__Motion and Forces__

**1. Newton's laws predict the
motion of most objects. As a basis for understanding this concept:**

a.

Students knowhow to solve problems that involve constant speed and average speed.b.

Students knowthat when forces are balanced, no acceleration occurs; thus an object continues to move at a constant speed or stays at rest (Newton's first law).c.

Students knowhow to apply the lawF=mato solve one-dimensional motion problems that involve constant forces (Newton's second law).d.

Students knowthat when one object exerts a force on a second object, the second object always exerts a force of equal magnitude and in the opposite direction. (Newton's third law).e.

Students knowthe relationship between the universal law of gravitation and the effect of gravity on an object at the surface of the Earth.f.

Students knowapplying a force to an object perpendicular to the direction of its motion causes the object to change direction but not speed (e.g., Earth's gravitational force causes a satellite in a circular orbit to change direction but not speed).g.

Students knowcircular motion requires the application of a constant force directed toward the center of the circle.h.

* Students knowNewton's laws are not exact but provide very good approximations unless an object is moving close to the speed of light or is small enough that quantum effects are important.i.

* Students knowhow to solve two-dimensional trajectory problems.j.

* Students knowhow to resolve two-dimensional vectors into their components and calculate the magnitude and direction of a vector from its components.k.

* Students knowhow to solve two-dimensional problems involving balanced forces (statics).l.

* Students knowhow to solve problems in circular motion by using the formula for centripetal acceleration in the following form:a=v^{2}/r.m.

* Students knowhow to solve problems involving the forces between two electric charges at a distance (Coulomb's law) or the forces between two masses at a distance (universal gravitation).

__Conservation of Energy and Momentum__

**2. The laws of conservation of
energy and momentum provide a way to predict and describe the movement
of objects. As a basis for understanding this concept:**

a.

Students knowhow to calculate kinetic energy using the formulaE=(1/2)mv^{2}.b.

Students knowhow to calculate changes in gravitational potential energy near Earth by using the formula (change in potential energy) =mgh(his the change in the elevation).c.

Students knowhow to solve problems involving conservation of energy in simple systems, such as falling objects.d.

Students knowhow to calculate momentum as productmv.e.

Students knowmomentum is a separately conserved quantity different from energy.f.

Students knowan unbalanced force on an object produces a change in its momentum.g.

Students knowhow to solve problems involving elastic and inelastic collisions in one dimension by using the principles of conservation of momentum and energy.h.

* Students knowhow to solve problems involving conservation of energy in simple systems with various sources of potential energy, such as capacitors and springs.

__Heat and Thermodynamics__

**3. Energy cannot be created or
destroyed, although in many processes energy is transferred to the environment
as heat. As a basis for understanding this concept:**

a.

Students knowheat flow and work are two forms of energy transfer between systems.b.

Students knowthat the work done by a heat engine that is working in a cycle is the difference between the heat flow into the engine at high temperature and the heat flow out at a lower temperature (first law of thermodynamics) and that this is an example of the law of conservation of energy.c.

Students knowthe internal energy of an object includes the energy of random motion of the object's atoms and molecules, often referred to asthermal energy. The greater the temperature of the object, the greater the energy of motion of the atoms and molecules that make up the object.d.

Students knowthat most processes tend to decrease the order of a system over time and that energy levels are eventually distributed uniformly.e.

Students knowthat entropy is a quantity that measures the order or disorder of a system and that this quantity is larger for a more disordered system.f.

* Students knowthe statement "Entropy tends to increase" is a law of statistical probability that governs all closed systems (second law of thermodynamics).g.

* Students knowhow to solve problems involving heat flow, work, and efficiency in a heat engine and know that all real engines lose some heat to their surroundings.

__Waves__

**4. Waves have characteristic
properties that do not depend on the type of wave. As a basis for understanding
this concept:**

a.

Students knowwaves carry energy from one place to another.b.

Students knowhow to identify transverse and longitudinal waves in mechanical media, such as springs and ropes, and on the earth (seismic waves).c.

Students knowhow to solve problems involving wavelength, frequency, and wave speed.d.

Students knowsound is a longitudinal wave whose speed depends on the properties of the medium in which it propagates.e.

Students knowradio waves, light, and X-rays are different wavelength bands in the spectrum of electromagnetic waves whose speed in a vacuum is approximately 3x10^{8}m/s (186,000 miles/second).f.

Students knowhow to identify the characteristic properties of waves: interference (beats), diffraction, refraction, Doppler effect, and polarization.

__Electric and Magnetic Phenomena__

**5. Electric and magnetic phenomena
are related and have many practical applications. As a basis for understanding
this concept:**

a.

Students knowhow to predict the voltage or current in simple direct current (DC) electric circuits constructed from batteries, wires, resistors, and capacitors.b.

Students knowhow to solve problems involving Ohm's law.c.

Students knowany resistive element in a DC circuit dissipates energy, which heats the resistor. Students can calculate the power (rate of energy dissipation) in any resistive circuit element by using the formula Power = IR (potential difference) x I (current) = I^{2}R.d.

Students knowthe properties of transistors and the role role of transistors in electric circuits.e.

Students knowcharged particles are sources of electric fields and are subject to the forces of the electric fields from other charges.f.

Students knowmagnetic materials and electric currents (moving electric charges) are sources of magnetic fields and are subject to forces arising from the magnetic fields of other sources.g.

Students knowhow to determine the direction of a magnetic field produced by a current flowing in a straight wire or in a coil.h.

Students knowchanging magnetic fields produce electric fields, thereby inducing currents in nearby conductors.i.

Students knowplasmas, the fourth state of matter, contain ions or free electrons or both and conduct electricity.j.

* Students knowelectric and magnetic fields contain energy and act as vector force fields.k.

* Students knowthe force on a charged particle in an electric field is qE, whereEis the electric field at the position of the particle and q is the charge of the particle.l.

* Students knowhow to calculate the electric field resulting from a point charge.m.

* Students knowstatic electric fields have as their source some arrangement of electric charges.n.

* Students knowthe magnitude of the force on a moving particle (with chargeq) in a magnetic field isqvBsin(a), whereais the angle betweenandv(BvandBare the magnitudes of vectorsandv, respectively), and students use the right-hand rule to find the direction of this force.Bo.

* Students knowhow to apply the concepts of electrical and gravitational potential energy to solve problems involving conservation of energy.