(an ancient commentator on Aeschines II. 31):

'ENNEA HODOI: The Athenians met with misfortunes nine times at the so-called 'Nine Ways', which is a place in Thrace now named Chersonesus. They suffered misfortune because of the curses of Phyllis, who loved Demophon [son of Theseus] and expected him to return in order to fulfill his promises to her. After going to the place nine times, since he did not come, she prayed for the Athenians to suffer misfortune that number of times at the place. The disasters are as follows:


(Plutarch, Life of Kimon 14):

. . . when the people of Thasos revolted from Athens, he defeated them at sea [465/4], captured 33 of their ships, besieged their city, and forced it to surrender, annexed the gold-mines on the mainland opposite for Athens, and took over the neighboring territory which had been ruled by the Thasians . . . .

(Thucydides I. 100 ff.:)

Some time later [after the Eurymedon] occurred the revolt of Thasos. This was caused by a dispute over the markets on the mainland opposite in Thrace, and over the mine under the control of the Thasians. The Athenians sailed to Thasos with their fleet, won a naval engagement, and landed on the island. About the same time, they sent out to the River Strymon 10,000 colonists from their own citizens and from allied states to settle in the place known as the Nine Ways (but now called Amphipolis). They occupied Nine Ways, driving out the Edonians who held the place, but when they advanced farther into the interior of Thrace their force was cut to pieces at the Edonian town of Drabeskos by a combined army of Thracians, who regarded the foundation of a colony at Ennea Hodoi as an act of hostility against themselves. Meanwhile, the people of Thasos, who had been defeated in battle and were now besieged, appealed to Sparta and urged her to come to their assistance by invading Attica. The Spartans, without informing Athens of their intentions, promised to do so, and would have done so if they had not been prevented by the earthquake which happened then, and by the simultaneous revolt and secession to Mt. Ithome of the Helots and some of the Perioikoi. . . . The Thasians, in the third year of the siege, had to accept the Athenian terms; their walls were to be demolished and their navy surrendered; they were ordered to pay an indemnity immediately and to pay tribute in the future; they were to surrender their rights on the mainland and also their mine there . . . .


(Plutarch, Life of Kimon):

[Kimon] did not bring force to bear upon any of the Greeks, and he accepted money or empty ships from all those peoples who were unwilling to serve abroad. In this way he let the allies yield to the temptation of taking their ease and attending to nothing but their private affairs, until they had lost all their military qualities and become unwarlike farmers and traders through their own folly and love of comfort.

On the other hand, he obliged a large part of the Athenian population to take turns in manning their ships and hardened them on his various expeditions, and thus, in a short while, using the funds of the Allies, he made the Athenians the rulers of the very men who paid them . . . .


(R. Meiggs & D. Lewis, A Selection of Greek Historical Inscriptions #40), after 470, before 450):

. . . The Erythraians shall bring to the Great Panathenaia food worth not less than 3 mnai, and the overseer of the ritual shall distribute to the Erythraians in attendance the mnai, a drachma's worth to each. If they bring less than 3 mnai worth, food for the rites shall be purchased according to their obligations, the amount of the deficiency shall be entered in a record of debt against their government, and any one of the Erythraians who desires may see to it.

Eyrthrai shall have a Boulé chosen by lot, 120 men. The Boulé shall examine each man so chosen: an alien may not be a councillor, nor anyone under 30 years of age. Violators of this provision shall be liable to prosecution. No one shall be a councillor twice within four years. The present council shall be chosen by lot and established by the overseers [episkopoi] and the Garrison Commander [phrourarch] ; in the future by the Boulé itself and the Garrison Commander, not less than 30 days before the Boulé goes out of office . . . .

The Oath of the Boulé is as follows:

To the best and truest of my ability I will serve as Councillor for the people of Erythrai and Athens and the Allies. I will not revolt against the people of Athens or against the Allies of Athens, either of my own accord or at the demand of another, and I will not defect, either of my own accord or at the demand of another. I will never receive back a single one of the exiles who fled to the Medes; I will never receive back a single one, either of my own accord or at the demand of another, without the Boulé and Ekklesia of Athens, nor will I drive out any of those who remain without the Boulé and Ekklesia of Athens.

If any Erythraian kills another Erythraian, he shall be put to death, if convicted. If he is condemned to exile, he shall be banished from the entire Athenian Alliance, and his property shall be confiscated by Erythrai. If anyone is convicted of acting to betray the city of Erythrai to tyrants, he himself may be put to death with immunity, and also the children born of him. But if the children born of him are shown to be supporters of the government of Erythrai and that of Athens, they shall be spared, and after forfeiting all of his property, the children shall receive back half, and half shall be confiscated . . . .


(R. Meiggs & D. Lewis, A Selection of Greek Historical Inscriptions #45), 450-446):

. . . governors [in the] cities or [ —The] Hellenotamiai [ – ] are to make a record [ – ] of any of the cities; [the man who wishes shall immediately] bring before the Heliaia of the [Thesmothetai those who have acted against the law]. The Thesmothetai shall [institute proceedings for the ] denouncers of each one within five days. If someone other than the governors in the coities does not act according to what has been decreed, whether citizen or alien, he shall lose his citizen rights and his property shall be confiscated, the goddess Athena receiving the [tithe. If] there are no Athenian governors, the chief magistrates of each city shall perform all thatis in the decree. If they do not act in compliance with what has been decreed, let there be directed against these magistrates prosecution at Athens involving loss of citizen-rights. In the Mint, after receiving the money, they shall mint no less than half and [ – ––] the cities. The fee exacted [by the Superintendants of the Mint shall invariably be 3 ] drachmai out of each mna. [ –––] They shall convert or be liable. Whatever is left over of the money [that has been exacted shall be minted and handed over ] either to the Generals [ or to –––]. When it has been handed over, { –––] and to Hephais[tos –––If ] anyone proposes or puts to a vote regarding [these matters, that it be permissible for foreign currency ] to be used or loaned, [ an accusation shall immediately be lodged against him with ] The Eleven. The Eleven are to punish him with death. If he disputes the charge, let them bring him to court. Heralds shall be elected by the people [ –––] one to the Islands, [ one to Ionia, one to the Hellespo]nt, and one to the Thracian Region. { –––] they are to be subject to a fine of 10,000 drachmai. This decree shall be set up by the governors in the cities, after having inscribed it on a stele of marble, in the Agora of each city, and by the Superintendants in front of the Mint. The Athenians shall do this if the cities themselves are not willing. The herald making the journey shall require them to do all that the Athenians demand. An addition shall be made to the oath of the Boulé by the Secretary of the Boulé for the future, as follows:

If someone coins money of silver in the cities and does not use Athenian weights or coins or measures, but instead uses foreign coins and measures and weights, I shall exact vengeance and penalize him according to the former decree which Klearchos moved.

Anyone shall be allowed to turn in the foreign money [which he possesses and to convert it in the same fashion ] whenever he chooses. The City [shall give him in place of it our own coin.] Each individual shall bring his money [to Athens and deposit] it at the Mint. The Superintendants, having recorded [everything handed in by each person, are to] set up [ a marble stele in front of ] the Mint for the scrutiny of whoever wishes . . . .

See: P. J. Rhodes, "After the Three-Bar Sigma Controversy: The History of Athenian Imperialism Reassessed," Classical Quarterly 58 (2008) 501-506.


(R. Meiggs & D. Lewis, A Selection of Greek Historical Inscriptions #46), ca. 447):

The Boulé and the Athenian governors, as well as the visiting overseers, shall see to it that the phoros is collected each year and is brought to Athens. They shall issue seals to the cities, so that it will not be possible for those bringing the phoros to engage in fraud. The City shall write on a tablet the tribute that it is sending, mark it with the seal, and send it to Athens. Those bringing it shall deliver the tablet in the Boulé for verification when they deliver the phoros. The prytaneis shall hold an assembly after the Dionysia for the Hellenotamiai to report to the Athenians the cities that have delivered the phoros in full, and those falling short, if any. The Athenians shall choose four men to send to the cities to give receipts for the phoros which had been delivered, and to exact the undelivered phoros from those falling short. Two men shall sail on swift triremes to the cities in the Islands and Ionia, and two to the cities in the Hellespont and Thrace. The prytaneis shall bring this matter before the Boulé and the Ekklesia immediately after the Dionysia, and they shall deliberate on this matter without interruption until it is finished . . . .

© 7/21/2003
January 24, 2010 2:44 PM

John Paul Adams, CSUN

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