60 B.C. — A.U.C. 694 — Q. Caecilius Metellus, L. Afranius coss.



Inauguration of the consuls:
Q. Caecilius Metellus Celer (half-brother of Mucia, Pompey's ex-wife; brother of Metellus Nepos; married to one of the Clodiae, sister of P. Clodius Pulcher, Appius Claudius (censor 50), and C. Claudius)
L. Afranius, one of Pompey's loyal commanders. Considered by Cicero ( ad Atticum I. 18) to be ineffectual and inexperienced, a place-holder.


. The Tribunus Plebis L. Flavius promulgated a bill, the lex Flavia agraria. Pompey was behind it, but the Senate, led by the consul Metellus, was opposed to it (Cicero ad Atticum I. 18; Plutarch Cicero ; Dio 37. 49.2).

The Tribunus Plebis C. Herennius proposed that an assembly of the whole people should vote on the question of transferring Clodius to plebeian status (Cicero ad Atticum I. 18).


. The Senate was in the third month of a deadlock over the Asian tax contracts (from November, 61, at least). Cato was the principal cause of the obstruction (Cicero ad Atticum I. 18).


. The reception of embassies by the Senate is put off as a result of the stalemate ( Cicero ad Atticum I. 18 ).


. Negotiations going on over the Lex Flavia Agraria (Cicero ad Atticum 1. 19).
Cicero wanted deletions of certain provisions:
-He wants land which was in state ownership in 133 B. C. deleted from the bill;
-He wants the confirmation of the Sullan possessores in the titles of their properties;
-He wants the possessores at Volterrae and Arretium (whose lands had been appropriated but not distributed by Sulla) to be left in peace.

Rumbles heard from Gallia: defeat of the Aedui by Ariovistus; raids of the Helvetii into Gaul (Cicero ad Atticum 1. 19).


? Passage of the Senatorial Decree assigning Gaul to the two consuls of 60: Metellus was to have Gallia Transalpina, and Afranius was to get Gallia Cisalpina (Cicero ad Atticum 1. 19; Broughton, Magistrates of the Roman Republic II 183.).

The levy of troops was authorized, and exemptions from service were cancelled.

An embassy was sent to Gaul: Q. Caecilius Metellus Creticus, L. Valerius Flaccus, Cn. Cornelius Lentulus Clodianus

Herennius' attempts to complete the Clodius business were hampered by vetoes (Cicero ad Atticum 1. 18. 4-5; 19.5. Dio 37. 51).

The publicani are alienated (as Cicero says) from the Senate.


? A Senatus Consultum of uncertain contents is discussed. P. Servilius Vatia Isauricus (the Younger) spoke among the last, and proposed a clause, irrelevant to the measure, which seems to have invalidated some debts in "freequot; communities (civitates liberae): from this arises Atticus' business at Sicyon (Cicero ad Att. 1. 19).



Cicero has returned to Rome from Pompeii (Cicero ad Att. 1. 20).

This is the terminus ante quem for the death of Q. Catulus. His death created a vacancy in the College of Pontiffs.(Cicero ad Att. 1. 20)


. P. Clodius attacks Cicero, but the consul Metellus intervenes.

Cicero speaks in the Senate against Clodius' candidature for Tribunus Plebis (ad Att. 2. 1)

Metellus presents a gladiatorial show. (Cicero ad Att. 2. 1).

Favonius prosecutes Q. Metellus Scipio. Cicero appears for the defense (Cicero ad Att. 2. 1).

The tax contract revision is still not settled. After six months of struggle, the publicani announce the repudiation of their contracts. Riots in Rome. (Cicero ad Att. 2. 1).

Cato moved in the Senate that a juror be held liable to trial for accepting bribes. Cicero opposed the idea, but the Senate agreed to it. (Cicero ad Att. 2. 1)

The Equestrian Order is now said to be alienated from the Senate (but Cicero is always saying this). (Cicero ad Att. 2. 1)

Caesar has departed from Spain, before the arrival of his successor (Suetonius Divus Iulius 18).


1 Cicero is en route from Rome to Antium (Cicero ad Att. 2. 1)

before June

3 Flavius' machinations on the proposed Lex Flavia Agraria :
-He adds the Plebs to the list of beneficiaries of the bill;
-When the consul Metellus contests the move, the consul is imprisoned.
-The Senate meets at the prison; when blocked from entering by Flavius, the consul has the wall broken down. Pompeius gets Flavius to back down (Dio 37. 50. 1-4).

by June

3 The lex Flavia Agraria is "old news". (Cicero ad Att. 2. 1)

Cicero is teasing Clodius about his petitio for the Tribunate.


. Faustus Cornelius Sulla's gladiatorial spectacle in memory of his father (Dio 37. 51. 4).

A law was proposed to abolish the customs duties portoria in Italy (Dio 37. 51. 3-4; Cicero ad Atticum 2. 16.1; ad Quintum fratrem 1. 1.33.)



Caesar is back in Italy, and is expected to visit Cicero in the immediate future at Antium (Cicero ad Atticum 2. 1).

The Senate has voted Caesar a triumph (end of the previous year ??); now Caesar is waiting to celebrate it. (Suetonius Divus Iulius 18; Dio 37. 54.1-2; Appian BC II.8.)

early June

? Caesar requests an exemption from the requirement that he must present his petitio in person to the presiding magistrate; he intends to run for the consulship of 59 in the elections of July, 60.


ca. 15 ? The proposal is introduced for debate, but Cato filibusters repeatedly, until the last afternoon before the closing of the period during which consuls accepted petitions (Appian Bellum Civile II. 8).

Caesar crosses the Pomoerium, and–putting aside his expectation of a triumph–submits his petition for the consulship (Suetonius Divus Iulius 18; Dio 37. 54. 3; Appian BC II.8.)
June/July . Caesar is engaged in an electoral compact (which is illegal) with Lucius Lucceius (Suetonius Divus Iulius 19. 1). This has been suspected since the previous year, and a remark of Cicero ( ad Atticum 2. 1) indicates that it is known in early June.

Bribery, on a joint basis, by Caesar and Lucceius (Suetonius Divus Iulius 19. 1)

A Senatus Consultum assigning provinces for the consuls of 59, in accordance with terms of the Lex Sempronia (Suetonius Divus Iulius 19.)


? Formation of the First Triumvirate (Dio 37. 54-58; Appian II. 9; Suetonius 19; Plutarch, Caesar, Cato min.)


mid/ late Elections of 60 for magistrates of 59: Caesar and Marcus Bibulus elected.

Pontifical Comitia held, in accordance with the terms of the Lex Labiena of 63:
L.R. Taylor, AJP 63 (1942) 399-400; Broughton MRR II 186.


10 The new Tribuni Plebis enter office, including P. Vatinius


mid/ late Violence in the courts (Cicero ad Atticum 2. 2).

A Jury is empanelled for the trial of C. Antonius Hybrida (Cicero ad Atticum 2. 2.3).

C. Antonius Hybrida returned from Macedonia after the writing of Cicero's letter.

M. Valerius Messalla Rufus acquitted (Cicero ad Atticum 2. 3).

© John Paul Adams, 8/17/2003


January 24, 2010 3:42 PM

John Paul Adams, CSUN

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