes, tanti nominis auctoritatem et spiritualis gratiae potestatem prosternere et annihilare tentaverunt, eo per se ascendentes, quo nec canonicarum autoritas institutionum provexit nec rationabilium virorum voluntas permisit. Igitur quia praecepta divinae legis et sanctorum canonum irrefragabiles sanctiones, ferramenta fuerunt in pace ecclesiae, arma esse debent in tempore belli. Et quae diu intacta remanserunt, in tam exitiali necessitate festinanter arripienda sunt.
When he concluded his speech, in which he rejected the validity of repentence and reconciliation in the case of schismatics (a dubious and perhaps heretical proposition), and in which he asserted the extreme danger of the moment (the schism, in fact, was over, and he had received the Anacletan cardinals and their supporters into communion with himself nearly a year earlier), he began to call out individual names. He took the pastoral staves from their hands, removed the pontifical pallia from their shoulders, and even took off their rings. It was pure revenge for nine years of defiance and humiliation.
The strictures of the Second Lateran Council (as it later came to be called) against the supporters of Anacletus II and Roger of Sicily included the Cardinals who had supported Anacletus and who had made their peace with Innocent the year before. They had done so under the understanding that they would keep their positions and incomes. That had been promised by Innocent under oath (Innocentii vestigiis advolvuntur: sacramento a parte illius prius accepto, ne illos officio privaret, ne bonis diminueret.). This act of base treachery and oath-breaking on the part of Innocent II brought forth an immediate rebuke from Bernard of Clairvaux, who had been deeply involved in arranging the reconciliation between Innocent and the supporters of Anacletus II.
Bernard of Clairvaux (Ep. 213) was shocked and angered at Innocent's actions. Bernard's honor, after all, was involved. It was he who had negotiated with Cardinal Petrus Pisanus as early as 1138, as he reminds Innocent, and it was he who had negotiated the agreement for the surrender of the party of Anacletus and the end of the schism. Bernard had been Innocent's authorized agent, and Innocent had agreed to the terms under oath. Bernard wrote to Innocent, "Who will give me justice against you?" He accuses Innocent of dolus:
Quis mihi faciet justitiam de vobis? Si haberem judicem ad quem vos trahere possem, jam nunc ostenderem vobis (ut parturiens loquor) quid meremini. Exstat quidem tribuual Christi: sed absit ut ad illud appellem vos, qui illic (si vobis necessarium, et mihi possibile esset) vellem magis totis viribus stare, et respondere pro vobis! Itaque recurro ad eum cui in praesenti datum est judicare de universis, hoc est, ad vos. Vos appello ad vos: vos judicate inter me et vos. In quo, quaeso, puer vester tam male meruit de vestra Paternitate, ut eum inurere et insignire placeret nota et nomine proditoris? Numquid non me vestrum vicarium dignatio vestra constituit in reconciliatione Petri Pisani, si forte illum Deus per me revocare a faece schismatis dignaretur? Si negatis, probabo tot testibus, quot in curia tunc temporis fuerunt. Numquid non denique post haec, juxta verbum domini mei, homo in suo ordine et honore receptus est? Quisnam ergo constantiae vestrae suo consilio, vel magis suo dolo subripuit indulta repetere, et quae processere de labiis vestris, facere irrita? Et hoc ego dixerim, non ut apostolicum reprehendam rigorem, et zelum igne Dei succensum contra schismaticos, qui in spiritu vehementi conterat naves Tharsis, et instar Phinees confodiat fornicantes, juxta illud: Nonne qui oderunt te, Domine, oderam, et super inimicos tuos tabescebam? (Ps. 138. 21.) Sed ubi non est par culpa, par plane non debet procedere poena: nec convenit eadem involvi sententia eum qui peccatum, cum his quos magis peccatum deseruit. Propter eum qui, ut peccatoribus parceret, sibi ipsi non pepercit, auferte opprobrium meum, et restituendo quem statuistis, vestrae etiam tam sanae et integrae opinioni consulite. Super hoc jam alia vice scripseram vobis: sed quia non est responsum mihi, puto non pervenit ad vos hoc ipsum quod scripseram.
Caesare Baronius, in his Annales Ecclesiastici (Vol 18, sub anno 1139, no. 7; p. 569 ed. Theiner), quotes the words of John of Salisbury about the treatment of Petrus Pisanus and Aegidius of Tusculum. They seem to suggest that there was no forgiveness even for these two notables:
Quot et quantos tumultus et strages dedit illa collisio, quando filius Petri Leonis adversus Innocentium bonae memoriae II domini Hadriani praedecessorem, cujus vitam et felicitatem in aevum in se protendat Dominus, conatus est ab Aquilone ascendere? Nonne et stellarum partem secum traxit ruina ejus? Quis nescit Aegidium Tusculanum? quis Petrum Pisanum, cui nullus aut vix similis erat in curia? Quis recenseat episcopos, qui in tota fere Italia corruerunt? Profecto dum illius ruinae stabit aetate nostra memoria, incredibile est quemquam adeo misere ambitiosum, ut Ecclesiam scindere non formidet.
The same low scheming and disregard for Christian principles and Canon Law which had seen the rise of Gregory Papareschi in 1130 now also saw him at the height of his success in 1139, overreaching and shaming his office.
Then he turned on King Roger of Sicily. Innocent thought that the death of Duke Rainulf (April 30, 1139), Roger's inveterate enemy, made it necessary to conduct a military foray into the south. Rainulf had been set up by Emperor Lothar as a counterbalance to Roger in the lands which the Emperor had wrested from the Sicilian Kingdom (Gregorovius IV.2, pp. 443-447). Now that he was dead, King Roger would have no opposition in consolidating the Sicilian Kingdom and in bringing his power to the very border of the Papal States. The pope may also have been moved by Prince Robert of Capua, who had been dispossessed by King Roger. The Chronicon Fossae novae (Watterich II, pp. 252-253) briefly records the disaster and the humiliation of Pope Innocent:
Mense Iunii venit Papa cum Romanis ad expugnandum regem Siciliae et incensa sunt a Romanis Salvaterra et Insula et Sanctus Angelus in Tudicis. Et cum esset Gallucium, captus est Papa a rege Rogerio cum multis; facta treuga cum rege reversus est Romam.
A more extended narrative is provided by Falco's Chronicon Beneventanum (Watterich, pp. 253-255). The death of Duke Raynulph, who was King Roger's most bitter enemy, might mean that the King would seek to expand his control over Italy even farther:
Eodem tempore preafatus Apostolicus Innocentius praedictum ducem Raynulphum obiisse audiens, satis satisque condoluit et consilio communicato Romam exivit, mille equitum caterva stipatus et peditum multitudine copiosa, deinde ad civitatem Sancti Germani [San Germano] pervenit. Cumque praefatus rex Apostolicum illum urbe egressum persensit, legatos suos praedicto Apostolico de pace mandavit, et voluntatem Apostolici et petitionem pollicetur perficere. Apostolicus autem legatos regis honeste accipiens, cardinales duos ad regem ipsum transmisit, pacis et dilectionis firmamentum describens et, ut ad civitatem Sancti Germani rex ipse festinaret.
On June 12, Innocent was at Ferentinum (Jaffé I, 5731); by July 2 he was at S.Germano (Jaffé I, 5732); Falco continues:
Quid multa? Cardinales illos rex ille diligenter et honeste accipiens civitatem Troianam, quam obsidebat [where Rainulf had died], dimisit et cursu rapido ad praedictum Apostolicum cum duce filio suo et exercitibus suis festinat; continuo per legatos suos ab utraque parte de pacis foedere interlocuti sunt. Apostolicus itaque principatum Capuanum a rege petebat, quem iniuste principi Roberto abstulerat. Rex vero nullo modo principatum illum reddere voluit, et sic per dies octo disceptatio talis inter eos habita est; et his actis praefatus rex suo omni exercitu coacervato ad terras, quae filiorum Burelli vocantur, acceleravit, de quibus terris partem quandam castrorum suae submisit potestati. Apostolicus autem et qui cum eo erant regem illum in partes illas recessisse cognoscentes castrum quoddam nomine Galluzzum aggredi praecipit et devastari. Nec mora. praefato regi nunciatum est, qualiter iam dictus Apostolicus castellum illud esset aggressus.
Quid multa? cursu rapidissimo rex ille ad terram Sancti Germani, ubi Apostolicus ipse morabatur, pervenit. En subito de regis adventu fama terribilis pervolat et continuo castra regis confixa sunt; Apostolicus itaque et princeps Robertus Capuanus et Romanorum militia regis adventum sentiens castra eorum omnia amoveri iubent, ut in securiori parte manerent. Dux [Rogerius] autem regis filius mille fere equites accipiens sic Apostolicum discedentem depraehendens insidiis constitutis super Apostolici milites insilivit, qui potentiam et insidias sentientes terga vertentes fugam petunt et secundum vires per loca illa diversa aufugiunt. Praefatus vero princeps et Riccardus de Rupecanina et Romanorum multitudo evasit, milti vero militum et peditum in flumine mortui sunt, multos in captione regis fore audivimus. Apostolicus autem Innocentius post suos omnes quasi securus incedebat. En ex improviso militum caterva eum aggreditur, heu dolor! et illum compraehendunt omnique suo thesauro et ornatu diviso ducunt illum ante regis aspectum et sic contumeliis ditatum captivum illum in tentorio, quod rex illi transmisit, intromittunt et consequenter Apostolici cancellarium aimericum et cardinales captivos perducunt. Decimo autem die stante mensis Iulii, Pontifex ipse Innocentius captus est!
In fact, Innocent was about to reap the whirlwind (Hosea 8. 7). Having set out to destroy the power of King Roger, Innocent fell into a trap prepared by Duke Roger, the king's son, and was himself captured. The date was July 22, 1139 (Jaffé I, p. 588). How indeed had the mighty fallen! The Pope was compelled to release King Roger and his sons from their excommunication, and to enter into a treaty with the King on July 25, 1139, formally recognizing Roger's possession of all of his lands except Benevento. Roger's son Anfusus became Prince of Capua in place of the dispossessed Prince Robert, and his son Roger, the heir to the throne of Sicily, became Duke of Apulia. Cardinal Boso finds it desirable to omit mention of all of these events in his "Life of Innocent II" (Watterich II, 174-179; Rerum Italicarum Scriptores III.1, pp. 434-436). He also omits to mention the failed campaign of 1142 against Tivoli (Tibur) and its vengeful destruction by the Romans in 1143, all with the participation of Innocent II. Likewise the proclamation of a Roman Republic in 1143 is passed by with a delicate sneer:
Circa finem vero sui Pontificatus Populus Romanus novitatatis amator sub velamento utilitatis rei publicae contra ipsius voluntatem in Capitolio Senatum erexit.
The image of a happy city of Rome, once Anacletus was gone, living prosperously under a benevolent and wise leader, is a lie. Ironically, in 1144, under Lucius II, one of the Pierleone brothers, Jordanus, was elected Senator of Rome (Vitale I, p. 33-44). It was Eugenius III who was compelled to make a deal with the Romans, and recognize their Senate.
Not content with his maladriot policies with King Roger and his disastrous policies toward the Romans, Innocent next involved himself with French affairs. Archbishop Alberic of Bourges had died in 1139; his diocese was left without a bishop for fifteen months. One party among the electors and the King of France (Louis VII, August 1, 1137-September 18, 1180) favored Cadurcus, the other favored Peter, the cousin (consobrinus) of Cardinal Aimeric, the moving force behind Innocent II. (Baronius-Theiner, sub anno 1141, nos. 3-4, pp. 598-599). Innocent wrote to Bourges, depriving Cadurcus of every ecclesiastical honor, and sent Peter from Rome to assume the Archbishopric, even going so far as to consecrate him himself (Bernard of Clairvaux, Epistle 219). Some of the facts are narrated by Guillaume de Nangis (Guillaume de Nangis Chronicon sub anno MCXLI, p. 34 Geraud):
Tunc orta dissensione inter papam Innocentium et regem Franciae Ludovicum, ecclesia Gallicana turbatur. Nam defuncto Bituricensi archiepiscopo Alberico, missus est Petrus a papa ejusdem ecclesiae pastor consecratus. Sed a rege Ludovico repudiatur nec in urbe recipitur, eo quod sine assensu ejus fuerat ordinatus. Ipse vero Ludovicus rex concesserat ecclesiae Bituricensi libertatem eligendi in episcopum quem vellent, excepto dicto Petro, publiceque juraverat quod, se vivente, non erat futurus archiepiscopus. Qui tamen electus, Romam profectus est et consecratus a domino papa Innocentio, dicente regem puerum instruendum et cohibendum ne talibus assuescat: et adjecit veram non esse [electionis] libertatem ubi quis excipitur a principe, nisi forte dicyerit coram ecclesiastico judice illum non esse eligendum; tunc enim auditur ut alius. Rex vero, sicut superius dictum est, exclusit archiepiscopum redeuntem; sed eum comes Campaniae Theobaldus recepit in terra sua, et ei omnes ecclesiae obediebant. Indignatus ob hoc rex Franciae concitavit omnes [fere] proceres suos, ut una cum eo comiti Theobaldo guerram inferrent.
King Louis replied by forbidding Peter entry into any of his territory. Peter was given shelter by Count Thibault of Champagne, the brother of King Stephen of England, and Innocent placed the King under interdict—a completely inappropriate and grossly excessive ecclesiastical penalty for a political dispute. What had the inhabitants of France done to deserve being deprived of the Sacraments of the Church? The hostile situation between the Papacy and the French monarchy lasted three years, until, with help from Bernard of Clairvaux, peace was made between Louis and Eugenius III. It took others to forgive and forget, where Innocent II would not. He died, unrepentent, on September 24, 1143.
"Anacleti Papae Epistolae et Privilegia", in Migne, Patrologiae Latinae Cursus Completus Tomus 179, columns 689-732
"Encyclical Letter of King Lothar", about the installation of Innocent II in Rome at the Lateran from April 30, 1133 to August 1133 (Watterich II, 212-213).
Falco of Benevento, Chronicon [Migne Patrologiae 173, columns 1243-1245}. events of 1137 and 1138.
Joannes Mabillon (editor), Sancti Bernardi Abbatis Clarae-vallensis Opera Omnia Volumen Secundum, pars altera (Parisiis 1839). "Sancti Bernardi Vita et Res Gestae libris septem comprehensae", columns 2089-2510. Acta Sanctorum, Mensis Augusti Tomus Quartus (ed. Joannes Pinius et Guilielmus Cuperus) (Antwerp 1739), pp. 256-368.
Philippus Jaffé (editor) Regesta Pontificum Romanorum (editionem secundam correctam et auctam auspiciis Guilelmi Wattenbach; curaverunt S. Loewenfeld, F. Kaltenbrunner, P. Ewald) (Lipsiae: Veit et comp. 1885) [JL].
Philippus Jaffé (editor), Bibliotheca Rerum Germanicarum Tomus Quintus: Monumenta Bambergensia (Berlin 1869).
Johann M. Watterich, (editor), Pontificum Romanorum qui fuerunt inde ab exeunte saeculo IX usque ad finem saeculi XIII vitae ab aequalibus conscriptae Tomus II (Lipsiae 1862).
Caesaris S. R. E. Cardinalis Baronii, Od. Raynaldi et Jac. Laderchii Annales Ecclesiastici denuo excusi et ad nostra usque tempora perducti ab Augusto Theiner Tomus Octavusdecimus 1094-1146 (Barri-Ducis: Ludovicus Guerin 1869). [Baronius-Theiner]
Alphonsus Ciaconius [Alfonso Chacon], Vitae et Res Gestae Pontificum Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalium ... ab Augustino Oldoino Societatis Iesu recognitae Tomus Primus (Romae: sumptibus Philippi et Antonii de Rubeis 1677) [Volume I of the 4 volume edition], esp. 1009-1010. Lorenzo Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa Tomo primo (Roma: Pagliarini 1793). J. M. Brixius, Die Mitglieder des Kardinalkollegiums von 1130-1181 (Berlin 1912). Richard Zöpffel, Die Papstwahlen und die mit ihnen im Zusammenhange stehenden Ceremonien von 11.-14. Jahrhunderts (Göttingen 1871), 267-395. E. Muhlbacher, Die streitige Papstwahl des Jahres 1130 (Innsbruck 1876). I. Bittl, Das papstliche Schisma von 1130-1138 (Romanshorn 1877).
Francesco Antonio Vitale, Storia diplomatica de' senatori di Roma Parte I (Roma: Salomoni 1791). Ferdinand Gregorovius, History of Rome in the Middle Ages, Volume IV. 2 second edition, revised (London: George Bell, 1896) [Book VIII chapter 3], pp. 412-452. Horace K. Mann, The Lives of the Popes in the Middle Ages Volume IX, 1130-1159 (London 1914)
Jean de Lannes, Histoire du pontificat du pape Innocent II (Paris: Giffart 1741). Horace K. Mann, The Lives of the Popes in the Middle Ages Volume IX. 1130-1159 (London 1914). E. Richard, Étude historique sur le schisme d' Anaclet en Aquitaine de 1130 à 1138 (Poitiers 1859). Philipp Jaffé, Geschichte des Deutschen Reiches unter Lothar dem Sachsen (Berlin 1843), Ch. 11, "Zweiter Feldzug nach Italien. Tod Lothars," pp. 178-224; and pp. 245-270. Ernst Bernheim, Lothar III und das Wormser Concordat (Strassburg 1878). Wilhelm Bernhardi, Lothar von Supplinburg (Leipzig 1879). Abbé E. Amélineau, "St. Bernard et le schisme d' Anaclet II," Revue des questions historiques 30 (July 1881), 47-112. E. Vacandard, "St Bernard et le schisme d' Anaclet II en France," Revue des questions historiques 43 (1888), 61-126. Mary Stroll, The Jewish Pope: Ideology and Politics in the Papal Schism of 1130 (Brill Academic Pubs. 1987).
"Le Sénat romain au douzième siècle," Analecta juris pontificii douzième série (Rome-Paris-Bruxelles 1873) 500-509. Giovanni di Castro, Arnaldo da Brescia e la rivoluzione romana del XII secolo (Livorno 1875), 224-273; 344-407.
©2011 John Paul Adams, CSUN