Science Teaching Series

Internet Resources

I. Developing Scientific Literacy

II. Developing Scientific Reasoning

III. Developing Scientific Understanding

IV. Developing Scientific Problem Solving

V. Developing Scientific Research Skills

VI. Resources for Teaching Science

California Standards - Some Uses of Databases and Spreadsheets


(grade 6) 1.4 Use organizational features of electronic text (e.g., bulletin boards, databases, keyword searches, e-mail addresses) to locate information.

(grade 7) 1.6 Create documents by using word-processing skills and publishing programs; develop simple databases and spreadsheets to manage information and prepare reports.

(grade 7) 2.3 c. Include evidence generated through the formal research process (e.g., use of a card
catalog, Reader’s Guide to Periodical Literature, computer databases, magazines, news-
papers, dictionaries).

(grades 11,12) 1.8 Integrate databases, graphics, and spreadsheets into word-processed documents.


Investigation and Experimentation (1A; grades 9-12) Select and use appropriate tools and technology (such as computer-linked probes, spreadsheets, and graphing calculators) to perform tests, collect data, analyze relationships, and display data.

7c (grade 6) Construct appropriate graphs from data and develop qualitative statements about the relationships between variables.

9a (grade 8) Construct appropriate graphs from data and develop quantitative statements about the relationships between variables.



Technology should be used to promote mathematics learning. Technology can help promote students’ understanding of mathematical concepts, quantitative reasoning, and achieve­ ment when used as a tool for solving problems, testing conjectures, accessing data, and verifying solutions. When students use electronic tools, databases, programming language, and simulations, they have opportunities to extend their comprehension, reasoning, and problem-solving skills beyond what is possible with traditional print resources.

Spreadsheet programs and databases allow students to key in data and produce various graphs as well as compile statistics. Students can determine the most appropriate ways to display data and quickly and easily make and test conjectures about the impact of change on the data set. In addition, students can exchange ideas and test hypotheses with a far wider audience through the Internet. Technology may also be used to reinforce basic skills through computer-assisted instruction, tutoring systems, and drill-and- practice software.

Statistics, Data Analysis, and Probability (7)
1.0 Students collect, organize, and represent data sets that have one or more variables and identify relationships among variables within a data set by hand and through the use of an electronic spreadsheet software program:
1.1 Know various forms of display for data sets, including a stem-and-leaf plot or box- and-whisker plot; use the forms to display a single set of data or to compare two sets of data.
1.2 Represent two numerical variables on a scatterplot and informally describe how the data points are distributed and any apparent relationship that exists between the two variables (e.g., between time spent on homework and grade level).
1.3 Understand the meaning of, and be able to compute, the minimum, the lower quartile, the median, the upper quartile, and the maximum of a data set.


Social Studies - Economics (12)

12.2 Students analyze the elements of America's market economy in a global setting.

  1. Understand the relationship of the concept of incentives to the law of supply and the relationship of the concept of incentives and substitutes to the law of demand.
  2. Discuss the effects of changes in supply and/ or demand on the relative scarcity, price, and quantity of particular products.
  3. Explain the roles of property rights, competition, and profit in a market economy.
  4. Explain how prices reflect the relative scarcity of goods and services and perform the allocative function in a market economy.
  5. Understand the process by which competition among buyers and sellers determines a market price.
  6. Describe the effect of price controls on buyers and sellers.
  7. Analyze how domestic and international competition in a market economy affects goods and services produced and the quality, quantity, and price of those products.
  8. Explain the role of profit as the incentive to entrepreneurs in a market economy.
  9. Describe the functions of the financial markets.
  10. Discuss the economic principles that guide the location of agricultural production and industry and the spatial distribution of transportation and retail facilities.

12.3 Students analyze the influence of the federal government on the American economy.

  1. Understand how the role of government in a market economy often includes providing for national defense, addressing environmental concerns, defining and enforcing property rights, attempting to make markets more competitive, and protecting consumers' rights.
  2. Identify the factors that may cause the costs of government actions to outweigh the benefits.
  3. Describe the aims of government fiscal policies (taxation, borrowing, spending) and their influence on production, employment, and price levels.
  4. Understand the aims and tools of monetary policy and their influence on economic activity (e.g., the Federal Reserve).

12.4 Students analyze the elements of the U.S. labor market in a global setting.

  1. Understand the operations of the labor market, including the circumstances surrounding the establishment of principal American labor unions, procedures that unions use to gain benefits for their members, the effects of unionization, the mini-mum wage, and unemployment insurance.
  2. Describe the current economy and labor market, including the types of goods and services produced, the types of skills workers need, the effects of rapid technological change, and the impact of international competition.
  3. Discuss wage differences among jobs and professions, using the laws of demand and supply and the concept of productivity.
  4. Explain the effects of international mobility of capital and labor on the U.S. economy.

12.5 Students analyze the aggregate economic behavior of the U.S. economy.

  1. Distinguish between nominal and real data.
  2. Define, calculate, and explain the significance of an unemployment rate, the number of new jobs created monthly, an inflation or deflation rate, and a rate of economic growth.
  3. Distinguish between short-term and long-term interest rates and explain their relative significance.

12.6 Students analyze issues of international trade and explain how the U.S. economy affects, and is affected by, economic forces beyond the United States's borders.

  1. Identify the gains in consumption and production efficiency from trade, with emphasis on the main products and changing geographic patterns of twentieth-century trade among countries in the Western Hemisphere.
  2. Compare the reasons for and the effects of trade restrictions during the Great Depression compared with present-day arguments among labor, business, and political leaders over the effects of free trade on the economic and social interests of various groups of Americans.
  3. Understand the changing role of international political borders and territorial sovereignty in a global economy.
  4. Explain foreign exchange, the manner in which exchange rates are determined, and the effects of the dollar's gaining (or losing) value relative to other currencies.

Physical Education

(High School)

2.4   Assess levels of physical fitness and adjust physical activity to accommodate changes in age, growth, and development.
2.5   Justify the use of particular physical activities to achieve desired fitness goals.
2.6   Develop and describe a physical fitness plan that enhances personal health and performance in
        future leisure and workplace activities.
2.7   Develop and implement an appropriate personal physical fitness program for a family or community
2.8   Explain how to evaluate consumer physical fitness products and programs.
2.9   Identify and evaluate ergogenic aids that claim to enhance body composition, appearance, physical
        fitness, and performance.
2.10 Evaluate the availability and quality of fitness resources in the community.
2.11 Use and analyze scientifically based data and protocols to assess oneself on the five components of
        health-related physical fitness.