# Domain 9 - Forces & Motion

Candidates demonstrate an understanding of the foundations of forces and motion as contained in the
Science Content Standards for California Public Schools (1998) and outlined in the Science
Framework for California Public Schools: Kindergarten Through Grade Twelve (2002) from an
advanced standpoint. To ensure a rigorous view of forces and motion and their underlying structures,
candidates have a deep conceptual knowledge of the subject matter. Candidates describe the motion of
an object and understand the relationships among its velocity, speed, distance, time, and acceleration.
They understand the relationship among force, mass, and acceleration. Candidates use Newton’s laws
to predict the motion of objects.

a. Discuss and apply Newton’s laws (i.e., first, second, third, and law of universal gravitation)
b. Define pressure and relate it to fluid flow and buoyancy (e.g., heart valves, atmospheric pressure)
c. Describe the relationships among position, distance, displacement, speed, velocity, acceleration, and time, and perform simple calculations using these variables for both linear and circular motion
d. Identify the separate forces that act on a body (e.g., gravity, pressure, tension/compression, normal force, friction) and describe the net force on the body
e. Construct and analyze simple vector and graphical representations of motion and forces (e.g., distance, speed, time)
f. Identify fundamental forces, including gravity, nuclear forces, and electromagnetic forces (magnetic and electric), and explain their roles in nature, such as the role of gravity in maintaining the structure of the universe
g. Explain and calculate mechanical advantages for levers, pulleys, and inclined planes
(Science Content Standards for California Public Schools, Grade 7: 6h-j; Grade 8: 1a-f, 2ag)