Sede Vacante 1181

August 30, 1181 — September 1, 1181


Alexander III was calling for another crusade [Baronius-Theiner 19, sub anno 1180, no. 15-20, pp. 488-490]

King Louis VII of France died on September 18, 1180.

Pope Alexander and the Commune of Rome had been hostile to each other since the beginning of his reign. The Commune supported and was supported by the Imperial faction as a matter of tradition and policy. The Commune had repeatedly supported the Anti-popes raised by Frederick Barbarossa during all of Alexander's reign, the most recent being "Innocent III" (Lando of Sezze) (1179-1180), a Cardinal Deacon of "Victor IV". Alexander had been forced to leave the city of Rome in the second week of July of 1179, settling in Segni and then Anagni. He moved to Velletri in December, and then in June of 1180 to Tusculum. Some of the cardinals of the schismatic party, who were in Rome, elected "Innocent III" on September 29, 1179 [JL, p. 431], and revived the schism. Alexander sent Cardinal Ugo Pierleone to engage in negotiations with "Innocent III"'s protector, the brother of "Victor IV". A deal was struck, and the brother handed over the stronghold of Palombara to the pope, in January of 1180, along with its contents, which included "Innocent III" and his entourage.

At the beginning of 1181 Pope Alexander was residing in Tusculum. He was accompanied, among others, by Hubaldus Hostiensis and Theodinus Portuensis, who signed a bull on January 13 [JL 14357]. On June 3, he was at Viterbo, seeking the protection of his friend Christian of Mainz He was accompanied by Bishop Paul of Praeneste (who signed a bull on July 7). On August 15, a bull was issued in favor of the canons of the Church of S. Ambrogio in Milan [JL 14422]; the Cardinals who were with the Pope at Viterbo on that day were:

Albertus, sancte Romane ecclesie presbiter cardinalis et cancellarius.
Petrus, presbiter cardinalis tit. sancte Susanne
Vivianus, presbiter cardinalis tit. sancti Stephani in celio monte
Ard[uinus], presbiter cardinalis tit. sancte Crucis in Ierusalem
Laborans, presbiter cardinalis sancte Marie Transtiberim tit. Calixti
Iacintus, diaconus cardinalis sancte Marie in Cosmydyn
Rainerius, diaconus cardinalis sancti Georgii ad Velum aureum
Matheus, sancte Marie Nove diaconus cardinalis

Two weeks later, on August 30, Pope Alexander died at Civita Castellana, some twenty miles north of Rome [Gregorovius IV. 2, pp. 606-607; Theiner, in Baronius-Theiner, p. 503]. More than half of his reign had been spent in exile. He had not seen Rome in more than two years.

The Continuatio Aquicinctina of the chronicle of Sigebertus Gemblacensis [MGH SS VI, pp. 419-420] states:

Alexander papa senex et plenus dierum, vicesimo ferme ab urbe miliario, in quadam Romanae ecclesiae possessione diem clausit ultimum. Cuius obitu quidam insipientes Romani audito, ei non, ut debuerunt, obviam eum ad urbem deferretur venerunt; et ei maledicentes, luto etiam et lapidibus lecticam, in qua portabatur, lapidantes, vix eum in patriarchio Lateranensi sepeliri permiserunt. Cui successit Humbaldus Ostiensis episcopus, Alexandro aetate senior, quem alterato nomine Lucium tercium appellaverunt.

The Cardinals

Panvinio (p. 132) states that twenty-three cardinals participated in the election of August, 1181. Ciaconius-Olduin state (column 1109) that there were twenty-seven participants in the election of Lucius III (Ubaldus Allucingoli). Pannini, in his Chronicle, says that Lucius was elected by 25 Cardinals. None of these is a statement of fact, only a calculation based on a view of the evidence. Salvador Miranda states that there were forty living cardinals, "according to the best correlation of data available now," and that twenty-nine participated in the Election.

I count nineteen cardinals as possible electors, including one uncertainty (Giovanni of S. Angelo), and six (or seven) definite non-participants. The total number of Cardinals at the death of Alexander III was not more than twenty-seven (and perhaps only twenty-six or twenty-five).

Cardinals attending:

  1. Hubaldus "Allucingoli" (according to Ciaconius, which is doubtful; the name Allucingoli is first found in Panvinio), [of Lucca], Bishop of Ostia and Velletri, after December 19, 1158. Former Cardinal Priest of S. Prassede (May 23, 1141- December 19, 1158) [Brixius, 43]; some consider him the same Hubaldus as was created Cardinal Deacon of S. Adriano in 1138 [Rerum Italicarum Scriptores III. 1 p. 442 column 2]). He had been legate of Innocent II in Lombardy in 1142. [Cardella I. 2, pp. 27-29]. In May, 1175, he was sent to Lombardy along with Bernardus of Porto and Guillelmus of S. Pietro ad vincula, to attempt to arrange a peace with the Lombards [Romualdus Salernitanus, in MGH SS 19, 441] He was one of the cardinals who ratified the peace between the Pope and Frederick I at Venice on August 1, 1177 [Kehr, Italia Pontificia 6.1, p. 12, no. 54]
  2. Theodinus [Umbria: Brixius, p. 126], Bishop of Porto e Santa Rufina (1179-1186). Formerly Cardinal Priest of S. Vitale (1166-1179) and before that Cardinal Deacon of S. Maria in Porticu (1165-1166). He and Cardinal Albert presided at the election of Richard, Prior of Dover, as Archbishop of Canterbury (Spring, 1073). He was Apostolic Legate in Hungary in 1226 [A. Theiner, Vetera monumenta historica Hungariam sacram illustrabtua I (Roma 1859), p. 58 no. CXXIII (June 12, 1126)]
  3. Paolo Scolari, Bishop of Palestrina (first subscribed on January 13, 1181). Educated at S. Maria Maggiore, and made Canon of the Liberian Basilica [F. Contelori, La gerarchia cardinalizia di Carlo Bartolomeo Piazza (Roma 1703) 221; G. Cappelletti, Le chiese d' Italia 1 (Venezia 1844), 606]. Formerly, it seems, Cardinal Deacon of SS. Sergio e Bacco (1179-1180) Built the Palace at S. Maria Maggiore. [future Pope Clement III] [cf. Cardella I. 2, p. 131]

  4. Alberto di Morra [Beneventanus], Cardinal Priest in the title of S. Lorenzo in Lucina. S.R.E. Cancellarius from 1178 until his election to the Papacy in 1187 [Cardella I. 2, p. 87; JL, p. 146, 432]. He was Papal Legate in Normandy to King Henry, along with Cardinal Theodinus of S. Vitale tit. Vestinae, in 1172 [Continuator Aquicinctinus to Sigibert, sub anno 1142]
  5. Cinzio Papareschi, Cardinal Priest in the title of S. Cecilia.   Vincenzo Forcella Inscrizioni delle chiese di Roma Volume VI, p. 323, no. 1060, cites an inscription from the Church of S. Giacomo in Septimanio (alla Longara) in Trastevere, which is also cited in part and in a confused fashion by Ciaconius-Olduin (column 1067) with an addition to the effect that Cardinal Cinzio died under Pope Lucius (OBIIT SVB LVCIO III). The addition is not part of the original inscription, though the statement is correct. Cardinal Cincius still subscribes as late as June 30, 1182 [Baaken and Schmidt, Lfg. 2, Regesten nr. 281, and p. 585].. Cincius was a nephew of Pope Innocent II.
  6. Giovanni da Agnani, Cardinal Priest in the title of S. Marco (1167-1190) [JL 16388], and before that Cardinal Deacon of S. Maria in Porticu (1159-1166). His successor at S. Maria in Porticu was Cardinal Theodinus, who first subscribes on March 18, 1166 [JL 11266]. In 1190 Clement III made him Bishop of Palestrina [Migne PL 214, p. 407 no. 332]. Giovanni's latest subscription is March 22, 1196. [Cardella I.2, pp. 94-95].
  7. Pietro de Bono, Cardinal Priest in the title of S. Susanna. He held the title of Magister [Kehr, IP VII.1, p. 250 no. 5]. He was one of the cardinals who ratified the peace between the Pope and Frederick I at Venice on August 1, 1177 [Kehr, Italia Pontificia 6.1, p. 12, no. 54] Along with Peter, Bishop of Tusculum, Legate to the Emperor Frederick I in 1180, instructed to settle a dispute between the Emperor and WIchmann, Archbishop of Magdeburg [JL 13611-13612 (February 15, 1180)]. He subscribed for Alexander III on January 13, 1181 [JL 14357]. He subscribed for Alexander III on August 15, 1181, two weeks before his death [JL 14422], and for Lucius III on September 28, 1181, four weeks after his election [Nachrichten... Göttingen (1910) p. 256, no. 15].
  8. Hugo [Ugo, or Ugutio: Kehr, It Pont. 5, p.457 no. 77] Pierleoni, Cardinal Priest in the title of S. Clemente. Formerly Cardinal Deacon of S. Angelo in Pescheria (1171-1178), was promoted to S. Clemente in 1178. He was grand-nephew of Pope Anacletus II; son of Cardinal Hugo Pierleoni. Legate to Scotland, England and France in 1175-1176 [Roberto de Monte MGH SS 6, 524]. Miranda states he died "toward 1183". His latest known subscription is on March 17, 1182 [Baaken and Schmidt, Lfg. 2, Regesten nr. 184, and p. 585].
  9. Laborans [Florentine], Cardinal Priest in the title of S. Maria in Trastevere (1179-after June 26, 1189). Formerly Cardinal Deacon of S. Maria in Porticu. Studied law at Paris. Wrote a work entitled Compilatio decretorum, .which was published on April 30, 1182 [Baronius-Theiner, sub anno 1182, no. 5, p. 502]. Held the degree of Magister.
  10. Vibianus, Cardinal Priest in the title of S. Stefano al Monte Celio (1175-1184?). He had formerly been Cardinal Deacon of S. Nicolai in carcere Tulliano (1175), where he succeeded Cardinal Odo, who had served there for twenty years (1154-1174). His latest known subscription is on May 7, 1184 at Veroli [Baaken and Schmidt, Lfg. 2, Regesten nrs. 1109-1111, and p. 585]. His successor was Cardinal Johannes, by May 20, 1191.
  11. Arduinus, Cardinal Priest in the title of S. Croce in Gerusalemme (first attested in subscriptions on October 1, 1178). Is he the same as the Arduinus who subscribed as Cardinal Deacon of S. Maria in Via Lata from July 4 to September 6, 1178?!
  12. Mathaeus Andegavensis (Mathieu d' Anjou), Cardinal Priest in the title of S. Marcello. (last subscribes in June of 1182)

  13. Hyacinthus (Giacinto) Bobone, son of Petrus Bubonis de Orsinis, Cardinal Deacon of S. Maria in Cosmedin (1144-1191). Cardinal Protodeacon (primus inter diaconos). On April 27, 1138 he had subscribed as Jacinthus, prior subdiaconorum sacri palatii [JL I, p. 841and 7890].
        Peter of Blois [Epistles 123, in Migne, PL 207, columns 366-367]:
    Vidimus quamplures in Ecclesia Romana in ordine diaconatus usque ad decrepitam aetatem et exhalationem extremi spiritus ministrasse. Certe dominus Caelestinus, qui hodie sedet, sicut ex ipsius ore frequenter accepi, in officio levitae sexaginta quinque annos expleverat [1126-1191], antequam ipsum Dominus in summi Pontificatus apicem sublimasset.
    In the first months of 1177 h e was one of six cardinals sent by Alexander III from Siponto to Bologna to advise both Frederick I and the Lombards of his approach for a conference [Romualdus Salernitanus, in MGH SS 19, p. 443]. He was one of the cardinals who ratified the peace between the Pope and Frederick I at Venice on August 1, 1177 [Kehr, Italia Pontificia 6.1, p. 12, no. 54]. He subscribed for Lucius III on November 12, 1181 [Baaken and Schmidt, Lfg. 2, Regesten nr. 15, and p. 565], and on November 29, 1181 at St. Peter's [Kehr, Nachrichten... Gottingen (1900), p.256-257 no. 21].
  14. Ardicius Rivoltella [Mediolanensis], Cardinal Deacon of S. Teodoro [Zenker, 157-158; Kartusch, pp. 88-89]. He first subscribes on January 4, 1157 [JL 10240], indicating a creation in December of 1156 by Adrianus IV.. He was legatus Apostolici Sedis in Lombardy with Cardinal Ildebrandus of SS. XX Apostolorum [MGH Legum IV. Constitutiones et acta publica (Hannoverae 1893), no. 404, pp. 583-584; JL 12737 (November 1176)]. He was one of the cardinals who ratified the peace between the Pope and Frederick I at Venice on August 1, 1177 [Kehr, Italia Pontificia 6.1, p. 12, no. 54]. His latest subscription for Alexander III is on March 21, 1181. He does not subscribe for the new pope, Lucius III, until March 25, 1182 [JL 14618; Baaken and Schmidt, Lfg. 2, Regesten nr. 194, and p. 567]. His latest subscription is on March 13, 1186 [JL 15552].
          On October 16, 1182, Lucius III wrote a letter of rebuke to the clergy of the Church of Platina (Piadena, Diocese of Cremona), who had been founded and endowed by Cardinal Ardicius, but who were ingrati et laxas habetis habenas. Ardicius had lodged a complaint against them, since praedictus cardinalis prelationis super vos officium habeat [Nachrichten...Göttingen (1905), pp. 358-359, no. 29]; Lucius intervened, however, because the clerics also refused obedience to the mandates of the Bishop of Cremona. DuCange's Glossarium s.v. describes the term praelatio as a feature of feudal law; Cardinal Ardicius was patron of the church which he founded, and he wanted to exercise that right by appointing new members to the foundation. Ganzer [Die Entwicklung des auswärtigen Kardinalats im hohen Mittelalter, 133-134] makes something entirely different out of the incident; he imagines that Ardicio was named to the Prelacy of the church, and therefore became one of Ganzer's "auswärtigen Kardinale". But Ardicio was not named a prelate in 1182; he became a prelate (patron) far earlier, through no action of the papacy and in no way connected with his cardinalate, by reason of his foundation of the church and college of clerics.
  15. Ranierius, Cardinal Deacon of S. Giorgio in Velum aureum. He subscribed for Lucius III on November 29, 1181 at St. Peter's [Kehr, Nachrichten... Gottingen (1900), p.256-257 no. 21]. His latest known subscription is on December 13, 1182 [Baaken and Schmidt, Lfg. 2, Regesten nr. 402, and p. 585].Cardinal Rainerius was probably promoted to the title of SS. Giovanni e Paolo, by December 21, 1182 [Brixius, p. 66 nos. 27-28; Kartusch, pp. 373-376, nos. 93-94].
  16. Mattheus, Cardinal Deacon of S. Maria Nuova (1178–1182). He subscribed for Lucius III on November 29, 1181 at St. Peter's [Kehr, Nachrichten... Gottingen (1900), p.256-257 no. 21]. His latest known subscription is on January 4, 1182 [Baaken and Schmidt, Lfg. 2, Regesten nr. 85, and p. 585].
  17. Graziano [Pisanus], Cardinal Deacon of SS. Cosma e Damiano (1178-1203). Nephew of Pope Eugenius III (reigned 1145-1153). Twice sent as Legate to England, to deal with the conflict between Henry II and Thomas Becket, the first time as Apostolic Subdeacon and Vice-Chancellor (1169), the second as Cardinal Deacon and Legatus a latere. It was he who placed England under Interdict because of the assassination of Archbishop Becket [Cardella, 127-128]
          Miranda lists three Deacons of SS. Cosma e Damiano under Alexander III:  Riso (1170-1176), Gandolfo OSB (1176-1219) and Graziano (1178-1203). Gandolfo is an absurdity, completely excluded by the genuine Graziano's tenure. "Riso's" existence depends entirely on a single subscription to a bull of Alexander III in April of 1178 for Syrus, Bishop of Genova [Cardella I.2, p. 138]. No such bull is registered in Jaffe-Loewenfeld for that time. Might "Riso" be a misreading of "Boso"? [Boso served from before January 4, 1157 to 1165]. The very same misreading occurs in transcriptions of other bulls [JL 10663 (7169)]. He subscribed for Lucius III on November 29, 1181 at St. Peter's [Kehr, Nachrichten... Gottingen (1900), p. .256-257 no. 21].
  18. ? Johannes (Giovanni), Cardinal Deacon of S. Angelo in Pescheria (first subscribes in October, 1178). Cardinal Hugo Pierleone, his predecessor (1171-1178), was promoted to S. Clemente in 1178. The date of the end of Cardinal Giovanni's tenure at S. Angelo in Pescheria is unknown. His latest subscription appears to be on July 28, 1181, and he does not subscribe at all under Lucius III.
          His successor, Cardinal Hugo, first subscribes on July 14, 1182, which might suggest a Pentecost promotion [JL 14681; Baaken and Schmidt, Lfg. 2, Regesten nr. 291, and p. 569; Kartusch, p. 204].
  19. Rainerius, Cardinal Deacon of S. Adriano (from September 22, 1178 until 1182). He subscribed for Lucius III on November 29, 1181 at St. Peter's [Kehr, Nachrichten... Gottingen (1900), p. .256-257 no. 21]. His latest subscription is on July 15, 1182 [Baaken and Schmidt, Lfg. 2, Regesten nr. 294, and p. 569]. His predecessor was Cardinal Cinthius (1161-after September 6, 1178), who had been promoted to S. Caecilia. His successor, Cardinal Gerardus, does not begin to subscribe until January 2, 1183 [Baaken and Schmidt, Lfg. 2, Regesten nr. 440, and p. 571]., indicating that he was named cardinal on December 17, 1181 [Kartusch, p. 374].
          Salvador Miranda attempts to sneak in a "Cardinal Eutichio", created on September 22, 1178, whom he makes die in "†1178 (?)", but there was no such person; it was a paleographical corruption in a single manuscript.

Cardinals not attending:

  1. Guillaume de Champagne (ca. 1135-1202), "Blanches-Mains", fourth son of Thibault Comte de Champagne and Maude (Mahaud) de Flandre. Former Bishop of Chartres (1164-1175). Archbishop of Reims (October, 1175-1202) [Gislebertus Montensis, Chronicon Hanoniense, sub anno 1175: Bouquet, Recueil des historiens des Gaules et de la France 13, p. 576; MGH SS 21, p. 525. Chronicon Alberici, in Bouquet, p. 713]. Cardinal Priest in the title of S. Sabina since 1179 [JL 13369 (April 6, 1179)] [Migne, PL 200, 1228 (JL 13371, April 8, 1179)] [JL 13383 (April 14, 1179)]). He participated in the III Lateran Council of March 5-19, 1179 [Mansi, Sacrorum Conciliorum 22, 239 and 464], and was made Cardinal in the second session, March 7 [JL, p. 339]. Governor of the State in France (1183). When Pope Lucius expressed a desire to meet with him, King Philip II replied that there was no one in his kingdom dearer to him than his uncle the Cardinal, who was his vigilant eye in his Councils, and the Cardinal was not allowed to go. He did finally go in 1184 (not in 1185, as Duchesne reports; subscriptions show him in Verona in the second half of 1184, from August 18 to December 11 [Baaken and Schmidt, Papstregesten 1124-1198, Teil 4 Lfg. 2, pp. 578-582)].
  2. Konrad von Wittelsbach, consanguineus Imperatoris [Frederici], de Bavaria oriundus. Count Palatine of the Rheinland. Bishop of Sabina (1166-1200), Archbishop of Mainz (November 1163-October 25, 1200) and Salzburg. Brought up in the Church of Salzburg (Christiani Chronicum Moguntinum, in P. Jaffé, Bibliotheca Germanica III, p. 693). In the early part of his career he was embroiled in the schism between Alexander III and the Imperial supporters "Victor IV" in Germany, and was forced to flee to Rome. He was one of the cardinals who ratified the peace between the Pope and Frederick I at Venice on August 1, 1177  [Kehr, Italia Pontificia 6.1, p. 12, no. 54]. He was one of the cardinals who ratified the peace between the Pope and Frederick I at Venice on August 1, 1177  [Kehr, Italia Pontificia 6.1, p. 12, no. 54] On August 9, 1177 it was agreed that he should have the Archbishopric of Salzburg [A. v. Meiler, Regesta archiepiscoporum Salisburgensium (Wien 1866), p. 127-129], since he was exiled from Mainz (which was given to Archbishop Christian, who died in 1183, after which Conrad was able to regain his seat in Mainz).   He subscribed documents for Urban III in the first three months of 1186. He did not subscribe papal documents at all for Gregory VIII or Clement III, and only once for Celestine III (in February, 1197). He died at the end of 1200 [cf. Innocent III, Epistolae III. 4: Migne, PL 214, columns 873-876 (mid-October, 1200) (Potthast 1148); Potthast 1179 (November, 1200)]; and Theiner (editor), Vetera monumenta Slavorum I, no. 246 (Potthast 1225)].   In the Catalogus Moguntinus and in the Annales Moguntini (P. Jaffé, Bibliotheca Germanica III, p. 4 and p. 708), the date of his death is given as 1200  [See also J. F. Böhmer, Regesta archiepiscoporum maguntiniensium (Innsbruck 1886), pp. 119-120]..
  3. Pierre Ithier [Chartres] (Pietro da Pavia), Canon Reg., Bishop of Tusculum (Frascati). Former Cardinal Priest of S. Crisogono (1173-1179) [JL 13441]. Legate to the Emperor Frederick I in 1180 and 1181, instructed to settle a dispute between the Emperor and WIchmann, Archbishop of Magdeburg [JL 13611-13612 (February 15, 1180)]. He does not begin to subscribe again until February 12, 1182. [K. Ganzer, Die Entwicklung des auswärtigen Kardinalats im hohen Mittelalter, 123-125] His latest known subscription is on August 2, 1182 [Baaken and Schmidt, Lfg. 2, Regesten nr. 303, and p. 585].
  4. Henri de Marsiac [de Castro Marsiaco], O.Cist., Bishop of Albano. Former Abbot of Altacomba in Savoy (1161), then of Clairvaux (1176) [Gallia Christiana 4 (Parisiis 1728), 802-803], elevated at the III Lateran Council on March 7, 1179, in the second session [Mansi Sacrorum Conciliorum nova et amplissima collectio 22, 234; JL, p. 339].   Legate in southern France against the Albigensians. According to his Cistercian biography, he returned from this Legateship only after the death of Alexander III, when Pope Lucius was already on the throne [Migne PL 185, 1553].   Mansi, Sacrorum Conciliorum 22, cols. 467-472 (1180-1182)  See M. Costen, The Cathars and the Albigensian Crusade (Manchester 1997), pp. 105-106.   Cardinal Henri last appears in the subscriptiones of Alexander III on December 8, 1179, and does not appear in the subscriptiones of Lucius III until August of 1182 [JL p. 431].  Bruel, Recueil des chartes de l' Abbaye de Cluny 5 (Paris 1894) no. 4284, appears to indicate that Cardinal Henri is still in France in July of 1181. According to his Cistercian biography, he was a candidate for the papacy after the death of Urban III in 1187. His surviving works: Migne, Patrologiae Series Latina Tomus CCIV, cols. 204-402. His Cistercian biography: Migne, PL 185, columns 1553-1554.
  5. Sy(mon) Borelli [Sangrino], Cardinal Deacon of "S. Mariae in Dominica et Sublacensis abbas" (from before 1157, perhaps created by Eugenius III; d. ca. 1183) [Cardella I. 2, p. 96; Watterich, 461; Doeberl, MGS IV, p. 150 n.; Ganzer, pp. 102-104; Zenker, pp. 140-141] He supported Cardinal Octavianus in the schism of 1159 for the first few months. But with numerous gifts to his abbey of Subiaco [Kehr, Italia Pontificia II, nos. 45-55, pp. 95-97], he switched sides, by early 1160 [K. Ganzer. Die Entwicklung des auswärtigen Kardinalats im hohen Mittelalter, 102-104]. He does not appear in the subscriptions of Alexandeer III (1159-1181) or of Lucius III (1181-1185), suggesting that he devoted himself entirely to his monastic responsibilities. But apparently he was still alive on December 3, 1182 [Kehr IP II, p. 97, no. 58].

  6. ?? Bernardus, Cardinal Deacon of S. Nicola in Carcere Tulliano (first subscribed in October, 1178). The date of the end of his tenure at S. Nicola is unknown; his latest known subscription seems to be that of August 22, 1179 [Nachrichten der K. Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften zu Gottingen, phil.-hist. Klasse (1910), no. 85, pp. 109-111]. His successor, Petrus Diani, first signs on April 20, 1185. There is a good chance that Bernardus was dead by the time of the Election of September 1, 1181.

  7. Rogerius, OSB Cas., Cardinal Priest in the title of S. Eusebio. Former Abbot of Montecassino, appointed Archbishop of Benevento in 1179 by Alexander III [F. Ughelli, Italia sacra VIII (Venetiis 1721), 126]; he held the post until December 25, 1221 [cf. G. Cappelletti, Le chiese d' Italia III (1844), pp. 82-87]. His predecessor was Lombardus, who was appointed in 1171 and resigned before July 27, 1179 [Ughelli, Italia sacra VIII, 121-123]. He did not subscribe any papal documents. [Eubel, Hierarchia Catholica I, p. 3 n.1, and p. 5 n.2, does not consider him as one of the Cardinals alive at the time of the Election of 1198, or as one of the Cardinals alive at the time of the Election of 1216—though he survives until 1121; cf. Brixius, p. 66]. Ganzer, pp. 129-131, believes that he was not a cardinal during his archbishopric. He is called Cardinal of S. Eusebio is in E. Gattula, Historia Abbatiae Cassiniensis Pars prima (Venetiis 1733). 399, which Gattula quotes from the Register of Petrus Diaconus, and notes that the document is in a later hand, quamquam recentiori charactere [text also in Ughelli VIII, 126]. Ughelli [Italia Sacra VIII, 126] also mentions the existence of a second text, which was later published by Stefano Borgia, in Memorie istoriche della pontificia città di Benevento Parte III (Roma 1769) 185-187. [My thanks to Tomasz Karlikowski for drawing this to my attention]. A letter of Philippus, Bishop of Troia and Rector of Benevento notes that, in accordance with a papal mandate, Pater noster d(omi)nus Roggerius dei gratia sancti Eusebii Cardinalis Beneventanus Episcopus suspenderat ab officio iudicatus [Petrum Malaina]. The document was found by Norbert Kamp, Kirche und Monarchie im staufischen Konigreich Sizilien (1973), p. 206. There is no question, therefore, that Rogerius was a Cardinal of S. Eusebio from 1180 to his death in 1221. Ughelli mentions a third document, dated 1220, but it has not been located. In any case, there is no evidence that Cardinal Rogerius attended the Election of 1216, or 1198, or 1187, or 1187, or 1181.

  8. ? ? Leonas, OSB, Abbot of San Clemente a Casauria (Casa-Auri), a monastery on an island in the Pescara River in the Abruzzi [F. I. Calore, "L' abbazia di San Clemente a Casauria," Archivio storico dell' arte 4 (Roma 1891), 9-36]. According to the Chronicon of the monastery, written by the monk of San Clemente, Iohannes Bernardi, in the last quarter of the XII century, Leonas was "a son of the Roman Church", in which he had been educated as a boy. He was later a professed monk of S. Clemente, and was elected Abbot in 1155. Since S. Clemente was a direct dependency of the Holy See, however, only the Pope could approve his election and authorize his consecration. Initially Pope Adrian IV was unwilling to confirm the election, but when the monks renewed their appeal in a public consistory, he agreed. On the tenth day after his election, Leonas had to assemble an army to defend his monastery from the marauding sons of Berardus de Castellione and conduct a siege of the town of Bitorritum. When Pope Adrian IV was at Beneventum (November 21, 1155 to July 10, 1156), Leonas appeared at the Curia for consecration and was granted the mitre and staff. His abbey was frequently harassed by the local nobility, and he had to appeal both to King William of Sicily and Pope Adrian for support, both material and spiritual [e.g. Migne, PL 200, column 558 no. 594; column 657 no. 705; column 1236 no. 1423].
          Until March 21, 1170, Leonas was only a Subdeacon of the Holy Roman Church, despite his high position in the south-east. For another Subdeacon S.R.E. of high position, see the case of Obertus of Monza, Archipresbyter Modoetiensis (Modoiciensis) et S.R.E. Subdiaconus (Kehr, Italia Pontificia 5, p. 457-458 nos. 78-82; p. 467 no.32; p. 468 no. 37; Italia Pontificia 6.1, p. 147 no. 17); see also Petrus, subdiac. sedis apost., the praepositus of. S. Antonino in Piacenza (Kehr, Italia Pontificia 5, p. 480, nos. 40-41; p. 513, no. 25). The title Subdiaconus S.R.E. does not necessarily mean that a person is only in minor orders; there is, for example, the case of Iohannes de Azzo of the titulus of S. Marcello in Rome, who is archipresbyter praedictae ecclesiae et Romanus subdiaconus et presbyter gratia Dei eiusdem ecclesiae [T. von Sickel, Studi e documenti di storia e diritto 7 (Roma 1886), p. 109 (November 3, 1138)].
          But as to Subdeacon Leonas, on the Saturday before Passion Sunday of that year, when Pope Alexander III was staying at Veroli (March 16 to September 12, 1170; see V. Caperna, Storia di Veroli (Veroli 1907), pp. 220-229), he was elevated to the rank of deacon: apud Verulas a Domno Papa Alexandro in Diaconum Apostolicae Sedis est promotus duodecimo Calendas Aprilis [March 21, 1170], sabbato ante Dominicam de Passione. An inscription on a marble plaque in the Basilica of S. Erasmus at Veroli, cited by Lorenzo Cardella [ I. 2, p. 115], is said to state:

    Alexander III. P. M. ex Apulia redux, aedibus hujus Bassilicae successit, Leonem Hypodiaconum abatem Casauriensem in eadem Basilica inter S. R. E. Cardinales cooptavit anno MCLXX. Sabbato ante Dominicam Passionis.

    a text which is similar to that of the Chronicon Casauriense, though clearly wrong as to the Abbot's real name (Leonatem). The time at which the memorial was placed, and consequently its authority, is not known.  It was surely, however, after the living memory of Leonatas, whose name is improperly represented.  The Chronicon Fossae Novae [Muratori, Rerum Italicarum Scriptores 7, columns 873-874], which refers to the same events, does not however mention cardinals, saying only:

    1170. Indictione tertia, mense Martio die 15 Kal. Aprilis [March 18] venit Alexander Papa Verulas, ordinavit ibi Archiepiscopos, Episcopos, Abbates et alios ordines. Hoc autem anno misit Imperator Constantinopolitanus nepotem suam cum Episcopis Graecis, et cum comitibus, et cum multis militibus, et cum magna pecunia ad Alexandrum Papam, ut daret eam in conjugio Odoni Frajapanis de Roma, qui apud Verulas eam conjugavit, et tunc ipse Odon cum ea reversus est Romam. Postea praedictus Papa Alexander fecit fabricare Ecclesiam apud Verulas ex sua pecunia pro elephantiosis, in qua obtulit multa dona. Quinto Id. Martii Papa Alexander venit ad Ecclesiam Sancti Petri de Canneto et profectus est ad Verulas. Septimo Id. Madii tam vehemens fuit terraemotus, quod plerosque muros civitatis destruxit, quod etiam per se sonaverunt campanae decem diebus. Stante mense Madio pars Ripae arsit.

    It is pointed out by Ganzer (p. 120) that in papal documents Leonas is referred to only as "venerabilis abbas S. Clementis de Piscaria", never as Cardinal. Neither is there a reference anywhere to any Deaconry to which he might have been assigned as Cardinal Deacon. Neither does Iohannes Bernardi the Chronicler, who worked with Abbot Leonas for most of his life, mention a cardinalate. He does, however, say that, at the II Lateran Council [March 3-19, 1179], Leonas had a seat with the Cardinal Deacons: Quando Domnus Alexander Papa Romae synodum celebravit, Domnus Leonas Piscariensis Abbas inter Diaconos Cardinales in eodem Concilio celebrem locum habuit. The language is odd. It does not say that he was a Cardinal Deacon (and indeed we never hear of a Deaconry being assigned to him), only that he was seated with the Cardinal Deacons. But he was a Diaconus Sanctae Romanae Ecclesiae according to the Chronicon, and that would be his proper place, as a member of the Papal Chapel and Apostolic Deacon. Why would the fact be mentioned, unless it were an honor for Leonas? (N.B. Seating arrangements at councils were not yet firmly fixed in the twelfth century. See J. Catalano, Sacrarum Ceremoniarum sive rituum ecclesiasticorum sanctae Romanae Ecclesiae libri tres Tomus I [Romae 1750), 373-375). In the 1130's and 1140's, according to Benedictus, Canon and Cantor of St. Peter's Basilica [Mabillon, Museum Italicum II (1724), p. 129], the seating arrangements during a solemn papal feast was: Dato presbyterio, intrant ad mensam praeparatam. Episcopi et cardinales sedent in dextra parte; archidiaconus et diaconus et primicerius et prior basilicarius et prior regionarius in sinistra, omnis ordo in suo loco.

    Strangest of all is that, during the time he was in Rome for the Ecumenical Council, Abbot Leonas never, so far as we know, subscribed a single document—though the second edition of Jaffe lists no fewer than thirty-two documents for the month of March, 1179 . On March 20, 1179, to take just one item, twenty-two cardinals subscribe, but not Abbot Leonas [Antonio López Ferreiro, Historia de la santa a. m. Iglesia de Santiago de Compostela Tomo IV (Santiago 1901), Apéndices, no. LII pp. 133-134].

          According to Ioannes Diaconus, in addition to the Archdeacon, there were six Palatine Deacons and twelve Regionary Deacons, all of whom were Canons of the Lateran Basilica. There were also twenty-one Subdeacons Sanctae Romanae Ecclesiae— seven Subdiaconi Palatini, seven members of the Schola Cantorum, and seven Subdiaconi Regionarii. These subdeacons and deacons appear from time to time in subscription lists. They also appear in the Ordo Romanus, for example in that of Benedictus, Canon and Cantor of St. Peter's, writing between 1133 and 1143 [Mabillon, Museum Italicum II, pp. 121-122]:

    Dominica de Gaudete, statio ad sanctum Petrum. Cum dominus Papa cum omnibus scholis ad Vesperum venit, ibique dominus manet: tunc dominus Pontifex accipit xx solidos de confessione, et expendium curiae, et equorum suorum. Cardinales vero et diaconi, primicerius cum schola, subdiaconi basilicarii et subdiaconi regionarii, et acolythi accipiunt quinque solidos den. Papiensium, quod vocatur coenaria: et archidiaconus accipit xviii denarios pro responsoriis, qui expenduntur per manus suas; et canonici ecclesiae debent habere de presbyterio xii sol. de eadem confessione.

    Under Eugenius III there is apparently a Bercharchus S. R. E. Diaconus [JL II, p. 20; Burchardus?]. The Subdeacons sometimes do double duty as notarii or scriptores. An example of a subdiaconal signature is that of Cardinal Jacintus: on April 27, 1138 he had subscribed as Jacinthus, prior subdiaconorum sacri palatii [JL I, p. 841and no. 7890]. Another is one that was signed at Veroli on April 2, 1170, eleven days after Leonas' promotion, per manum Gratiani S. R. E. Subdiac.[JL 11758]

          But as to Leonas' own use of the title Cardinal Deacon, it is only in two local documents from the Abruzzi inserted into the Chronicon where the title of Cardinal appears.    On November 23, 1171, Leonas actually subscribes for Pallerio of Palena, Leonas Sanctae Romanae Ecclesiae Diaconus Cardinalis et Abbas Monasterii Sancti Clementis in Piscaria.  In a grant to the monastery of S. Clemente of June 8, 1177, there is a reference to Domno Leonati Sanctae Romanae Ecclesiae Diacono Cardinali, eiusdem Monasterii religioso Abbati. These two documents, however, are known only through Muratori's "additamenta" to the Chronicon (which are contained in the Manuscript E of the Chronicon; see Kehr, IP 4, p. 300), in Rerum Italicarum Scriptores II. 2, columns 1012 and 1116-1118—they are copies, not the original documents themselves.
          According to another chronicle, the Chronica Monasterii S. Bartholomaei de Carpineto [Ughelli Italia Sacra X, Additamenta , column 373], Pope Alexander III assigned to the Bishop of Teramo and Domino Leonati Sanctae Romanae Ecclesiae Diacono Cardinali et Abbati S. Clementis de Piscaria concordia the responsibility of being iudices dati in a boundary case in the Abruzzi. The Bishop's name comes first, probably because he was a bishop and Leonas only a deacon and abbot. Leonas was certainly no legatus a latere of the Apostolic See, as one might expect of a Cardinal, even in relatively minor matters, and especially in the reign of Alexander III. It is amazing how many of the testimonies to these dubious cardinals (and popes, for that matter) appear only in monastic chronicles—as though they were posthumous awards, like the title of Saint.
          There is perhaps another consideration. The monastery of S. Clemente was directly dependent upon the Holy See—which may have something to do with the claim of the title "cardinal". There is, for example, the case of a newly-appointed "cardinal" Provost of a church in the fief of the Fieschi, Counts of Lavania   Facino dicto Cardinali, preposito ecclesie sancti Salvatoris de Lavania, Januensis diocesis,  whose eminence is accounted for when Pope Benedict XI mentions in his letter to Facinus  vacante siquidem nuper prepositura ecclesie sancti Salvatoris de Lavania, ad Romanam Ecclesiam nullo medio pertinentis, Januensis diocesis... [Registre de Benoit XI, no. 948, p. 567 (June 1, 1304)]. This is the sort of "cardinalate" that the Abbots of S. Trinité de Vendôme enjoyed, the Abbots of Cluny claimed (though with the title of "cardinal" in only one case), and Abbots of Montecassino sometimes claimed, and the Abbey of Majorismonasterii in Tours had—not the personal status of a Roman Cardinal Priest or Cardinal Deacon.  The title "cardinal" and the designation "cardinalatial"  claimed direct rule by the Pope himself, the feudal status of tenant-in-chief.
          In any case, considering the distance between Pescara and Rome, and the swiftness of the Election, it is completely unlikely that Abbot Leonas, even if he were a cardinal, participated in the Election of 1181. He died, according to the chronicler, Iohannes Bernardi, on the Feast of the Annunciation, March 25, 1182, and was buried in the Cloister of his abbey church. [In general, see: Ganzer, 119-121, no. 48]

Dubii Salvatoris Mirandae

In his list of Cardinals present and absent at the Election of 1181, Salvador Miranda (Librarian Emeritus, Florida International University) states that there were forty living cardinals, and he names eleven cardinals who did not participate in the Election:

-Pietro di Miso, title of S. Lorenzo in Damaso, (absent).
-Eguillino, title of S. Pietro in Vincoli, (absent?).
-Gandolfo, O.S.B., deacon of Ss. Cosma e Damiano, (absent).
-Pietro, title of S. Lorenzo in Lucina, (absent?).
-Ardoino, deacon of S. Maria in Via Lata, (absent).
-Herbert of Bosham, deaconry not known, (absent).
-Rogerio, O.S.B.Cas., title of S. Eusebio, (absent).
-Guillaume de Champagne, title of S. Sabina, archbishop of Reims, France, (absent).
-Roberto, title of S. Pudenziana, (absent).
-Ildeberto, title of Ss. XII Apostoli, (absent).
-Rolando Paparoni, deacon of S. Maria in Portico, (absent).

His list is in need of severe pruning.

The following were not cardinals in 1181:

In addition:

The Election

Pope Alexander III died in exile, but his body and the Cardinals returned to Rome, over considerable objections of the Romans. The procession, in fact, was stoned by the populace. There was trouble all around. The Prefect of the City was John, a member of the family of the Lords of Vico; the Prefect was no longer appointed by the Pope, nor was he a papal official. The office had been restored by Frederick Barbarossa, and the new Prefect, John of Vico, was an appointee of the Emperor [Gregorovius IV. 2, p. 588]. And John had been at odds personally with Pope Alexander III. [Gregorovius IV. 2, pp. 602-609]

The Election took place, in accordance with the Constitution of Pope Bonifatius III [Liber Pontificalis, MGH 5, p. 164 ed. Mommsen], on the third day after the death of Pope Alexander, that is on September 1, 1181 [Gaufredus Vosiensis, in MGH SS 26, 203]. For the first time, the Constitution of Alexander III, which had been issued during the Third Lateran Council (1179), was applied, requiring a two-thirds vote of the participating cardinals, "majoris et sanioris partis debet sententia praevalere."   Hubaldus Allucingoli was elected. He was about 71 years of age, and had been a cardinal since the time of Innocent II (died 1143). He had been appointed Bishop of Ostia and Velletri by Pope Adrian IV in 1159.


It had been the demands of the Romans which caused Lucius III to flee the city, to be crowned at Velletri (the Sunday after his election, September 6, 1181) [Annales Casinienses, in MGH SS 19, 312], Since he himself had been the Bishop of Ostia, he was crowned by Cardinal Theodinus, the Bishop of Porto, and by the Archpriest of Ostia.

About the Coronation, we have only the brief notice of Gaufredus de Bruil, Prior of Vigeois (Vosiensis, in the Diocese of Limoges) [MGH SS 26, 203; J. Catalano, Sacrorum Caeremoniarum sive Rituum Ecclesiasticorum S. R. E. (Romae 1750) p. 110; Baronius-Theiner, p. 504]:

Feria III eligitur Humbaldus, qui Pontifex erat Ostiae et Veliternensis urbium. Sequenti Dominica prima Septembris coronatur et insignitur a Theodino Episcopo Portuensi et ab Archpresbytero Ostiensi juxta consuetudinem, et ab universo populo et Clero laudatur, Lucius III. Lucensis Tuscus vocatus.

He was able to return to the Lateran by November 2, 1181, and except for a brief period between November, 1181, and March 12, 1182, he spent his entire reign outside of Rome (Gregorovius IV.2, pp. 609-612).. He died in Verona on November 25, 1185 [JL p. 492].



Katrin Baaken & Ulrich Schmidt, Regesta Imperii 4. Lothar III und altere Staufer, Abt. 4: Papstregesten 1124-1198, Teil 4.: 1181-1198, Lieferung 1.: 1181-1184 (Koln: Bohlau 2003); Lieferung 2. 1184-1185 (2006).

Philippus Jaffé (editor) , Regesta pontificum Romanorum ab condita ecclesia ad annum post Christum natum MCXCVIII (Berolini 1851). Philippus Jaffé (editor) Regesta Pontificum Romanorum (editionem secundam correctam et auctam auspiciis Guilelmi Wattenbach; curaverunt S. Loewenfeld, F. Kaltenbrunner, P. Ewald) (Lipsiae: Veit et comp. 1885) [JL]. [contains summaries of subscriptiones, arranged by Pope]. Paulus Fridolin Kehr, Regesta Pontificum Romanorum. Italia Pontificia IV. Umbria, Picenum, Marcia (Berolini 1901).

J. D. Mansi (editor), Sacrorum Conciliorum nova et amplissima collectio editio novissima 22 (Venetiis: apud Antonium Zatta 1778).

Johann M. Watterich, (editor), Pontificum Romanorum qui fuerunt inde ab exeunte saeculo IX usque ad finem saeculi XIII vitae ab aequalibus conscriptae Tomus II (Lipsiae 1862). [Watterich]

Augustinus Theiner (editor), Caesaris S. R. E. Cardinalis Baronii, Od. Raynaldi et Jac. Laderchii Annales Ecclesiastici   Tomus Nonusdecimus 1147-1198 (Barri-Ducis: Ludovicus Guerin 1880) [Baronius-Theiner].

Enrico Fuselli (editor), Il chronicon di S. Bartolomeo di Carpineto (L'Aquila 1996).

Bartolomeo Platina, Historia B. Platinae de vitis pontificum Romanorum ... Onuphrii Panvinii ... cui etiam nunc accessit supplementum ... per Antonium Cicarellam (Coloniae Agrippinae: sumptibus Petri Cholini, 1626). Bartolomeo Platina, Storia delle vite de' Pontefici edizione novissima Tomo terzo (Venezia: Domenico Ferrarin, 1763). Onuphrio Panvinio, Epitome Pontificum Romanorum a S. Petro usque ad Paulum IIII. Gestorum (videlicet) electionisque singulorum & Conclavium compendiaria narratio (Venice: Jacob Strada 1557).  Chrysostomos Henriquez, "Monumenta sacra Claraevallensis abbatia et Epitaphia Sanctorum et Virorum illustrium qui ibidem Sepulti Sunt", Sancti Ordinis Cisterciensis (Bruxelles 1623). Alphonsus Ciaconius [Alfonso Chacon], Vitae et Res Gestae Pontificum Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalium ... ab Augustino Oldoino Societatis Iesu recognitae Tomus Primus (Romae: sumptibus Philippi et Antonii de Rubeis 1677) [Volume 1 of the 4 volume edition]. Lorenzo Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa Tomo primo Parte secondo (Roma: Pagliarini 1792). Johannes Matthias Brixius,. Die Mitglieder des Kardinalkollegiums von 1130-1181 (Berlin: R. Trenkel, 1912).

F. Gregorovius, History of Rome in the Middle Ages, Volume IV.2 second edition, revised (London: George Bell, 1896) Book VIII, Chapter vi. 3, pp. 608-622.

Josephus Antonius Sassi, Archiepiscoporum Mediolanensium Series historico-chronologica Tomus secundus (Mediolani 1755). C. Will, Conrad von Wittelsbach, Cardinalbischof von Mainz und von Salzburg (Regensburg 1880). J. M. Brixius, Die Mitglieder des Kardinalkollegiums von 1130-1181 (Berlin 1912).   K. Ganzer, Die Entwicklung des auswärtigen Kardinalats im hohen Mittelalter (Tübingen 1963)

Hermann Reuter, Geschichte Alexanders des Dritten und der Kirche seiner Zeit. Dritter Band (Leipzig 1864). [esp. pp. 458-507]

March 9, 2016 4:53 AM

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