Science Teaching Series

Internet Resources

I. Developing Scientific Literacy

II. Developing Scientific Reasoning

III. Developing Scientific Understanding

IV. Developing Scientific Problem Solving

V. Developing Scientific Research Skills

VI. Resources for Teaching Science

Domain 1: Investigation and Experimentation

Back to CSET Physics - Preparation

Part II: Subject Matter Skills and Abilities

Applicable to the Content Domains in Science

Domain 1. Investigation and Experimentation

Candidates for Single Subject Teaching Credentials in Science formulate and conduct scientific
investigations. They select appropriate scientific tools, make relevant measurements of changes in
natural phenomena, and present unbiased findings in logical and meaningful formats using charts,
maps, tables, models, graphs, and labeled diagrams. Candidates apply mathematics to scientific
investigations and experimentation(s) for the purpose of quantifying results and drawing conclusions.
Candidates interpret experimental results and determine whether further information is necessary to
formulate accurate conclusions. They communicate results through various methods, and use
technology where appropriate.

1.1 Question Formulation

a. Formulate and evaluate a viable hypothesis
b. Recognize the value and role of observation prior to question formulation
c. Recognize the iterative nature of questioning
d. Given an experimental design, identify possible hypotheses that it may test
(Science Content Standards for California Public Schools, Grade 6: 7a)

1.2 Planning a Scientific Investigation (including Experimental Design)

a. Given a hypothesis, formulate an investigation or experimental design to test that
b. Evaluate an experimental design for its suitability to test a given hypothesis
c. Distinguish between variable and controlled parameters
(Science Content Standards for California Public Schools, Grade 5: 6c-d; Grade 8: 9a, 9c)

1.3 Observation and Data Collection

a. Identify changes in natural phenomena over time without manipulating the phenomena
(e.g., a tree limb, a grove of trees, a stream, a hill slope)
b. Analyze the locations, sequences, and time intervals that are characteristic of natural
phenomena (e.g., locations of planets over time, succession of species in an ecosystem)
c. Select and use appropriate tools and technology (e.g., computer-linked probes,
spreadsheets, graphing calculators) to perform tests, collect data, analyze relationships, and
display data
d. Evaluate the precision, accuracy, and reproducibility of data
e. Identify and analyze possible reasons for inconsistent results, such as sources of error or
uncontrolled conditions
f. Identify and communicate sources of unavoidable experimental error
g. Recognize the issues of statistical variability and explain the need for controlled tests
h. Know and evaluate the safety issues when designing an experiment and implement
appropriate solutions to safety problems
i. Appropriately employ a variety of print and electronic resources (e.g., the World Wide
Web) to collect information and evidence as part of a research project
j. Assess the accuracy validity and reliability of information gathered from a variety of
(Science Content Standards for California Public Schools, Grade 3: 5a; Grade 6: 7a-b, 7g-h;
Grade 7: 7a-b; Grade 8: 9b; Grades 9-12, Investigation and Experimentation: 1a-c, 1i-j, 1m)

1.4 Data Analysis/Graphing

a. Construct appropriate graphs from data and develop qualitative and quantitative statements
about relationships between variables
b. Recognize the slope of the linear graph as the constant in the relationship y=kx and apply
this principle in interpreting graphs constructed from data
c. Apply simple mathematical relationships to determine a missing quantity in an algebraic
expression, given the two remaining terms (e.g., speed = distance/time, density =
mass/volume, force = pressure x area, volume = area x height)
d. Determine whether a relationship on a given graph is linear or non-linear and determine the
appropriateness of extrapolating the data
e. Solve scientific problems by using quadratic equations and simple trigonometric,
exponential, and logarithmic functions
(Science Content Standards for California Public Schools, Grade 6: 7c; Grade 8: 9d-g;
Grades 9-12, Investigation and Experimentation: 1e)

1.5 Drawing Conclusions and Communicating Explanations

a. Draw appropriate and logical conclusions from data
b. Communicate the logical connection among hypotheses, science concepts, tests conducted,
data collected, and conclusions drawn from the scientific evidence
c. Communicate the steps and results of an investigation in written reports and oral
d. Recognize whether evidence is consistent with a proposed explanation
e. Construct appropriate visual representations of scientific phenomenon and processes (e.g.,
motion of Earth’s plates, cell structure)
f. Read topographic and geologic maps for evidence provided on the maps and construct and
interpret a simple scale map
(Science Content Standards for California Public Schools, Grade 5: 6g; Grade 6: 7e-f;
Grade 7: 7c-e; Grade 8: 9a; Grades 9-12, Investigation and Experimentation: 1d, 1h)