SEDE VACANTE 1352

December 6, 1352 —December 18, 1352



Papal_Palace, Avignon
The Palace of the Popes, Avignon

New Cardinals

Clement VI was one of the greatest of papal nepotists (Souchon, 52). In 1342 he created eleven cardinals, including his brother Hughes Roger, OSB; his cousins Aymeric de Chalus, Gerard de la Garde, OP, and Guillaume d'Aigrefeuille; his nephews Bernard de la Tour, Guillaume de la Jugié, and Nicholas de Besse; and his cousin (or nephew) Adhemar Robert. To these relatives were added his nephew Pierre Roger de Beaufort (1348), his cousin Pierre de Cros (1350), and his nephew Raymond de Canilhac (1350). As the "First Life of Clement VI" (Baluzius I, column 265) puts it, "Suos enim fratres, nepotes, consanguineos, propinquos, compatriotas et servitores valde dilexit. Plurimos namque ex eis qui tempore suae promotionis erant in statu ecclesiastico, aut demum esse voluerunt, in altis et magnis praelaturis et dignitatibus sublimavit, multos vero inferioribus beneficiis fere ubique terrarum existentibus collocavit." The next Conclave would truly be a family affair.

Death of Pope Clement VI

A manuscript in the Vatican Library, cited by Theiner (Baronius-Theiner, sub anno 1352, no. 21; p. 537) states: Pauco tempore languens insperate, obiit Decembris die VI, anno Domini MCCCLII, Pontificatus sui anno XI, in Palatio Apostolico Avinionensi. According to one of the lives, he was percussus apostemate in dorso ("Fifth Life of Clement VI", Baluzius I, column 318). It is possible that this abscess, and the fever that accompanied the Pope in his last seven days, was evidence of a tumor, perhaps cancer (Déprez, 235 n. 1); Clement had been suffering the complaint for some time. Clement VI died on December 6, 1352, the Feast of St. Nicholas.

On the next day a funeral service was held in the Chapel of the Papal Palace, with the Patriarch of Alexandria, Jean de Cardailhac, preaching a sermon (Baluzius I, 909): A die VII mensis decembris qua die felicis recordationis Clemens VI fuit traditus ecclesiastic(a)e sepultur(a)e (Déprez, 236 n. 1). The body was then moved to the Cathedral of Notre-Dame des Domps, where the public novendiales took place.   The Papal Almoner, Pierre de Froideville, distributed 400 livres among the poor. There were other large donations to each of the houses of monks and nuns in Avignon. Each day, according to the Will of Clement VI, fifty priests celebrated a mass for the repose of his soul.

He was buried in the Cathedral at Avignon, where he remained for three months, but his remains were later transferred to his monastery of Casa-Dei (Chaise-Dieu, in the Auvergne). Five Cardinals, all relatives of the deceased Pope, escorted the cortege: Hughes Roger, Guillaume de la Jugié, Nicolas de Besse, Pierre Roger de Beaufort, and Guillaume d' Aigrefeuille.

Tomb of Clement VI, La Chaise-Dieu
Tomb of Pope Clement VI, in the Choir at La Chaise-Dieu

The Electors

Eubel Hierarchia Catholica I second edition, p. 19 note 3. Baumgarten, "Miscellanea Cameralia II," pp. 38-39. During his pontificate Clement VI (Pierre Roger) had appointed twenty-seven cardinals, in three creations. Seven of them had died during his reign. Of the eighteen who had participated in his election in 1334 (and one who had not), eleven had died (besides himself), leaving six. The number of cardinals eligible to participate in the Conclave of 1342, therefore, was twenty-six. For a list of all the cardinals from 1294-1378, see Souchon, 163-184: "Beilage I: S.R.E. Cardinales...").

Cardinals attending:

  1. Pierre de Pratis (des Près), of Cahors, Suburbicarian Bishop of Palestrina. (died September 30, 1361). Vice-Chancellor
  2. Élie Talleyrand de Périgord, Suburbicarian Bishop of Albano. (died January 17, 1364). "Petragoriensis"
  3. Bertrand de Déaulx, Suburbicarian Bishop of Sabina. (died October 21, 1355) Professor of Civil and Canon Law
  4. Guillaume Court, OCist., Suburbicarian Bishop of Frascati. (died June 12, 1361) Master of Theology. [Cardella II, 152-154]
  5. Étienne Aubert, of Limoges, Suburbicarian bishop of Ostia e Velletri. (died September 12, 1362) Doctor Juris Civilis, Poenitentarius Major [Baluze I, 286, 321, 345] Petrarch called him magnum virum et juriscunsultissimum. "Magalonensis"

  6. Guillaume d'Aure, OSB, Cardinal Priest of S. Stefano al Monte Celio. (died December 3, 1353) Professor of Canon Law [Baluzius I, col. 216; cf. cols. 822-824]
  7. Hughes Roger, OSB, Cardinal Priest of S. Lorenzo in Damaso. (died October 21, 1363). Nephew of Pope Clement VI. "Cardinal de Tulles" "Tutellensis"
  8. Pierre Bertrand the Younger, of Provence, Cardinal Priest of S. Susanna (died July 13, 1361) Nephew of Cardinal Pierre Bertrand (who had died on June 23, 1348)
  9. Aegidius (Gil) Álvarez de Albornoz, Hispanus, Cardinal Priest of S. Clemente. (died August 23, 1367 [Baluzius I, 259, 891]
  10. Pasteur de Sarrats, OFM, Cardinal Priest of Ss. Marcellino e Pietro. (died October 11, 1356) [Baluzius I, 892]
  11. Raymond de Canilhac, Canon Regular of Saint Augustine, Cardinal Priest of S. Croce in Gerusalemme. (died June 20, 1373). Nephew of Clement VI.
  12. Guillaume d'Aigrefeuille, OSB, of Limoges, Cardinal Priest of S. Maria in Traspontina. (died October 4, 1369) "Consanguineus et cubicularius ipsius Papae [Clementis VI]" [Baluzius I, 259, 902]
  13. Niccolò Capocci, a Roman, Cardinal Priest of S. Vitale. (died July 26, 1368) [Baluzius I, 259, 898]
  14. Pectin de Montesquieu, a Gascon, Cardinal Priest of Ss. XII Apostoli. (died February 1, 1355) [Eubel I, p.19 no. 19]
  15. Arnaud de Villemur, a Gascon, Canon Regular of Saint Augustine, Cardinal Priest of S. Sisto. (died October 28, 1355) [Baluzius I, 259, 902]
  16. Pierre de Cros, of Limoges, Cardinal Priest of Ss. Silvestro e Martino ai Monti. (died September 23, 1361) [Baluzius I, 259, 900] Nephew of Clement VI
  17. Aegidius Rigandi (Gilles Rigaud), OSB, Cardinal Priest of S. Prassede. (died September 10, 1353) [Baluzius I, 259, 905]
  18. Joannes 'de Molendinis' (Jean de Moulins), OP, of Limoges, Cardinal Priest of S. Sabina. (died February 23, 1353) [Baluzius I, 259, 906]

  19. Gaillard de la Mothe, of Bourdos in Gascony, diocese of Aquitaine, Cardinal Deacon of S. Lucia in Silice. (died December 20, 1356). Nephew of Pope Clement V. [Cardella II, p. 110; Baluzius I, 733; Eubel I, p. 15 no. 7] [forgotten by Miranda]
  20. Bernard de la Tour d' Auvergne, Cardinal Deacon of S. Eustachio. (died August 7, 1361). His nephew married the niece of Clement VI [Baluzius I, 286, 853]
  21. Guillaume de la Jugié (Guillelmus Iudicis), of Limoges, Cardinal Deacon of S. Maria in Cosmedin. (died April 28, 1374). His mother was sister of Clement VI [Baluzius I, 854]
  22. Nicolas de Besse, of Limoges, Cardinal Deacon of S. Maria in Via Lata. (died November 5, 1369). Nephew of Clement VI [Baluzius I, 874]. "Lemovicensis"
  23. Pierre Roger de Beaufort (aged ca. 21), of Limoges, Cardinal Deacon of S. Maria Nuova. (died March 27, 1378). [Baluzius I, 259, 275] Nephew of Clement VI.
  24. Rinaldo Orsini, a Roman, Cardinal Deacon of S. Adriano.(died June 6, 1374) [Baluzius I, 907]
  25. Jean de Caraman, of Cahors, Cardinal Deacon of S. Giorgio in Velabro. (died August 1, 1361) [Baluzius I, 259, 907] Grand-nephew of John XXII

Cardinals not attending:

  1. Guy de Boulogne, bishop of Porto e Santa Rufina [Eubel I, p. 19 n. 3] Son of Robert VII, Comte Boulogne et d' Auvergne and of Marie of Flanders.

 

The Camerarius S. R. E. was Msgr. Etienne Cambarou (Cambaruti), Archbishop of Toulouse (1350-1361).  He had previously been Archbishop of Arles (1348-1350), and before that Bishop of St. Pons de Thomières (1346-1348).  Before his appointment as Camerlengo in 1347 he had been Treasurer General.


Dom Jean Birel for Pope?

There is an interesting story, which can be traced to the Cistercian author, Dom Petrus Dorlandus (Pieter Dorland, died 1507) who reports in his chronicle (Martène, 187-188) that the twenty-second General of the Cistercians, Jean Birel (Ioannes Birellius) had been considered for the papal office at the Conclave of 1352:

Ob quam causam cum felicis recordationis Clemens papa sextus viam fuisset universae carnis ingressus, major pars cardinalium ipsum [Ioannem Birellium] in summum pontificem eligere disponebat: quod videns domnus cardinalis Petragoricensis, qui tunc temporis inter cardinales quasi vexillifer habebatur, scilicet praefati prioris electionem ad apicem pontificalem perduci velle: cum sentiret ipsum priorem summae esse justitiae et aequitatis, neque ullum hominem mundi contra justitiam reveri: surgens in medio collegii ait: Domini mei reverendi cardinales, vos quod facitis ignoratis. Sciatis pro certo priorem Carthusiae tantae fore justitiae, rigoris, et aequitatis, quod si ipsum in papam eligimus, pro certo ad statum nos reducet antiquum; atque equi nostri infra quattuor menses quadrigas conducent: non enim cujusquam veretur personam, quia ecclesiam Dei zelans, quasi leo confidit. Quo audito, domini cardinales perterriti, sibique ipsis nimis carnaliter metuentes, praefato priore praetermisso, dominum Innocemtium sextum de collegio suo elegerunt....

And, later in the story, after the news of the death of Jean Birel is brought to Avignon (Martene, 192-193):

Dum vero Avenioni rumor de transitu prioris Cartusiae percrebuisset, domnus Innocentius papa adhuc superstes, haec audiens, in vocem layrymanum, ut fertur, prorupit dicens: Valentior religiosus et clericus mundi mortuus est. Cum vero post modicum tempus supradictus papa in extremis laborasset, et finem suum adesse cerneret, coram infinitis astantantibus intonuit dicens: Utinam anima mea esset coram Deo talis qualem aestimo fore animam Johannis quondam prioris Carthusiae. Praescriptus etiam dominus cardinalis Petragoricensis, qui ejusdem prioris electionem in papatu impediverat, audita ejus morte, in haec verba prorupit: Vae nobis, quia tristes nos. Tristis est ecclesia Dei, quia collegium nostrum et ecclesia sancta Dei talem non promeruit habere pastorem. Non enim digni sumus tanto pastore.

There is also an influential sixteenth-century French translation (Driscart, pp. 116-117):

Voicy maintenant que nous avons a parler du R(everend). et saincte Pere Iean Birellios, lequel tant pour sa douceur que pour sa sainctete s' estoit rendu agreable a Dieu et aux hommes, sa renommee et auctorite estant si grande, qu' apres la mort de Clement sixieme la plus grande partie des Cardinaux estoit portee pour l'elire au Pontificat; ce qu' il eut refussi; ne fut este le Cardinal Pertragoricus, qui sçachant le zele et la justice de ce sainct personnage, harasigua ses Confreres les Cardinaux en ces termes: le ne sçay que trop mes Seigneurs que desirez pour notre souverain Pontife la personne du General des Chartreux et certes il faut que se conforse qu' il est tres digne et capable de cet honneur: mais parte que nous autres Joannes ambitieux desir faste, gloire et vanite e de ce monde; et a en horreur touts les attiratis, sottises, et vanitez; d' ecelay, s' il est eleu, sans faute (puis qu' il est porte pour l' equite et la justice) il nous voudra remettre a nostre premier estat, se moquant de nos montures si bien harnacees, et se riant de nos chevaux di superbement accommpdez, dieu nos housses pour lors et nos esperons donees, apres peu de jours il les renuoyera aux champs, et les employera a tirer la charue, car il ne se soucie de personne tant soit-elle puissante ou noble: mais pour l'Eglise il se comporte en guise de Lion fort et courageux. Cecy donna tant de crainte et d'emotion aux Cardinaux que ne luy osant fier leur voix, ils la donnerent a celui qui fut nomme Innocent sixieme...

and, ten years later in the life of Birel by Peter Dorlandus, following the death of Dom Jean Birel in fact (Driscart, 121):

Le Pape Innocent ayant entendu les nouvelles de sa mort dit en pleurant, helas le plus Sainct Religieux et le plus scavant du monde est mort ce joour-d'huy. Le mesme Sainct Pere estant aux abois de la mort disoit en la presence des assistans: A la mienne volente que mon ame parut si innocent devant Dieu que l' ame de ce bon Pere Ian, laquelle je crois avoir une conjour tres-agreable a nostre Seigneur.

 

Le Cardinal Petragoricensis fut si esterangement émeu de cette mort, que se repentant d' avoir esté cause qu'il n'avoit esté eleir Pape, dit ces mots avec grand regret, Mal-heur a nous Cardinaux, mal-heur à toute l'Eglise qui n'avons voulu avoir vu tel Pasteur, je l' ai defendu et voy la pourquoy mal-heur à moy parce que j' ay fait tort a nous tous, et grandement avit à la Saincte Eglise. Apres sa mort ce bon Pere n' a manqué de miracles, car Lemonicenses, d'ou il estoit natif, ayants recors a son affirtance trouvoient leurs malades aydez et soulangez, raison pourquoy ils envoyerent à la Chartreuse pour avoir quelques Reliques...

Now it is true that the Talleyrand family were noted supporters of the Carthusians. Cardinal Élie's brother, Count Archambaud III, in fact had founded the Chartreuse of Vauclere, and had left it 12,000 gold florins in his Will.   But this story of Dom Jean Birel is not in the nature of a "chronicle". Birel had been an advisor of Benedict XI, and his austere, monkish, reformist Cistercian views were well known to all the members of the Sacred College. Birel was, as many leaders of religious orders in the history of the Church, a candidate for sainthood, being promoted by all the prayers and works of the members of his Order. All of the lives of the Carthusian leaders in Dorlandus' work are accompanied by reports of miracles and observations about their morals and moral influence. The anecdote about the Conclave of 1352 originates as part of a work, written in the late fifteenth century, which is at least partially hagiographic in nature, despite its title of chronicle. The anecdote appears nowhere else in extant literature but in the work of the Cistercian Dom Petrus Dorlandus (except by endless repetition). (see Zacour, passim) (Souchon, 54-56).  

Piatti has his doubts as to the authenticity of Dorlandus' story (Storia, 106): "Se non che questi scrisse la propria Cronaca circa l' anno 1500, e per conseguente può non essere del tutto giuridica ed accertata la di lui asserzione, se non anco appassionata."   Pélissier (Innocent VI, p. 43), though he accepts the tale of Jean Birel, remarks, "le candidature de Jean Birel ne fut pas posée." And his careful language is quite correct. Birel was not put forward as a candidate in the Conclave of 1352. The real interest of the Cardinals was not in the election of a saintly man, or of a man bent on reform. Quite the contrary, their work on a lengthy set of Electoral Capitulations indicates that the issue was power, and how it should be apportioned. Their interest was in limiting the Pope's power over them, rather than in allowing a Pope to reform them without their consent.

Conclave

Pope Clement VI had considerably altered the regulations promulgated by Pope Gregory X at the Second Council of Lyons ("Prima Vita Clementis VI", in Baluzius I, 260-261):

Praefatus insuper Papa laxavit seu verius mutavit constitutionem Gregorii Papae X Ubi majus, de elect. lib VI editam super illis quae Cardinales habent observare quando sunt inclusi in conclavi pro electione Romani Pontificis celebranda. Voluit enim, constituit, et ordinavit quod dicti Cardinales possint a cetero in dicto conclavi existentes habere cortinas, cum quibus claudantur eorum logiae quando dormient seu quiescent. Item quod habeant duos servitores clericos vel laicos, prout eis magis placebit. Item quod elapsis tribus diebus post suum introitum haberent ultra panem et vinum fructus, caseum et electuaria, et unum ferculum carnium vel piscium duntaxat in prandio, et aliud in coena. Super quibus edidit constitutionem perpetuo duraturam, quae incipit Licet; cujus contrarium, quad praedicta, continebat caput praedictum Ubi majus, whod quoad alia omnia voluit in sua remanere firmitate.

There were to be curtains to give Cardinals privacy during sleep or rest. They could have two conclavisti, clerical or lay, as they pleased. After three days, in addition to bread and wine, they were allowed to have cheese and citrus (?), and one plate of meat or fish, both at lunch and at dinner.

The text of the Bull Licet in constitutione is given in Cherubini, Magnum Bullarium Romanum, p. 179 (dated 8 Idus Decemb, December 6, Pont nostri ann. X).

Twenty-eight cells were built in the Conclave (Deprez, 240 and n. 2), leading some to conclude—erroneously—that there were twenty-eight living cardinals. Thirty-three doorways were walled shut, and sixteen windows.

Electoral Capitulations

There were Electoral Capitulations (André, 351-354; Souchon, 55-66). They are quoted by the successful candidate, Pope Innocent VI, in a letter written in 1352 at the beginning of his reign (Baronius-Theiner, sub anno 1352, nos. 25 and 26, p. 540):

These Capitulations were annulled by Innocent VI on July 6, 1353 in the Bull Solicitudo pastoris (Souchon, 63).

The Conclave of 1352 did not, as events transpired, need to invoke many of the new Conclave regulations promulgated by Clement VI.   The Conclave opened on Sunday, December 16 (Deprez, 240), and came to a successful conclusion on Tuesday, December 18 ("Secunda Vita Innocentii VI", Baluzius I, column 345 and 846):

Mortuo Domino Clemente in die Sancti Nicolai, Cardinales intrarunt conclave Dominica post Luciae, et die Martis proxima hunc [Stephanum Alberti] elegerunt.

The Conclave was held in the Apostolic Palace in Avignon, where Clement VI had died. This is referred to by the new Pope, Innocent VI, in his Election Manifesto, Praedicator egregius (Baronius-Theiner, sub anno 1352, no. 28; p. 541):

Nuper siquidem felicis recordationis Clemente papa VI, praedecessore nostro, tela vitae succisa, in Domino quiescente, et ipsius funeralibus exsequiis cum honorificentia debita celebratis, nobisque una cum fratribus nostris S. R. E. cardinalibus, de quorum numero tunc eramus, tempore debito convenientibus invicem in palatio Apostolico Avinionensi, in quo idem praedecessor tempore sui obitus habitabit, pro futuri electione pastoris...

The election was a quick one. The Cardinals had heard that the King of France, John II "The Good", was on his way to Avignon with the intention of getting the Cardinals to elect the person most suitable to his own interests (Matteo Villani, Book III, chapter 45; Baronius-Theiner, sub anno 1352, no. 27; p. 541).

Dopo la morte di papa Clemente sesto, i cardinali rinchiusi in conclave sentendo che il re di Francia s'affrettava di venire a Avignone per avere papa a sua volontà. la qual cosa non gli potea mancare, tanti cardinali aveva a sua stanza e di suo reame, ma non ostante che tutto il collegio de'cardinali fosse stato al servigio del detto re, tuttavia per la riverenza della libertà di santa Chiesa, vollono innanzi avere fatto papa di loro movimento, che a stanza del re di Francia. E però di presente presono accordo tra loro, ed elessono a papa il cardinale d'Ostia nativo di Limogi, il quale era stato vescovo di Chairamonte, uomo di buona vita, e di non grande scienza, e assai amico del re di Francia; la sua fama infra gli altri era di semplice e buona vita, e antico d' età....

The "Third Life" adds that the election took place at the hour of Tierce—mid-morning ("Secunda Vita Innocentii VI", Baluzius I, column 357):

electus est in Papam per Cardinales anno Domini MCCCLII die Martis XVIII Decembris, hora tertiarum

Coronation of Innocent VI

Innocent VI (Étienne Aubert) was crowned in the Apostolic Palace at Avignon on Sunday, December 30 ("Secunda Vita Innocentii VI", Baluzius I, column 345; "Tertia Vita", column 357):

Qui coronatus fuit in palatio Apostolico Avinionensi dominica die infra octabas nativitatis Domini.

 

et coronatus Dominica penultima dicti mensis Avinione in apostolico palatio.

 


Bibliography

Stephanus Baluzius [Étienne Baluze], Vitae Paparum Avinionensium 2 volumes (Paris: apud Franciscum Muguet 1693): "Secunda Vita Clementis VI, cols. 265-280. "Tertia Vita Clementis VI," 279-300. "Quarta Vita Clementis VI," 299-310. "Quinta Vita Clementis VI," 309-318-

Augustinus Theiner (Editor), Caesaris S. R. E. Cardinalis Baronii, Od. Raynaldi et Jac. Laderchii Annales Ecclesiastici   Tomus Vigesimus Quintus 1334-1355 (Barri-Ducis: Ludovicus Guerin 1872) [Baronius-Theiner].

Matteo Villani, Cronica di Matteo Villani (edited by Francesco Gherardi Dragomanni) Tomo I (Firenze: Sansone 1846).

Ludovicus Antonius Muratori, Rerum Italicarum Scriptores Tomus Tertius (Milan 1723), 673-684. [Bernard Guidonis [Gui], OP, of Royères in the Limousin, Bishop of Lodève (ca. 1261—1331):   U. Chevalier, Repertoire I, 1919-1920].   Heinrich Finke, Acta Aragonensia. Quellen zur deutschen, italianischen, franzosischen, spanischen, zur Kirchen- und Kulturgeschichte aus der diplomatischen Korrespondenz Jaymes II. (1291-1327) (Berlin und Leipzig 1908).

Bartolomeo Platina, Historia B. Platinae de vitis pontificum Romanorum ...cui etiam nunc accessit supplementum... per Onuphrium [Panvinium]... et deinde per Antonium Cicarellam (Cologne: Cholini 1626). Bartolomeo Platina, Storia delle vite de' pontefice edizione novissima Tomo Terzo (Venezia: Ferrarin 1763).   Aubery, Histoire generale des cardinaux (Paris 1642).   Lorenzo Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa Tomo secondo (Roma: Pagliarini 1792). Giuseppe Piatti, Storia critico-cronologica de' Romani Pontefici E de' Generali e Provinciali Concilj Tomo ottavo (Poli: Giovanni Gravier 1767).  Ludovico Antonio Muratori, Annali d' Italia Volume 19 (Firenze 1827).

J.-B. Christophe, L' histoire de la papauté pendant le XIV. siècle Tome premier (Paris: L. Maison 1853) [very Gallican in outlook, hostile to Italian sources].   J.-F. André, Histoire de la papauté à Avignon deuxième edition (Avignon: Seguin Frères 1887).   Martin Souchon, Die Papstwahlen von Bonifaz VIII bis Urban VI (Braunschweig: Benno Goeritz 1888). Félix Rocquain, La papauté au Moyen Age (Paris 1881).   F. Gregorovius, History of Rome in the Middle Ages, Volume V.2 second edition, revised (London: George Bell, 1906).   St Clair Baddeley,. Robert the Wise and his Heirs 1278—1352 (London: Heinemann 1897).  Carl Müller, Der Kampf Ludwigs von Baiern mit der römischen Curie. II. Ludwig von Baiern, Benedict XII, und Clemens VI (Tübingen 1880)

Jean Birel: Petrus Dorlandus: [Theodorus Petreius, editor], D. Petri Dorlandi Diestensis olim Cartusiae prioris doctissimi Chronicon Cartusiense: in quo de viris sui ordinis illustribus, rebusq[ue] in eodem praeclare gestis, nec non & admiranda plurimarum Cartusiarum constructione scite pertractatur: ante annos quidem centum ab auctore conscriptum, nunc autem primo e latebris erutum, ac selectarum quarunda[m] adiectione notarum illustratum, publicoq[ue] bono promulgatum (Coloniae Agrippinae: apud Petrum Cholinum 1608) [editio princeps].   The Latin text can also be found in Edmond Martène, Veterum scriptorum et monumentorum historicorum, dogmaticorum, moralium amplissima collectio Tomus VI (Paris: Montalant 1729), 149-216.   Adrian Driscart (editor and translator), Chronique, ou Histoire générale de l' Ordre sacré des Chartreux, composée par le Reverend Pere Dom Pierre Dorlande, en son temps Prieur de la Chartreuse de Diest (Tournay: Adrien Quinqué 1644). Norman P. Zacour, "A Note on the Papal Election of 1352: The Candidacy of Jean Birel," Traditio 13 (Fordham University Press 1957) 456-462. François Arbellot, Dom Jean Birel, général des chartreux (1900). Antoine Pélissier, Innocent VI: Le reformateur, deuxième pape limousin (1961) p. 43. Bernard Guillemain, La cour pontificale d' Avignon (1309-1376) (Paris: E. de Boccard, 2nd edition 1966), p. 248. Diana Wood, Clement VI: The Pontificate and Ideas of an Avignon Pope (New York: Cambridge University Press 2003), p. 119.

L. Duhamel, "Les origines du palais des papes," Congrès archéologique de France. XLIXe Session (Paris:Champion 1883) 185-258.

Eugène Déprez, "Les funerailles de Clement VI, et d' Innocent VI, d' apres les comptes de la cour pontificale," Melanges d' histoire et d' archéologie publiés par l' Ecole Française de Rome 20 (1900), 235-250.   P.M. Baumgarten, "Miscellanea Cameralia II," Römische Quartalschrift 22 (1908) II. Kirchengeschichte, 36-80.

William Cornwallis Cartwright, On the Constitution of Papal Conclaves (Edinburgh 1878).

 

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