Science Teaching Series

Internet Resources

I. Developing Scientific Literacy

II. Developing Scientific Reasoning

III. Developing Scientific Understanding

IV. Developing Scientific Problem Solving

V. Developing Scientific Research Skills

VI. Resources for Teaching Science

Hands-On Chemistry Activities with Real-Life Applications - Contents

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Hands-On Chemistry Activities with Real-Life Applications.
Herr, Norm and James Cunningham. (1999)
John Wiley / Jossey-Bass, Publishers
638 pages.
  (ISBN 0-87628-262-1).

Available from many online book companies including:
Jossey-Bass | John Wiley | Amazon | Barnes & Noble | Borders | BetterWorld | Tower Books | Eason

Contents | About Hands-on Chemistry | About | Online

Hands-On Chemistry Activities With Real-Life Applications contains over 300 intriguing investigations designed to engage students in a genuine pursuit of science. Because of the favorable response to Hands-On Physics Activities, the authors used the same approach and philosophy in writing this resource. This hands-on, inquiry-based approach to teaching and learning science follows recommendations set forth in the National Academy of Sciences' National Science Education Standards and the National Science Teachers Association's Scope Sequence and Coordination Project.

Activities included in this resource provide meaningful interactions between students and their world in a manner encouraging sound scientific reasoning. Many of the activities produce unexpected or dramatic results that capture student interest. Each set of investigations is preceded by a concise introduction to relevant concepts, providing students a foundation on which to build their understanding. This resource contains more than 450 illustrations and 100 tables to guide students and teachers in carrying out the activities. To stimulate student reasoning, thought-provoking questions are included after each set of activities. Following each student section is material developed especially for the teacher in which concepts are explained in greater detail, questions are answered, and directions are provided for presenting activities as impressive classroom demonstrations. Interesting and practical applications of scientific principles and concepts are introduced throughout the resource, helping students understand the relevance of science to their everyday lives.

The authors have made every effort to include activities that can be carried out safely with materials commonly found in the students' everyday environment. Some require materials found in the typical science classroom, or inexpensive equipment available from scientific supply houses. Activities have been successfully implemented and tested in the classroom by experienced and novice science teachers.

Although every effort has been made to design activities that can be carried out safely, the authors emphasize that chemical investigations may involve hazards. Consequently, teachers and students must pay particular attention to all recommendations concerning safety, printed in italics throughout this resource. Whenever dealing with chemicals, it is essential to wear protective clothing and eyeware. Some activities, while dramatic, may be dangerous and should be performed only by the instructor as indicated in the resource. If you have reservations regarding safety, do not carry out an activity.

As students perform the investigations described in this resource, they will become engaged in the processes of science, and will acquire knowledge and understanding of basic science concepts and the relevance of these to their everyday lives.

Norman Herr, Ph.D.
James Cunningham, Ph.D.
Northridge, California 1998

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1.1 Language of Chemistry

1.1.1 Nomenclature: Elements
1.1.2 Nomenclature: Compounds
1.1.3 Chemical Terminology: Understanding the Language of Chemistry
For the Teacher (Discussion and Answer Keys for Activities 1.1.1-1.1.3)
Applications to Everyday Life

1.2 Units of Measurement

1.2.1 The Importance of Units
1.2.2 Units in Chemistry
1.2.3 Problem Solving (Dimensional Analysis)
For the Teacher (Discussion and Answer Keys for Activities 1.2.1-1.2.3)
Applications to Everyday Life

1.3 Measurement

1.3.1 Length: Estimating and Measuring
1.3.2 Area:  Estimating and Measuring
1.3.3 Volume: Estimating and Measuring
1.3.4 Measuring Mass
1.3.5 Density of Solids
1.3.6 Density of Liquids
1.3.7 Density of Solutions
1.3.8 Density of Solutions: The Mystery of the Strait of Gibraltar
1.3.9 Density of Gases
For the Teacher (Discussion and Answer Keys for Activities 1.3.1-1.3.9)
Applications to Everyday Life



2.1 Atomic Structure

2.1.1 Atoms are Mostly Empty Space
2.1.2 Atomic Spectra
2.1.3 Wave Characteristics
2.1.4 Quantum Numbers and Electron Orbitals
2.1.5 Electron Configuration
For the Teacher (Discussion and Answer Keys for Activities 2.1.1-2.1.5)
Applications to Everyday Life

2.2 The Periodic Law

2.2.1 Finding the "Missing Elements"
2.2.2 Designing Your Own Periodic Table
2.2.3 Family Characteristics
2.2.4 Trends Within Families
For the Teacher (Discussion and Answer Keys for Activities 2.2.1-2.2.4)
Applications to Everyday Life

2.3 Diffusion and Osmosis

2.3.1 Brownian Motion
2.3.2 Diffusion of Gases
2.3.3 The Effect of Temperature on Diffusion
2.3.4 The Effect of Molecular Size on Diffusion Rate
2.3.5 Osmosis
2.3.6 Osmotic Pressure
2.3.7 Dialysis
For the Teacher (Discussion and Answer Keys for Activities 2.3.1-2.3.7)
Applications to Everyday Life

2.4  Changes of State

2.4.1 Relative Volumes of Solid, Liquid and Gas Phase
2.4.2 Heats of Fusion and Vaporization
2.4.3 Boiling: The Influence of Pressure
2.4.4 Distillation
2.4.5 Sublimation of Carbon Dioxide
2.4.6 Triple Point; Phase Diagram of Carbon Dioxide
2.4.7 Regelation:  Phase Diagram of Water
For the Teacher (Discussion and Answer Keys for Activities 2.4.1-2.4.7)
Applications to Everyday Life

2.5  Classification of Matter

2.5.1 Physical and Chemical Changes
2.5.2 Separation of Pure Substances and Mixtures: Chromatography
2.5.3 Identification of Physical and Chemical Changes
2.5.4 Elements and Compounds
2.5.5 Extensive and Intensive Physical Properties
2.5.6 Identifying Unknowns by Physical and Chemical Properties
For the Teacher (Discussion and Answer Keys for Activities 2.5.1-2.5.6)
Applications to Everyday Life


3.1 Chemical Bonding

3.1.1 Law of Definite Proportions
3.1.2 Bond Formation
3.1.3 Non-Polar and Polar Covalent Bonds
3.1.4 Covalent and Ionic Bonds
3.1.5 Metallic Bonding
3.1.6 Intermolecular Forces
For the Teacher (Discussion and Answer Keys for Activities 3.1.1-3.1.6)
Applications to Everyday Life

3.2 Types of Chemical Reactions

3.2.1 Composition (Synthesis, Combination) Reactions
3.2.2 Decomposition Reactions
3.2.3 Single Displacement (Single Replacement) Reactions
3.2.4 Double Replacement (Ion-Combining) Reactions
3.2.5 Combustion Reactions
3.2.6 Addition Reactions
For the Teacher (Discussion and Answer Keys for Activities 3.2.1-3.2.6)
Applications to Everyday Life

3.3  Oxidation-Reduction (Redox)Reactions

3.3.1 Oxidation States
3.3.2 Oxidation and Reduction
3.3.3 Dramatic Oxidation Reactions
3.3.4 Balancing Oxidation-Reduction Reactions
For the Teacher (Discussion and Answer Keys for Activities 3.3.1-3.3.4)
Applications to Everyday Life

3.4 Electrochemistry

3.4.1 Electrode Potentials
3.4.2 Energy Transformation
3.4.3 Voltaic Cell
3.4.4 Batteries
3.4.5 Electrolysis
3.4.6 Electroplating
For the Teacher (Discussion and Answer Keys for Activities 3.4.1-3.4.6)
Applications to Everyday Life

3.5 Polymers

3.5.1 Polymerization
3.5.2 Cross-Linking Polymers
3.5.3 Uses of Polymers
3.5.4 Recycling Plastic Polymers
For the Teacher (Discussion and Answer Keys for Activities 3.5.1-3.5.4)
Applications to Everyday Life

3.6  Nuclear Chemistry

3.6.1 Detecting Radiation with a Cloud Chamber
3.6.2 Detecting Radiation with an Electroscope
3.6.3 Detecting Radiation with a Geiger Counter
3.6.4 Modeling Nuclear Reactions
For the Teacher (Discussion and Answer Keys for Activities 3.6.1-3.6.4)
Applications to Everyday Life


4.1 Thermochemistry

4.1.1 Endothermic Reactions
4.1.2 Heats of Dilution and Solution
4.1.3 Chemical Hand-Warmer
4.1.4 Heat of Reaction
4.1.5 Caloric Content of Foods
4.1.6 Entropy
4.1.7 Entropy-Driven Reactions
4.1.8 Entropy and Enthalpy
For the Teacher (Discussion and Answer Keys for Activities 4.1.1-4.1.8)
Applications to Everyday Life

4.2 Heat Transfer

4.2.1 Heat Conduction in Metals
4.2.2 Conduction and Combustion
4.2.3 Conduction: Davy Safety Lamp
4.2.4 Convection in Gases
4.2.5 Convection in Liquids
4.2.6 Radiation
For the Teacher (Discussion and Answer Keys for Activities 4.2.1-4.2.6)
Applications to Everyday Life

4.3 Chemical Kinetics

4.3.1 The Effect of Concentration on Reaction Rate
4.3.2 The Effect of Temperature on Reaction Rate
4.3.3 The Effect of Temperature and Concentration on Reaction Rate
4.3.4 Catalysts, Reaction Rates and Activation Energy
4.3.5 Enzymes
4.3.6 Oscillating Chemical Reactions
For the Teacher (Discussion and Answer Keys for Activities 4.3.1-4.3.6)
Applications to Everyday Life

4.4 Chemical Equilibrium

4.4.1 Models of Dynamic Equilibrium
4.4.2 Disruption of Equilibrium
4.4.3 The Effect of Concentration on Equilibrium
4.4.4 The Effect of Pressure on Equilibrium
4.4.5 The Effect of Temperature on Equilibrium
For the Teacher (Discussion and Answer Keys for Activities 4.4.1-4.4.5)
Applications to Everyday Life


5.1 Gases

5.1.1 Properties of Gases
5.1.2 Pressure-Volume Relationship of Gases (Boyle's Law)
5.1.3 Temperature-Volume Relationship of Gases (Charles's Law)
5.1.4 Hot Air Balloons: An Application of Charles's Law
5.1.5 Temperature-Pressure Relationships of Gases (Gay-Lussac's Law)
5.1.6 Avogadro's Principle
5.1.7 Measuring Atmospheric Pressure
For the Teacher (Discussion and Answer Keys for Activities 5.1.1-5.1.7)
Applications to Everyday Life

5.2 Colloids and Suspensions

5.2.1 Tyndall Effect
5.2.2 Classification of Dispersions:  Solutions, Colloids, and Suspensions
5.2.3 Brownian Motion in Colloids
5.2.4 Making Colloids
For the Teacher (Discussion and Answer Keys for Activities 5.2.1-5.2.4)
Applications to Everyday Life

5.3 Solutes, Solvents, Solutions

5.3.1 Solubility (Solute/Solvent Interaction)
5.3.2 Surface Area and Dissolution Rate
5.3.3 Temperature and Dissolution Rate
5.3.4 Enthalpy of Solution
5.3.5 Solubility of Gases in Liquids
For the Teacher (Discussion and Answer Keys for Activities 5.3.1-5.3.5)
Applications to Everyday Life

5.4 Colligative Properties

5.4.1 Raoult's Law
5.4.2 Freezing Point Depression
5.4.3 Boiling Point Elevation
5.4.4 Osmotic Pressure
For the Teacher (Discussion and Answer Keys for Activities 5.4.1-5.4.4)
Applications to Everyday Life

5.5 Acids and Bases

5.5.1 Acids
5.5.2 Bases
5.5.3 pH Scale
5.5.4 Acid/Base Concentration, Equivalence, and Strength
5.5.5 Acid Rain
For the Teacher (Discussion and Answer Keys for Activities 5.5.1-5.5.5)
Applications to Everyday Life

5.6  Acid and Base Reactions

5.6.1 Neutralization
5.6.2 Titration
5.6.3 Buffering
5.6.4 Soil pH
5.6.5 pH Control of Respiration
For the Teacher (Discussion and Answer Keys for Activities 5.6.1-5.6.5)
Applications to Everyday Life

5.7 Crystals and Crystallization

5.7.1 Supersaturation and Crystallization
5.7.2 Crystallization by Evaporation
5.7.3 Growing Crystals; Crystal Shapes
5.7.4 Metallic Crystals
5.7.5 Silicate Crystals
5.7.6 Stalactites and Stalagmites
5.7.7  Rate of Crystallization and Crystal Size
For the Teacher (Discussion and Answer Keys for Activities 5.7.1-5.7.7)
Applications to Everyday Life


A.1 Units, Quantities & Conversions
1.1 Physical Quantities and Their SI Units
1.2 Metric System Prefixes
1.3 SI And Customary Units and Conversions
1.4 Common Conversions
1.5 Units of Pressure
1.6 Vapor Pressure of Water

A.2 Language of Chemistry
2.1 Writing Style Guidelines
2.2 Root Words Used Frequently in Chemistry
2.3 Etymology of the Names of the Elements
2.4 Balancing Equations

A.3 Safety
3.1 Sample Safety Contract
3.2 Chemical Storage
3.3 Disposal of Chemicals
3.4 Common Chemical Hazard Labels

A.4 Chemical Procurement and Preparation
4.1 Common and Inexpensive Sources of Chemicals
4.2 Preparation of Stock Solutions and Dilutions
4.3 Preparation of Acid and Base Stock Solutions

A.5 Chemical Information
5.1 Properties of Common Elements
5.2 Common Ions
5.3 Standard Reduction Potentials

A.6 Periodic Table
6.1 The Periodic Table of the Elements