Laboratory for Experiments in Optics

(LEO)

Department of Physics and Astronomy

California State University Northridge

 

Debi Prasad Choudhary and Radha Ranganathan

 

Syllabus and grading policy.

Statistics and Error Analysis

Physical constants

Laboratory Report Guide

 

 

Manuals and Reference Matetral

Vision System

Optical Formula

IDL Introduction One Two

LabView in three hours in six hours

Polarization of light One Two

Grating handbook

Adaptive Optics

Math Lab

 

 

 

 

 

 

Physics Simulations

 

 "First of all we assert that the universe is spherical; partly because this form being a complete whole, needing no joints, is the most perfect of all; partly because it constitutes the most spacious form, which is thus best suited to contain and retain all things; or also because all discrete parts of the world, I mean the sun, the moon and the planets, appear as spheres; or because all things tend to assume the spherical shape, a fact which appears in a drop of water and in other fluid bodies when they seek of their own accord to limit themselves. Therefore no one will doubt that this form is natural for the heavenly bodies.

Nicholas Copernicus
in "Concerning the Revolutions of the Heavenly Bodies"
A Treasure of Science, Ed. Harlow Shapley, 1958

 


This statement of Copernicus, while developing the idea that earth moves around the Sun, gives a feel for what is involved in the experimental Science.  Careful recording of data, observation of symmetry in them and deducing the conclusions with logic are all parts of experimental physics. Optics is one of the oldest branches of physics that deals with the study of the properties of light. Light is an electromagnetic wave with well defined plane of vibration. In this course, with a set of experiments you will learn how the information is extracted from each of these properties of light. There are four basic experiments that deal with spectroscopy, interferometry, polarimetry and distortion of wavefront of electromagnetic waves. 

 

Experiments

1. The Grating Spectrograph

2. The Michelson Interferometer

3. The Polarimeter

4. Wave-front sensing and correction

5. Fiber Optics

6. Speed of Light

 

Optical Laboratory Rules

 

1. Be alert and safety conscious.

2. Keep the laser beam parallel to the table top and avoid placing your head (eye) in that plane.

3. No eating, drinking, or tobacco products in the lab.

4. Do not keep your bags or other items on the optical table.

5. Confine your movement around your experimental set up.

6. All components need to be laid down or fastened to the optical table in order to prevent accidental tipping and damage.

7. Use extreme care to avoid finger prints on any optical component.

8. Finger cots must be worn if you need to touch an optical component (lens, neutral density filter, prism, etc.)

9. Take signature on your laboratory notebook in the end of the class.


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The Grating Spectrograph

Background Material: Will be added later.

 

References: Principles of Optics by Born and Wolf

 

Problems and Simulations:

 

Exercises

12, 13, 15, 17, 24, 38, 43, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72.

 

Simulation will be found in your lab computer.

 

Schedule:

Week 1:   Day: 1. (Pre Lab) Solve problems from Haliday and Resnick. Set up the procedure. Make the ray diagram of the experimental setup.
                Day: 2. Calibration of the spectrograph. Take the spectrum of different spectral lamps. Determine the dispersion and resolution of spectrograph.

Week 2:  Day: 1. Take the spectrum of Laser sources with varying slit width. Plot the width of observed spectral profile Vs slit width. Determine the optimum slit width.

                Day: 2. Take the spectrum of Laser sources with varying slit width. Plot the width of observed spectral profile Vs slit width. Determine the optimum slit width.
Week 3: Day: 1. Determine the band pass of a Fabry-Perot etalon. Write the theory of Fabry-Perot etalon estimate its finesse.
                 1) Take the spectrum of a white light source.
                 2) Take the spectrum of a white light source through the FP etalon.
                Day: 2. 3) Divide (2) by (1).
                 4) Compute the Airy's Function and fit it with the observed profile.
Week 4: Day: 1. Study Zeeman effect in Na light source.
            Day: 2.Perform the computer based experiments and solve the simulated problems. Prepare the final report and  a poster.

 

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The Michelson Interferometer

Background Material: Will be added later.

 

References: Principles of Optics by Born and Wolf

 

Problems and Simulations:

 

Exercises

61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78.

 

Simulation will be found in your lab computer.

 

Schdule:

 

Week 1:  Day: 1. (Pre Lab) Solve problems from Haliday and Resnick. Set up the procedure. Make the ray diagram of the experimental setup.
               Day: 2. Record the finge system at slightly different orientation of the mirrors. Determine the order of interference.

Week 2:  Day: 1. Determine the wevelength for LASERS Red and Green.

               Day: 3. Determine the coherent length using fringe visibility.
Week 3:   Day: 1. Determine the thickness of a glass plate.
Week 4:   Day: 2. Perform the computer based experiments and solve the simulated problems. Prepare the final report and  a poster.

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The Polarimeter

 

Background Material: Will be added later.

 

References:  Principles of Optics by Born and Wolf, Polarized light - Fundamentals and Applications by Edward Collett.

Problems and Simulations:

 

Exercises

Questions: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 11, 12.

Exercises and Problems: 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63.

Simulation will be found in your lab computer.

 

Schdule:

Week 1:  Day: 1. (Pre Lab) Solve problems from Haliday and Resnick. Set up the procedure. Make the ray diagram of the experimental setup.
               Day: 2. Determine the Stokes Parameters of a polarizer with classical polarizer method.

Week 2:  Day: 1. Measure the Stokes Parameters of a source using a circular polarizer.

                Day: 3. Measure the Stokes Parameters of a source using a circular polarizer using null-intensity method.
Week 3:   Day: 1. Measure the Stokes Parameters of a source using a circular polarizer using Kent and Lawson method.
Week 4:   Day: 2. perform the computer based experiments and solve the simulated problems. Prepare the final report and  a poster.

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Wave-Front Sensing and Correction

 

Background Material:

 

References:

 

Problems and Simulations:

 

Schdule:

 

Week 1:  Day: 1. (Pre Lab) Derive the Zernik Polinomials. Solve problems from Haliday and Resnick. Set up the procedure. Make the ray diagram of the experimental setup.
               Day: 2. Record the tilted and untilted wavefronts using a plane glass plate. Determine the tilt of the wavefront and express in terms of Zirnik polynomials.

Week 2:  Day: 1. Record the tilted and untilted wavefronts using a distorted glassplate. Determine the tilt of the wavefront and express in terms of Zirnik polynomials.

                Day: 3. Record the tilted and untilted wavefronts using a large inperfect lens. Determine the tilt of the wavefront and express in terms of Zirnik polynomials.
Week 3:   Day: 1. Record the tilted and untilted wavefronts using a large inperfect lens. Determine the tilt of the wavefront and express in terms of Zirnik polynomials.
Week 4:   Day: 2. Perform the computer based experiments and solve the simulated problems. Prepare the final report and  a poster.

 

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