In the Second Century A.D. , the percentage of Italians was 51% (number of examples was 53)

In the Third Century A.D., the percentage of Italians was 28.5% (number of examples was 26).

In the First Century A.D., the percentage of Westerners was 22% (number of examples was 15).

In the Second Century A.D. , the percentage of Westerners was 21% (number of examples was 22)

In the Third Century A.D., the percentage of Westerners was 12% (number of examples was 11).

In the First Century A.D., the percentage of Africans was 0% (number of examples was 0).

In the Second Century A.D. , the percentage of Africans was 12.5% (number of examples was 13)

In the Third Century A.D., the percentage of Africans was 27% (number of examples was 25).

In the First Century A.D., the percentage of Easterners was 23% (number of examples was 16).

In the Second Century A.D. , the percentage of Easterners was 15% (number of examples was 16)

In the Third Century A.D., the percentage of Easterners was 32% (number of examples was 29).

Total number of origiins in the First Century: 70.

Total number of origiins in the First Century: 104.

Total number of origiins in the First Century: 91.

These figures are offered for illustrative purposes only. Most information is based on inscriptions, whose recovery has usually been accidental. The origins of many officials known to us are irrecoverable, and we certainly have only a small fraction of the huge number of officials of Equestrian rank who must have been in government service during these three centuries. The margin of error is, therefore, considerable.

Data based on information in: H.-G. Pflaum,

Between the Reigns of AUGUSTUS and CALIGULA

ITALY 207

SPAINS 8

GAULS 35

MACEDONIA 14

ASIA MINOR 50

SYRIA and EGYPT 14

AFRICA 7

NORICUM-RAETIA-DALMATIA 0

GERMANIES 0

PANNONIA-MOESIA 0

DACIA 0

THRACIA 0

Percentage of Italians: 65%

Between the reigns of CLAUDIUS and NERO

ITALY 117

SPAINS 18

GAULS 59

MACEDONIA 9

ASIA MINOR 11

SYRIA and EGYPT 3

AFRICA 4

NORICUM-RAETIA-DALMATIA 12

GERMANIES 0

PANNONIA-MOESIA 0

DACIA 0

THRACIA 0

Percentage of Italians: 48.7%

Between the reigns of VESPASIAN and TRAJAN

ITALY 73

SPAINS 16

GAULS 51

MACEDONIA 6

ASIA MINOR 43

SYRIA and EGYPT 56

AFRICA 22

NORICUM-RAETIA-DALMATIA 23

GERMANIES 20

PANNONIA-MOESIA 15

DACIA 0

THRACIA 2

Percentage of Italians: 21%

From the reign of HADRIAN to the end of the Second Century:

ITALY 17

SPAINS 17

GAULS 34

MACEDONIA 10

ASIA MINOR 21

SYRIA and EGYPT 79

AFRICA 786

NORICUM-RAETIA- DALMATIA 56

GERMANIES 35

PANNONIA-MOESIA 237

DACIA 50

THRACIA 99

Percentage of Italians 0.9%

These figures are offered for illustrative purposes only. Most information is based on inscriptions, whose recovery has usually been accidental. The origins of most soldiers known to us are irrecoverable, and we certainly have only a tiny fraction of the huge number of soldiers who must have been in government service during these three centuries. The margin of error is, therefore, considerable.

SOURCE: Graham Webster, *The Roman Imperial Army* (1969), page 108.

January 28, 2010 12:00 PM

John Paul Adams, CSUN

john.p.adams@csun.edu