ROMAN GOVERNMENT IN THE PROVINCES
LEX VILLIA ANNALIS
- Livy, XL 44.1; Epitome 50
- Tacitus Annales XI. 22.
- Cicero de officiis II. 17.59
ad Familiares X. 25.2.
Philippics V. 17.47.
- Appian Punica 112; Hispanica 84.
- Festus Epitome of Paulus s.v "annaria"
(p. 27 M; p. 253 L)
a plebiscite of the Tribunus Plebis Lucius Villius [Broughton, Magistrates of the Roman Republic I, 388], which established quot annos nati quemque magistratum peterent caperent, and determined a certus ordo magistratuum. At the time of Cicero, the minimum ages for holding offices seem to have been:
37 years old
40 years old
43 years old
LEX SEMPRONIA DE PROVINCIIS CONSULARIBUS
- Cicero de provinciis coss. 2. 3; 7. 7; et passim.
- Cicero de domo suo 9. 24.
- Cicero pro Balbo 27. 61.
- Cicero ad Familiares I. 7.10.
- Sallust Bellum Iugurthinum 27 .3.
a plebiscite of the Tribunus Plebis Caius Sempronius Gracchus [Broughton, p. 514.], requiring the annual designation of 'consular provinces', by the Senate, to be determined in advance of the election of the persons who would serve in those provinces. Tribunal interference by means of the intercessio was to be forbidden.
LEX CORNELIA DE PROVINCIIS ORDINANDIS
- Cicero ad Fam. I. 9.13.
- Cicero ad Fam. III. 6.1-3; 10.3.
- Cicero ad Quintum fratrem I. 1.9.26.
- Cicero Philippics X. 11. 26.
- Plutarch Lucullus 35.
- Cassius Dio 36. 37; 39. 39.
a law of Sulla, regulating the government of provinces [Broughton, MRR II, p. 75.]. A Praetor (now eight in number) was to spend a year in judicial business in Rome, followed by a year of provincial administration outside of Rome. A consul was expected to spend his entire consulship in Rome, and consequently not to have a regular army command or province during his magistracy; after his year in office he was to proceed to a provincial command ('consular province') assigned by the Senate by SC for a year. Ten years were to elapse before eligibililty to hold a second consulship. All provincial governors were put on notice that they were subject to proceedings of maiestas in case they exceeded their powers (Cicero in Pisonem 50; ad Fam. I. 9.25 and III. 6.3; pro Cluentio 97. 99; ad Q. f. III. 2.3; ad Herennium II. 17. Asconius 59, 60, 62 Clark.)
LEX POMPEIA DE PROVINCIIS
(52 B.C., based on a SC of 53 B.C.)
- Dio 40. 56; cf. 40. 46.
- Cicero ad Atticum VIII. 3.3.
- Caesar Bellum Civile I. 85.9.
a law passed by Pompey as Consul [Broughton II, p. 234.], confirming a SC of the previous year, providing that an interval of five years had to elapse between the holding of a magistracy within the city and the holding of a pro-magistracy in a province.
LEX JULIA DE PROVINCIIS
- Dio 43. 25.3.
- Cicero Philippics I. 8.19; 10.24; III. 15.38; V. 3.7; VIII. 9.28.
a law passed by Caesar as Dictator [Broughton II, p. 294.], requiring that praetorian governors serve for one year only, and that consular governors serve for two years.
SENATUSCONSULTUM DE STIPENDIIS
- Dio 53. 15.
- Suetonius Augustus 36.
an enactment, initiated by Augustus, but made legal by way of a Senatus Consultum, providing for annual salaries for provincial functionaries. This may be connected (if only in thought) with Augustus' revision of minimum financial qualifications for members of the Senatorial Order and the Equestrian Order (Lex Julia de Magistratibus, 12 B.C.; Dio 54. 17). 400,000 sesterces was the necessary minimum for a Senator again, instead of the 1,000,000 sesterces—which had been found to be a severe limitation on the numbers of those in the Senatorial Order (Dio 54. 26.3). Equestrians were allowed to stand for the Vigintivirate for the first time in 13 B.C. (Dio 54. 26.5-9), and those who possessed a minimum census rating of 1,000,000 sesterces were invited to stand for the Tribunate if under 40 years of age.
OF THE PROVINCES (27 B.C.)
creation of the concept of 'senatorial provinces' and 'imperial provinces', the latter happening to contain most of the troop strength of the Roman army. Within 'imperial provinces', appointments were made directly by the Emperor (who was, in law, the provincial governor), from among ex-consuls or ex-praetors (except for Egypt, which was governed by a member of the Equestrian Order appointed directly by the Emperor). The Lex Pompeia was reconfirmed.
THE TIBERIAN ELECTORAL REFORM
- Velleius Paterculus II. 124.3.
- Tacitus Annales I. 15.
Acting on a plan of Augustus, Tiberius assigned to the Senate the right to prepare an official slate of candidates for the electoral comitia . The Emperor retained the right which Augustus had enjoyed (Dio 53. 21.6-7; Suetonius Augustus 40) to recommend Candidati Caesaris , specifically the two consular candidates and half the remaining candidates for each office