Table of Contents



A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T þ U V W X Y Z

This version of the glossary is simply a compilation of all the words we have introduced in this grammar. The words have not yet been lemmatized, so they are given in the form in which they were first introduced in a practice sentence or translation exercise. The next version of King Alfred's Grammar will include a fully lemmatized glossary.

Verbs are alphabetized under their root form with any "ge" prefix given in parentheses.


adj = adjective

adv = adverb

conj = conjunction

n = noun

prn = pronoun

prep = preposition

v = verb




a: adv; always

ac: conj; but

Ælfrede: n; Alfred (proper noun, dative)

ænig: adj; any

ætgædere: adv; together

afyrhte: adj; frightened

agan: v; to possess

ahebban: v; to lift, raise, exalt

an: adj; one

and: conj; and

Andree: n; Andrew (Latin)

apostoles: n; apostol (genitive)

arærde: v; erected (past 3rd person singular of aræran)

are: n; honor (dative)

astah: v; ascended (past 1st and 3rd person singular of astigan)

aþas: n; oaths (accusative)




be: prep; by, on, along

becumað: v; happen, befall (present 3rd person plural of becuman)

becuman: v; to come, arrive

behindan: prep; behind

beorhtnys: n; brightness (strong, feminine)

berypð: v; plunders (present 3rd person singular of berypan)

(ge)bete: v; repented (past 1st and 3rd singular of (ge)betan)

bisceop: n; bishop (nominative)

bite v; bitan

blodgyte: n; bloodshed (strong, masculine)

blostma: n; flower

boc: n; book

bodade: v; proclaimed (weak, 1st conjugation)

bodian: v; to proclaim

bradost: adj; broadest

broðor: n; brother

bryne: n; fire, burning (strong, masculine)

bryttigean: v; to share (infinitive )

burhware: n; citizenry (accusative of burhwaru)

byne: adj; cultivated

byrne: n; byrnie, coat of mail (weak, feminine)

byrnsweord: n; flaming sword (strong, neuter)




ceastre: n; city, walled town (accusative)

Cerdice: n; proper name Cerdic; (dative)

cirice: n; church (weak, (feminine)

cirman: v; to cry out, shout

cohhetan: v; to bluster, shout

comon: v; came (past plural of cuman)

cuman: v; to come

cunnan: v; to know

cwæþ: v; said (past 3rd person singular of (ge)cweþan)

cymeþ: v; comes (present 3rd person singular of cuman)

cyng: n; king (nominative)

cyning: n; king (nominative)

cyricean: n; church (genitive)




deman: v; to judge

demen: v; would judge (weak, 1st conjugation)

dohte: v; availed (past tense 3rd person singular of dugan)

don: v; to do

draca: n; dragon

dugan: v; to achieve

durran: v; to dare

duru: n; door (accusative)

dyre: adj; dear, precious




eac: conj; also

eage: n; eye

eal: adj; all

eal: adj; all

ealdor: n; lord, prince (strong, masculine)

ealle: adv; completely

earan: n; ears (plural of eare; accusative)

eard: n; land (strong, masculine)

eardiaþ: v; dwell (weak, 2nd conjugation)

earfoðnes: n; hardship (strong, feminine)

earn: n; eagle (strong, masculine)

Eastengle: n; East Anglians

easteweard: adv; in the east

elde: v; hesitated (weak, 1st conjugation)

ece: adj; eternal, everlasting

efston: v; hastened (weak, 1st conjugation)

eft: adv; afterwards

eow: prn; y'all (accusative or dative)

eower: prn; y'all's

eowic: prn; y'all (accusative)




fæder: n; father

(ge)faran: v; to travel, go

fela: adj; many

feoll: v; fell (past 1st and 3rd person singular of (ge)feallan)

feor: adv; far

Finnas: n; Lapps, Finns (proper noun)

Finnum: n; Lapps, Finns (dative of Finnas)

fleon: v; to fly

foð: v; catch, capture; (present plural of fon)

forþ: adv; forth

for ðon: conj; because

for ðæm: conj; because

fordrifan: v; to drive away, sweep away

forgyldan: v; to pay for

forwearð: v; perished (past tense 3rd person singular of forweor?an)

fot: n; foot

fyrst: adj; first




gafol: n; profit, taxes (strong, neuter)

gan: v; to go"

gar: n; spear (strong, masculine)ge: prn; you two

geare: n; year (dative)

gebytlu: n; (nominative plural)building (strong, neuter)gedreccednes: tribulation (strong, feminine)georne: adv; eagerly

guma: n; man, hero (weak, masculine)

guðsearo: n; war-gear (strong, neuter)

geaf: v; gave (past 1st and 3rd singular of giefan)

geat: n; gate (accusative plural of "gatu"; strong, neuter)

gelyfed: adj; advanced

gemæne: adj; common to

giefan: v; to give

gif: conj; if

git: prn; you two

god: adj; good

Godes: n; God (genitive)

grædelice: adv; greedily

gram: adj; angry

gristbitian: v; to gnash the teeth

gryþ: n; quarter (accusative case)

gehyraþ: v; heard (present 3 plural of gehieran)

gymða: v; cares for (present 3rd person singular of gieman)




habban: v; to have

hæbbe: v; have (present 3 subjunctive of habban)

hæfde: v; had (past tense 3rd person singular of habban)

hæfdon: v; had (weak, 3rd conjugation)

hæfst: v; have (weak, 3rd cojugation)

hæte: n; heat

halgan: adj; holy

hasopad: adj; grey-coated

he: prn; he

Heahmund: n; proper name Heahmund; (nominative)

(ge)healdan: v; to hold, keep, preserve

hean: adj; poor

hearpian: v; to harp (infinitive)

heo: prn; she, they (nominative or accusative)

heofonas: n; the heavens (plural of heofon; accusative)

heom: prn; them (dative)

here: n; war, battle (strong, masculine)hi: prn; themselves

hider: adv; hither

hie: prn; she, they (nominative or accusative)

him: prn; it (dative)

hine: prn; him (accusative)

hio: prn; she

hira: prn; theirs

hire: prn; hers (genitive or dative)

his: prn; his, its

hit: prn; it (accusative)

hit: prn; it

hlude: adv; loudly

hond: n; hand

hræfn: n; raven (strong, masculine)

hraw: n; corpse (strong, neuter)

hranas: n; reindeer (plural of hran; accusative)

hringdon: v; rang (past tense 3rd person plural of hringan)

hus: n; house (nominative)

hwa: prn; who

hwæl: n; whale (nominative)

hwæm: prn; whom (dative)

hwær: adv; where

hwæs: prn; whose

hwæt: prn; what (nominative or accusative)

hwalas: n; whales (plural accusative)

hwam: prn; whom (dative)

hwelc: adj; of what sort

hwi: adv; why

hwi: prn; who (instrumental)

hwon: prn; who (instrumental)

hwone: prn; whom (accusative)

(ge)hyranne: v; hearing (inflected infinitive of gehieran)

(ge)hyre: v; hear (plural imperative of gehieran)

hyrnednebb: adj; horn-beaked




ic: prn; I

Ifling: n; the River Ifling (nominative)

iglond: n; island (strong, neuter)

ilca: adj; same

in: prep; in

inc: prn; you two (accusative or dative)

incer: prn; of you two

incit: prn; you two (accusative)

ise: n; ice (dative)




kyng: n; king (nominative)




lærde: v; taught (weak, 1st conjugation)

læssa: adj; smaller

land, lond: n; land, country (strong, neuter)

land: n; land, country (nominative)

lande: n; land, country (dative)

lange: adv; long, for long

lar: n; teaching, doctrine (nominative)

laðgeniðla: n; foe, enemy (weak, masculine)

leoht: n; light (strong, neuter)

leasunga: n; false witness

leoht: adj; light

letan: v; left (past tense 3rd person plural of lætan: )

libban (or lifian): v; to live

lic: n; body (strong, neuter)

licgan: v; to lie




mæden: n; maiden, girl (strong, neuter)mægas: n; kinsmen (plural of mæg); (nominative)

magan: v; to be able to

mann, monn: n; man (minor, masculine)

mannum: n; men (plural of man(n); dative)

Maria: n; Mary (weak, (feminine)

me: prn; me (dative or instrumental)

meahte: v; was able (past tense 3rd person singular of magan)

mec: prn; me (accusative)

medu: n; field

men: n; men

mere: n; lake, body of water (dative)

micclum: adv; greatly

micle: adj; large

micle: adv; much

mid: prep; with

min: prn; mine

modor: n; mother

mona: n; moon (weak, masculine)monn: n; man

monna: n; men (plural of man(n); genitive)

morum: n; moors (dative plural)

motan: v; to be allowed to

munan: v; to remember

mynstermen: n; monks (plural of mynsterman(n); nominative)




næfre: adv; never conj; neither...nor

ne: adv; not

neaweste: n; vicinity, neighborhood (dative)

nele: v; does not wish (negative of "willan")

Norþhymbre: n; Northumbrians

nu: adv; now

nugan: v; to suffice




of: prep; from

ofer: prep; over

ofslægen: adj; slain (past participle acting as an adjective)

Olafe: n; proper name Olaf (dative)

on: prep; in

on: prep; in, into

on: prep; on, into

ond: conj; and

onginnan: v; to begin

oscuna: v; avoid (weak, 2nd conjugation)

Oswold: n; Oswold (nominative)

oðre: adj; other

oþ: prep; until




Paulinus: n; Paulinus (proper noun; Latin)





recce: v; am interested in (weak, 1st conjugation)

reliquium: n; relic (Latin)

rice: adj; rich

rod: n; cross, rood (nominative)

Rom: n; Rome (weak)

ryhtfæderencyn: n; direct paternal ancestry (nominative)




sæmann: n; seaman, seafarer (minor, masculine)

Scæ: n; Saint (Latin)

scip: n; ship (strong, neuter)

searo: n; war-gear (strong, neuter)

stan: n; stone (strong masculine)

sumor: n; summer (minor, masculine)

sunne: n; sun (weak, feminine)

suðrima: n; south-coast (weak, masculine)

sweg: n; sound, music (strong, masculine)

salowigpad: adj; dark-feathered

Sancta: n; Saint (Latin adjective "holy" used as a noun)

sceaþa: n; enemy

sculan: v; must, to be obligated

se: prn; the (masculine, singular, nominative)

secgan (or secgean): v; to say

seledreamas: n; hall-joys (plural of seledream) (nominative)

(ge)seoh: v; see (imperative sg of geseon)

(ge)sittan: v; to settle, remain, sit

siþþan: adv; afterwards

slæpð: v; sleeps (present 1st and 3rd singular of slæpan)

snel: adj; quick

spedig: adj; prosperous

springan: v; to spring

staþe: n; shore, bank (dative)

standeþ: v; stands (present 3rd person singular of standan)

stod: v; stood (past 3rd person singular of standan)

stodon: v; stood (past tense 3rd person plural of standan)

styredon: v; stirred, moved (past tense 3rd person plural of styrian)

styredon: v; stirred, moved (past tense 3rd person plural of styrian)

sum: adj; one

sunu: n; son

swa: adv; as

swa: adv; so

sweart: adj; gloomy, dark, black

sweostor: n; sister

swift: adj; swift

swyðe: adv; very

syle: v; give (weak, 1st conjugation)




tacan: v; to take

teolung: n; tillage (strong, feminine)

(ge)teon: v; to draw

tide: n; time (accusative)

til: adj; good

to: prep; for

to: prep; to

toð: n; tooth

toniman: v; to open

treow: n; pledge (strong, (feminine)

Truso: n; Truso (name of a city) (nominative)

tungol: n; star (strong, neuter)




þa: adv; then

þa: dem prn; that, the (feminine, singular, accusative)

ðær: adv; there

ðæt: conj; so that

þe: prn; which

þe: prn; you (accusative or dative)

þec: prn; you (accusative)

þegenas: n; thanes (strong)

þider: adv; thither

þin: prn; your

ðissere: prn; this (genitive feminine singular)

ðonne: conj; than

ðonne: adv; then

ðu: prn; you

ðurh-slean: v; to smite through

ðus: adv; thus




uncer: prn; of us two

uncit: prn; us two (accusative)

unearge: adj; brave

unnan: v; to grant

untrum: adj; unwell

unwritere: n; bad scribe (nominative)

up: adv; up

ure: prn; of us, our

urfan: v; to need

urne adj; (accusative singular of ure): our

us: prn; us (accusative)

us: prn; us (dative or instrument)

user: prn; of us, our

usic: prn; us (accusative)

ut: adv; out




wagode: v; waved, shook (past tense 3rd person singular of wagian)

wagode: v; waved, shook (past tense 3rd person singular of wagian)

wanspedig: adj; poor, destitute

we: prn; we

weald: n; forest

wearð: v; became; (past singular 1st and 3rd person of weor?an)

Wendelsæ: n; Mediterranean Sea (feminine)

wendon: v; went (weak, 1st conjugation)

weorðan: v; to become, happen

weoruldhade: n; secular life (dative)

werod: n; troop, company (strong, neuter)wi?: prep; against

wilde: adj; wild

willan: v; to wish

wit: prn;we two

witan: v; to know

wlance: adj; proud

wop: n; weeping (strong, masculine)wracu: n; suffering, pain (strong, feminine)

word: n; word

world: n; world (strong, (feminine)

woruld: n; world (strong, feminine)

wrecca: n; exile (nominative)

wudu: n; wood

wudu: n; wood, forest (minor, masculine)

wurðmynte: n; reverence, honor (dative)

wurdon: v; became; (past plural of weor?an)




yfel: n; evil, harm (accusative)

ylce: adj; same

ylde: n; old age (genitive)