HAGUE CONVENTION ON THE SERVICE ABROAD
OF JUDICIAL AND EXTRA-JUDICIAL DOCUMENTS
IN CIVIL AND COMMERCIAL MATTERS

DISCLAIMER: THE INFORMATION IN THIS CIRCULAR RELATING TO THE LEGAL REQUIREMENTS OF SPECIFIC FOREIGN COUNTRIES IS PROVIDED FOR GENERAL INFORMATION ONLY AND MAY NOT BE TOTALLY ACCURATE IN A PARTICULAR CASE. QUESTIONS INVOLVING INTERPRETATION OF SPECIFIC FOREIGN LAWS SHOULD BE ADDRESSED TO FOREIGN COUNSEL OR THE FOREIGN CENTRAL AUTHORITY FOR THE CONVENTION.

IN FORCE:..ANGUILLA 3, ANTIGUA AND BARBUDA, ARUBA 5, BARBADOS, BELGIUM, BELIZE 1, BERMUDA 3, BOTSWANA, BRITISH VIRGIN ISLANDS 3, CANADA, CAYMAN ISLANDS 3, CHINA 2, 7, CYPRUS, CZECH REPUBLIC 2, 7, DENMARK, DJIBOUTI (formerly Afars and Issas) 1, EGYPT 7, ESTONIA, FALKLAND ISLANDS AND DEPENDENCIES 3, FIJI 1,3, FINLAND, FRANCE (including French Overseas Departments), FRENCH POLYNESIA 4, GERMANY 7, 8, 9, GIBRALTAR 3, GREECE 10, GUERNSEY 3, HONG KONG 3, IRELAND, ISLE OF MAN 3, ISRAEL, ITALY, JAPAN, JERSEY 3, KIRIBATI (formerly Gilbert Islands and Central and Southern Line Islands) 1, 3, LATVIA, LUXEMBOURG 11, MACAU 6, MALAWI, MONTSERRRAT 3, NETHERLANDS, NEVIS 1, NORWAY 7, PAKISTAN, PITCAIRN 3, POLAND, PORTUGAL, ST. CHRISTOPHER (KITTS) 1, ST. HELENA AND DEPENDENCIES 3, ST. LUCIA 1, ST. VINCENT AND THE GRENADINES 1, SEYCHELLES, SLOVAK REPUBLIC 2, 7, SOLOMON ISLANDS 1 , SPAIN, SWEDEN, SWITZERLAND 7, TURKEY 7, TURKS AND CAICOS ISLANDS 3, TUVALU (formerly Ellice Islands) 1, UNITED KINGDOM, UNITED STATES 12, VENEZUELA 7.

1 This country achieved independence. No declaration has been made on the continuation in force of the Convention. We have requested the assistance of the Hague Conference on Private International Law in ascertaining from these countries whether they are applying the Convention.

2 In accordance with Article 34(1) of the Vienna Convention on Succession of States in Respect of Treaties, the U.S. view is that when a country which is a party to a multilateral treaty or convention has dissolved, the successor state(s) inherit the treaty obligations of the former government, consistent with Article 34 of the Vienna Convention on Succession of States in Respect of Treaties. However, as a practical matter, the custom is for depositaries to expect a notice of succession to confirm that the new entity is performing its treaty obligations. Many newly independent states may not really be implementing such conventions at this time in that they may be performing the functions set forth in the Convention. We continue to work with these governments and the depositories to obtain confirmation that the respective successor state is complying with treaty obligations.

3 The Convention was extended to this territory, possession or other jurisdiction by the United Kingdom.

4 The Convention was extended to this territory, possession or other jurisdiction by France.

5 The Convention was extended to this territory, possession or other jurisdiction by the Netherlands.

6 The Convention was extended to this territory, possession or other jurisdiction by Portugal.

7 China, the Czech Republic, Egypt, Germany, Latvia, Luxembourg, Norway, the Slovak Republic, Switzerland, Turkey and Venezuela have notified the Hague Conference on Private International Law on accession, ratification or subsequently that they object to service in accordance with Article 10, sub-paragraph a of the Convention, via postal channels.

8 The Hague Service Convention provision for service by a Central Authority is the exclusive method for service of process in the Federal Republic of Germany.

9 On November 19, 1992, the Federal Republic of Germany advised the depositary for the Convention that notwithstanding the provisions of the first paragraph of Article 15, a German judge may give judgment even if no certificate of service or delivery has been received, if all the following conditions are fulfilled: the document was transmitted by one of the methods provided for in the Convention; a period of time of not less than six months, considered adequate by the judge in the particular case, has elapsed since the date of the transmission of the document; no certificate of any kind has been received, even though every reasonable effort has been made to obtain it through the competent authorities of the State addressed. In addition, Germany advised that an application for relief in accordance with Article 16 will not be entertained if it is filed after the expiration of one year following the termination of the time-limit which has not been observed.

10 On November 23, 1989, Greece informed the depositary government for the Convention that the judges of Greece may give judgment if all the conditions in Article 15, paragraph 2(a),(b) and (c) of the Convention are fulfilled even if no certificate of service or delivery has been received.

11 Luxembourg communicated the withdrawal of its declaration opposing service through postal channels in accordance with Article 10(a) of the Convention in a Note to the Government of the Netherlands dated June 2, 1978.

12 As of June 28, 1978, the United States will not charge a fee for service of judicial documents which it receives from any State Party to the Convention which does not impose a charge for service of documents sent from the United States for service under the Convention. On March 31, 1994, the Government of the United States declared that the Convention shall also be extended to the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands.

CITATIONS

20 U.S.T. 1361

658 U.N.T.S. 163

T.I.A.S. No. 6638

28 U.S.C.A. (Appendix following Rule 4 FRCvP)

16 I.L.M. 1339 (1977)

Martindale-Hubbell Law Directory, Law Digest Volume, Selected International Conventions

U.S. CENTRAL AUTHORITY

Office of International Judicial Assistance
Civil Division
Department of Justice
Todd Building
Room 8102
550 11th Street N.W.
Washington, D.C. 20530
(202) 307-0983

PURPOSE

The Hague Service Convention codifies service of process by international registered mail and by agent. The treaty also provides for service of process by a Central Authority (usually the Ministry of Justice) in the Convention countries pursuant to a request submitted on a form USM-94, available at the office of any United States Marshal. The text of the treaty is self-explanatory, but see the reservations and declarations each country made on accession to the treaty. Some countries made specific reservations against particular methods of service. The Convention method should be employed in all countries party to it.

SCOPE OF THE CONVENTION

This question was raised at the first Special Commission meeting on the operation of the Convention. The applicability of the Convention to administrative cases is generally decided on a case-by-case basis. See Commission Reported, cited under References.

REQUEST FOR SERVICE FORM (USM-94)

You may obtain a copy of the Request for Service form (USM-94) from the local office of the U.S. Marshal's Service. Further information on the treaty may be obtained from the Supervisory Deputy for process at the nearest U.S. Marshal's office. You may also contact Headquarters, U.S. Marshal's Service, 202-307-9110. (See also Memo No. 386, Revision No. 3, at the U.S. Marshal's office or at Vol. l6, Intl Legal Materials, l33l, (1977) Am. Soc. Intl. Law).

COMPLETE THE FORM

The completed request form and documents to be served, with accompanying translations (2 copies of each), should be mailed directly to the foreign central authority as provided by Article 3 of the Convention.

FEDERAL AUTHORITY FOR ATTYS TO COMPLETE AND SEND FORM

Effective February 26, l983 Public Law 97-462 amended Rule 4 of the Federal Rules of CivilProcedure regarding service of process. Pursuant to this change in Rule 4(c)2(A) the U.S. Marshal will no longer transmit Form USM-94 directly to the foreign central authority of a country party to the Hague Service Convention. Rather, the attorney representing the party seeking service should execute the portion of Form USM-94 marked "Identity and Address of the Applicant" and the "Name and Address of the Requesting Authority" portion of the Summary of the Document to be Served.

CITE AUTHORITY

A reference to the statutory authority to serve the document should appear prominently on the request, stating that "service is requested pursuant to Rule 4(c)2(A), U.S. Federal Rules of Civil Procedure" which authorizes any person who is not a party and is not less than 18 years of age to serve a summons and complaint.

STATE COURT ACTIONS

In actions pending in state courts, state law designates the person authorized to effect service. Requests pending in state courts should specify that the request is made pursuant to Rule 4(c)2(A) of the U.S. Federal Rules of Civil Procedure and any pertinent state law. See U.S. Marshal's Memo 386, [p. 14, footnote 11,] 16 I.L.M. 1331 et seq. (1977) for guidance on service requests in actions pending in state courts.

DESIGNATING METHOD OF SERVICE TO BE USED BY CENTRAL AUTHORITY

Fill in the USM-94 in duplicate, designating the method of service to be used by the foreign Central Authority.

FORMAL SERVICE

(Article 5, paragraph 1, sub-paragraph a)The Central Authority itself serves or arranges to have served "by a method prescribed by its internal law for the service of documents in domestic actions upon persons who are within its territory". Generally, documents to be served in accordance with this method must be translated into the official language of the country. See the Practical Handbook on the Convention for specific information, or consult the U.S. Central Authority.

INFORMAL DELIVERY

(Article 5, paragraph 2)Unless a particular method is requested, the document may always be served by delivery to an addressee who accepts it voluntarily. This method of informal delivery is by far the most broadly used approach in a substantial number of Contracting States. The person who delivers the document is often a police official. In most cases, the addressees accept the document voluntarily or come down to pick it up at the police station, which dispenses with the need for translation of the documents to be served.

PERSONAL SERVICE

(Article 5, paragraph 1, sub-paragraph b)If personal service is required, delete methods (a) and (c) on the Request for Service form (USM-94) and indicate method (b) on the form, noting that the documents should be served personally upon the person or company to be served.

TRANSLATIONS

Unless the party to be served will accept service voluntarily, the documents to be served must be accompanied by a translation into the official language of the foreign country. See Ristau, International Judicial Assistance (Civil and Commercial), International Law Institute, 1995, Vol. 1, Section 4-2-3(5), pp. 133-138. See Teknekron Management Inc. v. Quante Fernmeldtechnik Gmbh, 115 F.R.D. 175 (D. Nev. 1987); Vornees v. Fischer & Krecke, 697 F. 2d 574, 575 (4th Cir. 1983)

COSTS

There are generally no costs incurred in connection with service through the central authority under the Convention. However, if personal service is made and the person to be served resides in some remote location, some fees may be charged. The fees will be billed to the requester by the foreign central authority.

TIME FRAME

There is no specific time frame for serviceprovided for in the Convention. However, the Hague Conference on Private International Law advises that most Convention central authorities generally accomplish service within two months.

PROOF OF SERVICE

On the reverse side of the Request for Service form is a Certificate of Service form. The certificate, which serves as proof of service, is completed and mailed directly to the requesting party by the foreign central authority after service has been effected.

SERVICE OTHER THAN BY CONVENTION CENTRAL AUTHORITY

SERVICE THRU CONSULAR & DIPLOMATIC CHANNELS

(Articles 8 and 9)U.S. consular officers are prohibited by Federal regulations from effecting service of process in private matters. See 22 CFR 92.85.

SERVICE BY POSTAL CHANNELS

(Article 10, sub-paragraph a)American courts have consistently held that international mail service of civil summonses is not proper in the case of States party to the Hague Service Convention which have entered an appropriate reservation under Article 10 thereof. See Ristau, Vol. 1, Section. 4-1-6, pp. 121.3-121.9. See also, Epstein, International Litigation, A Guide to Jurisdiction, Practice and Strategy, 2nd., 1994, Section 4.04(3), pp. 4-14-4-19.

SELECTED CASES: Re Hunt's Pier Associates Debtor, 156 Bankr, 464 (E.D. Pa. 1993); Grand Entertainment v. Star Media Sales, 988 F. 2d 476 (3rd Cir. 1993); Peabody Holding Co. v. Lotain Group PLC, 808 F. Supp. 1425 (E.D. Mo. 1992); Perfumer's Workshop, Ltd. v. Roure Bertrand du Pont, S.A., 737 F. Supp. 785 (S.D.N.Y. 1990); Wilson v. Honda Motor Co. Ltd, 766 F. Supp. 339 (E.D. Tenn 1991); Honda Motor Co., Ltd., v. Superior Court (10 Cal. App. 4th 1043, 12 Cal. Rptr 2d 861 (1992); Sheets v. Yamaha Motor Co. Ltd., (891 F. 2d 533 (5th Cir. 1990)); Bankston v. Toyota Motor Corp. (889 Fed. Rptr, 2d Series, 172, (8th Cir. 1989; W.D. Ark., 4 Jan 1989); Suzuki Motor CO., Ltd. v. Superior Court (200 Cal. App. 3d 1476, 249 Cal. Rptr. 376 (1988); Hantover Inc. v. Omet S.N.A., 688 F. Supp. 1377 (W.D. Mo. 1988); Turick v. Yamaha, (121 F.R.D. 32 (S.D.N.Y. 1988)); Cooper v. Makita Electric Works Ltd., 117 F.R.D. 16 (1987); Ackermann v. Levine (788 F. wd 830 (2d Cir. 1986); , Pochop v. Toyota Motor Co. Ltd., 111 F.R.D. 464 (1986), Mommsen v. Toro Co., 108 F.R.D. 444 (1985); DeJames v. Magnificence Carriers, Inc., 654 F.2d 280 (3d Cir. 1981); Porsche v. Superior Court, 177 Cal. Rptr. 155 (1981); Cintron v. W&D Machinery Co. Inc., 182 N.J. Super. 126, 440 (A. 2d 76 (1981)); Kadota v. Hosogai, 608 P. 2d 68 (Ct. of Appeals, Ariz, 1980); Shoei Kako Co. v. Superior Court, 33 Cal. App. 3d 808, 109 Cal. Rptr. 402 (1973).

But see, Umbenhauer v. Woog, 959 F. 2d 25, (3rd Cir, 1992) which held that objections from foreign governments cannot justify non-compliance with the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure for service of process by international mail. It should be noted that the country in question, Switzerland, was not a party to the Hague Service Convention at that time, and thus did not file formal objection to service by postal channels under Article 10(a). Formal objections to this method of service made at the time of accession or subsequently in accordance with the Convention are honored as a Treaty obligation.

Note: With respect to the debate in the courts regarding the validity of service by mail in Japan, see our country specific flyer, Service of Process in Japan, via our autofax service or at our Internet Home Page.

BUT SEE, FTC v. Compagnie de Saint-Gobain-Pont-a-Mousson, 636 F. 2d 1327, n. 150 (D.C. Cir. 1980) on the issue of service via international registered mail when the document to be served is not compulsory or punitive when there is no treaty obligation to refrain from such methods of service. See also, Digest of United States Practice in International Law, Department of State, Office of the Legal Adviser, 1980 p. 457.

TRANSLATIONS AND SERVICE BY MAIL

Translation of documents to be served by registered mail is not strictly required by the Convention. Courts have ruled that the translation requirement of Article 5 applies only to service of documents by the foreign Central Authority, and not direct postal service. See Lemme v. Wine of Japan Import, Inc., 631 F. Supp. 456, 463-64 (E.D.N.Y. 1986). See also Greenfield v. Suzuki Motor Co., Ltd., 776 F. Supp. 698, 701-703 (E.D.N.Y. 1991). See Epstein, International Litigation: A Guide to Jurisdiction, Practice and Strategy, , 2nd, 1994, Section 4.04(1), p. 4-13. But see, Ristau, Vol 1, Section 4-3-1(2), p. 142 for a discussion of challenges which can occur if documents are not served in the language the recipient understands.

SERVICE THRU JUDICIAL OFFICERS

(Article 10, sub-paragraphs b and c)Permits the judicial officers, officials and other competent persons of the state of origin to effect service of judicial documents through the efforts of the judicial officials of the state of destination, unless the latter state objects to this method.

SEE ALSO Volkswagenwerk Aktiengesellschaft v. Schlunk, 108 S. Ct. 2104, 100 L. Ed. 2d 722, 27 I.L.M. 1093 (15 June 1988) on the issue of service on an agent for a foreign corporation in the United States.

FOREIGN CENTRAL AUTHORITIES

The Hague Conference on Private International Law Handbook on the Operation of the Hague Service Convention provides the following addresses of foreign central authorities:

ANGUILLA:
The Registrar of the Supreme Court
Anguilla

ANTIGUA & BARBUDA:
(1) The Governor General
Antigua and Barbuda;

(2) Registrar of the High Court
High Street
St. John's, Antigua, West Indies
tel: 809-462-3147

ARUBA:
Head, Central Office General Legal Affairs
L.G. Smith Boulevard 76
Oranjestad
Aruba

BARBADOS:
The Registrar of the Supreme Court of Barbados
Law Courts, Bridgetown, Barbados
tel: 809-42-75537

BELGIUM:
Le Ministere de la Justice
Administration de la Legislation
Place Poelaert 4
1000 Bruxelles
tel: 511-42-00
telex: 62.440 Min Jus

BELIZE:
Now Independent. No formal confirmation to depositary government that Convention applies. Government of Belize authorities have advised the U.S. Embassy that the Convention does apply and that requests for service should be sent to the following central authority:

The General Registry
Supreme Court Building
P.O. Box 87
Belize City, Belize

BERMUDA:
The Registrar of the Supreme Court
Sessions House
21 Parliament St.
Hamilton HM 12, Bermuda
tel: 809-292-1350

BOTSWANA:
The Minister of State in the Office of the President of the Republic of Botswana
Lobatse, Botswana

BRITISH VIRGIN ISLANDS:
The Registrar of the Supreme Court
British Virgin Islands

CANADA:
To save time, requests should be forwarded directly to the Central Authority of the province or territory concerned. They may, however, also be forwarded to the Federal Central Authority which will transmit them to the relevant Central Authority in the province or territory.

Federal Central Authority:
Director, Legal Advisory Division
Department of External Affairs
125 Sussex Drive
Ottawa, Ontario
Canada K1A 0G2
(613) 995-0119

For Alberta:
Attorney-General for Alberta
Attn: Executive Director - Court Services
9833-109th Street
Edmonton, Alberta
Canada T5K 2E8
tel: (403) 427-4992

For British Columbia:
Ministry of the Attorney-General
for British Columbia
Office of the Deputy Minister
Fifth Floor, 910 Government Street
Victoria, British Columbia
Canada V8V 1X4
tel: (604) 387-5211

For Manitoba:
Attorney-General for Manitoba
c/o Director - Civil Legal Services
Woodsworth Building
6th Floor
405 Broadway
Winnipeg, Manitoba
Canada, R3C 0V8
tel: (204) 945-2847

For New Brunswick:
Attorney-General for New Brunswick
P.O.Box 6000
Fredericton, New Brunswick
Canada, E3B 5H1
tel: (506) 453-2208

For Newfoundland:
Department of Justice
Confederation Building
St. John's, Newfoundland
Canada A1C 5T7
tel: (709) 576-2869

For Nova Scotia:
Attorney General of Nova Scotia
Legal Services Division
P.O. Box 7
Halifax, Nova Scotia
tel: (902) 424-4024

For Ontario:
Ministry of the Attorney General for Ontario Reciprocity Office: Civil Law Division
18 King St. East
Toronto, Ontario
Canada M5C 1C5
tel: (416) 965-2570

For Prince Edward Island:
Attorney General of Prince Edward Island
Office of the Deputy Minister
P.O. Box 2000
Charlottetown, Prince Edward Island
Canada C1A 7N8
tel: (902) 368-4570

For Quebec:
Ministre de la Justice du Quebec
a/s Le service juridique
1200 route de l'Eglise
5eme etage
Ste-Foy, Quebec
Canada G1V 4M1
(418) 643-1436

For Saskatchewan:
Minister of Justice for Saskatchewan Att. of Director of Sheriff Services
1874 Scarth St., 10th Floor
Regina, Saskatchewan
Canada S4P 3V7
(306) 787-5488

For Yukon:
Director of Court Services
Department of Justice
Box 2703
Whitehorse, Yukon Y1A 2C6
(403) 667-5942

For Northwest Territories:
Deputy Minister of Justice
Government of the Northwest Territories
Box 1320
Yellowknife, Northwest Territories
Canada X1A 2L9
tel: (613) 995-0119

CAYMAN ISLANDS:
Clerk of the Courts
Grand Cayman, Cayman Islands

CHINA:
Bureau of International Judicial Assistance
Ministry of Justice of the
People's Republic of China
No. 26, Nanheyan
Chaowai, Chaoyang District
BEIJING, 100020
People's Republic of China

CYPRUS:
Ministry of Justice

CZECH REPUBLIC:
Ministerstvo Spravedlnosti Ceske Republiky/ Ministry of Justice of the Czech Republic
128 10 Praha 2, Vysehradska 16
Prague, Czech Republic

DENMARK:
Ministry of Justice
Justitsministeriet
Slotsholmsgade 10
1216 Kobenhavn K.
Copenhagen, Denmark
tel: 120906
telex: 15530

DJIBOUTI:
Unknown. Now Independent. Formerly French territory of Afars and Issas. No formal confirmation to depositary government that Convention applies.

EGYPT:
Ministry of Justice
Office of International Judicial Cooperation
Cairo, Egypt

ESTONIA:
Central Authority not declared when Convention entered into force Oct. 1, 1996.

FALKLAND ISLANDS:
The Registrar of the Supreme Court
Stanley, Falkland Islands

FIJI:
Chief Registrar of the High Court of Fiji
Government Buildings
Suva, Fiji

Fiji became an independent State October 10, 1970. Prior to that time, Fiji was a dependency of the United Kingdom which extended its accession to the Convention to Fiji. Fiji has never confirmed to the Hague Conference on Private International Law or the Government of the Netherlands whether it considers the Hague Service Convention to apply to Fiji. However, Fijian authorities have provided the U.S. Embassy with the name and address of the Central Authority noted above to whom requests for service under the Hague Convention may be transmitted.

FINLAND:
Ministry of Justice
10 Etelaesplanadi
Helsinki 13, Finland
tel: 358-0-1601

FRANCE:
Ministere de la Justice
Bureau de l'Entraide Judiciaire Internationale D4
13 Place Vendome
75042 Paris (1er), Cedex 01, France
tel: 261-80-22
telex: 211-802F

GERMANY:

For Baden-Wurttemberg:
Justizministerium Baden-Wurttemberg
Schillerplatz 4
70173 Stuttgart, Federal Republic of Germany

For Bavaria
Bayerisches Staatsministerium der Justiz
Justizpalast
Prielmeyerstrasse 7
80335 Muenchen
Munich, Germany
(this is the street address)

(For correspondence the following address should be used):

Bayerisches Staatsministerium der Justiz
80097 Muenchen
Munich, Germany

For Berlin:
Senator fur Justiz
Salzburger Strasse 21-25
10825 Berlin, Germany

For Brandenburg:
Das Ministerium der Justiz
des Landes Brandenburg
Heinrich-Mann-Alee 107
14460 Potsdam, Germany

For Bremen:
Prasident des Landgerichts Bremen
Domsheide 16
28195 Bremen, Germany

For Hamburg:
Prasident des Amtsgerichtes Hamburg
Sievekingplatz 1
20335 Hamburg

For Hesse:
Hessischer Minister der Justiz
Luisenstrasse 13
65185 Wiesbaden, Germany

For Lower Saxony:
Niedersachsisher Minister der Justiz
Am Waterlooplatz 1
30169 Hannover, Germany

For Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania:
Der Minister fur Justiz
Bundes- und Europaangelegenheiten
des Landes Mecklenburg-Vorpommern
Demmlerplatz 14
19053 Schwerin, Germany

For Northrhine-Westphalia:
Justizminister des Landes Nordrhein-Westfalen
Cecilienallee 3
40474 Dusseldorf, Germany

For Rhineland-Palatinate:
Ministerium der Justiz
Ernst-Ludwig-Strasse 3
55116 Mainz, Germany

For Saarland:
Minister der Justiz des Saarlandes
Zahringerstrasse 12
66119 Saarbrucken, Germany

For Saxony:
Sachsisches Staatsministerium der Justiz
Archivstrasse 1
01097 Dresden, Germany

For Saxony-Anhalt:
Ministerium der Justiz
des Landes Sachsen-Anhalt
Wilhelm-Hopfner-Ring 6
39116 Magdeburg, Germany

For Schleswig-Holstein:
Der Justizminister
des Landes Schleswig-Holstein
Lorentzendamm 35
24103 Kiel, Germany

For Thuringia:
Thuringer Justizministerium
Alfred-Hess Strasse 8
99094 Erfurt, Germany

GIBRALTAR:
The Registrar of the Supreme Court
Gibraltar

GREECE:
Ministry of Foreign Affairs
Department of Administrative and Judicial Affairs
D-3 Section, Department 2
Zalakosta 1, Athens, Greece

GUERNSEY:
The Bailiff
Bailiff's Office
Royal Court House
Guernsey
Channel Islands

HONG KONG:
The Chief Secretary of Hong Kong
Central Government Offices
Lower Albert Road
Hong Kong, tel: 011-852-8102954

ISLE OF MAN:
The First Deemster and Clerk of the Rolls
Roll's Office
Douglas, Isle of Man

IRELAND:
Master of the High Court
Dublin, Ireland

or

- a practising Solicitor; or
- a Country Registrar; or
- a District County Clerk

ISRAEL:
Director of Courts
Directorate of Courts
Russian Compound
Jerusalem
tel: 246919

ITALY:
The Registry of the Court of Appeal
Rome, Italy

L'Ufficio unico degli ufficiali
giudiziari presso la corte d'appello la corte
d'appello di Roma
Rome, Italy

JAPAN:
The Minister of Foreign Affairs
2-2-1 Kasumigaseki, Chiyoda-ku
Tokyo 100, Japan
tel: 81-3-3581-4015

JERSEY:
The Attorney General
Jersey, Channel Islands

KIRIBATI:
Unknown. Now Independent. No formal confirmation to depositary government that Convention applies. Former Central Authority: Registrar of the High Court

LATVIA:
Ministry of Justice
Brivibas Boulevard 34
LV - 1536 Riga

LUXEMBOURG:
Parquet general pres la Cour superieure de Justice
12 Cote d'Eich
Luxembourg-Ville
tel: 475981 or 26765 or 41464

MACAU:
Portugal extended its accession to Macau. Requests for service of process in Macau may be transmitted to the Portuguese Central Authority for forwarding to the Competent Authority in Macau to effect service. See Portugal.

MALAWI:
The Registrar of the High Court of Malawi
P.O. Box 30244
Chichiri
Blantyre 3
Malawi

MONTSERRAT:
The Registrar of the High Court
Montserrat

NETHERLANDS:
The Public Prosecutor
District Court of the Hague
Juliana van Stoleberglaan 2-4
The Hague, the Netherlands
tel: 82-40-41

NEVIS:
Ministry of Legal Affairs
P.O. Box 186
Government Headquarters
St. Kitts-Nevis, West Indies
tel: 809-465-2521

NORWAY:
Ministry of Justice
Boks 8005
Oslo/Dep
Oslo 1, Norway

PAKISTAN:
Solicitor
Ministry of Law and Justice
Islamabad, Pakistan

Other Authorities in addition to Central Authority
Within Their Respective Territorial Jurisdictions:

Registrars of:
Lahore High Court, Lahore
Peshawar High Court, Peshawar
Baluchistan High Court, Quetta
High Court of Sind, Karachi

PITCAIRN:
The Governor and Commander-in-Chief, Pitcairn
British High Commission
Reserve Bank of New Zealand Building (9th Floor)
2 The Terrace (P.O. Box 1812)
Wellington 1
New Zealand

POLAND:
Ministry of Justice
Department of International Cooperation and European Law
Al. Ujazdowskia 11
00-950 Warsaw, Poland
tel: 48-22-628-4431 (ext. 247)
fax: 48-22-628-0949

PORTUGAL:
Director General of the Judicial Service of the Ministry of the
Ministry of Justice (Direccao-Geral dos Servicas Judiciarios,
Ministerio de Justica)
Av. Casal Ribeiro 48
1098 Lisboa Codex
Lisbon, Portugal
tel: 351-1-315-52 82
fax: 351-1-353-87 02

ST. CHRISTOPHER (St. Kitts):
Ministry of Legal Affairs
P.O. Box 186
Government Headquarters
St. Kitts-Nevis, West Indies
tel: 809-465-2521

Now Independent. No formal confirmation to depositary government that Convention applies, however local government has provided information to the U.S. Embassy regarding central authority competent to receive Hague Service Convention requests noted above.

ST. HELENA:
The Supreme Court
Saint Helena

ST. LUCIA:
Now Independent. No formal confirmation to depositary government that Convention applies, however local government has provided the following information to the U.S. Embassy regarding central authority competent to receive Hague Service Convention requests.

Registrar of the High Court
Attn: Miss Isabella Shillingford
Registry Department
Peynier Street
Castries, St. Lucia, W.I.
tel: 809-452-1257
There is no standard fee for service.

ST. VINCENT:
Now Independent. No formal confirmation to depositary government that Convention applies, however local government has provided the following information to the U.S. Embassy regarding central authority competent to receive Hague Service Convention requests.

Ministry of Foreign Affairs
St. Vincent and the Grenadines
W.I.
tel: 809-456-1111

There is no fee. The Ministry of Foreign Affairs forwards the request for service to the Registrar's Office which effects service.

SEYCHELLES:
The Registrar
Supreme Court
Victoria
Mahe, Republic des Seychelles

SLOVAK REPUBLIC:
Ministerstvo Spravodlivosti Slovenskej Republicky
Zupne namestie 13, 813 11 Bratislava
Slovak Republic
Fax: (00427) 5316035

SOLOMON ISLANDS:
Unknown. Now Independent. No formal confirmation to depositary government that Convention applies. Former Central Authority: Registrar of the High Court, Honiara

SPAIN:
Secretaria General Tecnica
Subdireccion de Cooperacion Juridica Internacional
Ministerio de Justicia
San Bernardo, 45
28015 Madrid, Spain
tel: (34)(1) 390-2328

SWEDEN:
Ministry for Foreign Affairs
Legal Department
Box 16121
S-103 23 Stockholm 16, Sweden
tel: 46 (8) 786 60 00; tel: 46 (8) 763-10-00
fax: 46 (8) 723-11-76; telex: 10 590 MINFOR S

SWITZERLAND:
Switzerland designates the cantonal authorities listed below as Central Authorities as referred to in the respective conventions. Requests for the service of documents may also be addressed to:

The Federal Justice and Police Department
Federal Office for Police Matters
International Judicial and Extrajudicial Assistance
Bundesrain 20
3003 Bern
Switzerland
Tel. 011-41-31-322-4310
Fax 011-41-31-322-5380

That office will forward the requests for service to the Central Authority in the appropriate canton.

Requests for service under the Hague Convention may also be sent directly to the Central Authority for the appropriate Canton. The following list provides the canton, official language of the canton, address and telephone number.

Authorized Swiss Central Authorities for each Canton

Language: (G=German); (F=French); (I-Italian)

Canton: Appenzell Ausserhoden (G); Kantonsgerich Appenzell A. Rh., 9043 Trogen, Switzerland; tel: 011-41-71-94-24-61

Canton: Appenzell Innerrhoden (G); Kantonsgericht Appenzell I. Rh., 9050 Appenzell, Switzerland; tel: 011-41-71-87-95-51

Canton: Aargau (G); Obergericht des Kantons Aargau, 5000 Aargau, Switzerland; tel: 011-41-64-21-19-40

Canton: Basel-Landschaft (G); Obergericht des Kantons Basel-Landschaft, 4410 Liestal, Switzerland; tel: 011-41-61-925-51-11

Canton: Basel-Stadt (G); Apellationsgericht Basel-Stadt, 4054 Basel, Switerzland; tel: 011-41-61-267-81-81

Canton: Bern (G/F); Justizdirektion des Kantons Bern, 3011 Bern, Switzerland; tel: 011-41-31-633-76-76

Canton: Fribourg (F/G); Tribunal cantonal, 1700 Fribourg, Switzerland; tel: 011-41-37-25-39-10

Canton: Geneve (F); Parquet du Procureur general, 1211 Geneve 3, Switzerland; tel: 011-41-22-319-21-11

Canton: Glarus (G); Obergericht des Kantons Glarus, 8750 Glarus, Switzerland; tel: 011-41-58-61-15-32

Canton: Graubuenden (G); Justiz-, Polizei- und Sanitaets- departement, Graubunden, 7001 Chur, Switzerland; tel: 011-41-81-21-21-21

Canton: Jura (F); Department de la Justice, 2800 Delemont, Jura, Switzerland; tel: 011-41-66-21-51-11

Canton: Luzern (G); Obergericht des Kantons Luzern, 6002 Luzern, Switzerland; tel: 011-41-41-24-51-11

Canton: Neuchatel (F) Departement de Justice, 2001 Neuchatel, Switzerland; tel: 011-41-38-22-31-11

Canton: Nidwalden (G); Kantonsgericht Nidwalden, 6370 Stans, Switzerland; tel: 011-41-41-63-79-50

Canton: Obwalden (G); Kantonsgericht des Kantons, Obwalden, 6060 Sarnen, Switzerland; tel: 011-41-41-66-92-22

Canton: St. Gallen (G); Kantonsgericht St. Gallen, 9001 St. Gallen, Switzerland; tel: 011-41-71-21-31-11

Canton: Schaffhausen (G); Obergericht des Kantons, Schaffhausen, 8201 Schaffhausen, Switzerland; tel: 011-41-53-82-74-22

Canton: Schwyz (G); Kantonsgericht Schwyz, 6430 Schwyz; Switzerland; tel: 011-41-43-24-11-24

Canton: Solothurn (G); Obergericht des Kantons Solothurn, 4500 Solothurn, Switzerland; tel: 011-41-65-21-73-11

Canton: Tessin (I); Tribunale di appello, 6901 Lugano, Switzerland; tel: 011-41-91-21-51-11

Canton: Thurgau (G); Obergericht des Kantons Thurgau, 8500 Frauenfeld, Switzerland; tel: 011-41-54-22-31-21

Canton: Uri (G); Gerichtskanzlei Uri, 6460 Altdorf, Switzerland; tel: 011-41-44-4-22-44

Canton: Valais (F/G); Tribunal cantonal, 1950 Sion, Switzerland; tel: 011-41-27-22-93-93

Canton: Vaud (F); Tribunal cantonal, 1014 Lausanne, Switzerland; tel: 011-41- 21-313-15-11

Canton: Zug (G); Obergericht des Kantons Zug, Rechtshilfe, 6300 Zug, Switzerland; tel: 011-41-42-25-33-11

Canton: Zurich (G); Obergericht des Kantons Zurich, Rechtshilfe, 8023 Zurich, Switzerland; tel: 011-41-1-257-91-91

TURKEY:
General Service of Civil Affairs
Ministry of Justice
Ankara, Turkey

(Adalet Bakanligi Hukuk Isleri Genel Mudurlugu, Ankara, Turkey)

TURKS & CAICOS:
The Registrar of the Supreme Court
Turks and Caicos Islands

TUVALU:
Now Independent. No formal confirmation to depositary government that Convention applies. Former Central Authority: Registrar of the High Court.

UNITED KINGDOM:
Her Majesty's Principal Secretary of State for
Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs
London SW1A 2AL

For England and Wales:
The Senior Master of the Supreme Court of Judicature
Royal Courts of Justice
Strand
London WC2A 2LL, United Kingdom

For Scotland:
The Crown Agent for Scotland
Lord Advocate's Department
Crown Office
5/7 Regent Road
Edinburgh EH7 5BL, Scotland

For Northern Ireland:
The Master (Queen's Bench and Appeals)
Royal Courts of Justice
Chichester Street
Belfast, BT1 3JF

VENEZUELA:
Ministry of Foreign Affairs
Caracas, Venezuela

REFERENCE

"Checklist for the Discussions of the Special Commission of April 1989 on the Operation of the Hague Convention on the Service of Process Abroad", Preliminary Document No. 1 of March 1989, Hague Conference on Private International Law, 28 I.L.M. 1556 (1989).

"Report on the Work of the Special Commission on the Operation of the Service Convention", 17 I.L.M. 312, 312 (1978).

Practical Handbook on the Operation of the Hague Convention of 15 November 1965 on the Service Abroad of Judicial and Extrajudicial Documents in Civil or Commercial Matters, Hague Conference on Private International Law, Maarten Kluwer's Internationale Uitgeversonderneming, Antwerp 1983. U.S. Distributor: Butterworth Publishers Inc., 10 Tower Office Park, Woburn, Boston, Massachusetts 01801. Contact U.S. Central Authority for addresses of other distributors.

Cumulative Digest of United States Practice in International Law, 1981-1988, Vol. II, Department of State, Office of the Legal Adviser, pp. 1530-1547 (1994).

Digest of United States Practice in International Law, 1976, Department of State, Office of the Legal Adviser, p. 307.

Digest of United States Practice in International Law, 1977, Department of State, Office of the Legal Adviser, pp. 477-490; pp. 501-504.

Digest of United States Practice in International Law, 1980, Department of State, Office of the Legal Adviser, p. 457.

Amram, "The Proposed International Convention on the Service of Documents Abroad", 51 A.B.A. J. 650 (1965).

Baeck & Ginsberg, "Service of Process Abroad", 4 Int'l. Law. 145 (1969).

Basarrate, Note: "International Service of Process: Reconciling the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure with the Hague Convention on the Service Abroad of Judicial and Extrajudicial Documents in Civil or Commercial Matters", Vanderbilt Journal of Transnational Law", Vol. 22, No. 5, pp. 1071-1096 (1988).

Beucher & Sandage, "United States Punitive Damage Awards in German Courts: The Evolving German position on Service and Enforcement", Vanderbilt Journal of Transnational Law, Vol. 23, No. 5, pp. 967-991 (1991).

Boyd, "Contemporary Practice of the United States Relating to International Law - The Hague Service Convention", 72 American Journal of International Law, 130 (1978).

Downs, "Note: The Effect of the Hague Convention on Service Abroad of Judicial and Extrajudicial Documents in Civil or Commercial Matters", 1 Cornell Intl L. J., 125 (1969).

Epstein, International Litigation: A Guide to Jurisdiction, Practice and Strategy, 2nd, Prentice Hall Law & Business, 1994.

Gordon, Comment: "Service of Process by Registered Mail on a Japanese Defendant is Ineffective Under Article 10(a) of the Hague Convention of November 15, 1965 on the Service Abroad of Judicial and Extrajudicial Documents in Civil and Commercial Matters, Bankston v. Toyota Motor Corp. 889 F. 2nd 172 (8th Cir. 1989)" Vanderbilt Journal of Transnational Law, Vol. 23, No. 4, pp. 851-869.

Horlick, "Service of Process and other Documents Abroad, American Bar Association, Problems in Transnational Litigation, 23 (1980).

Horlick, "A Practical Guide to Service of Process Abroad", 14 Int'l. Law. 637 (1980).

Hoyal, "The Hague Service Convention and Agency Concepts: Lamb v. Volkswagenwerk Aktiengesellschaft", Cornell International Law Journal, Vol. 20, pp. 391-412.

Leo, Note: "The Interplay Between Domestic Rules Permitting Service Abroad by Mail and the Hague Convention on Service: Proposing an Amendment to the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure", Cornell International Law Journal, Vol. 22, No. 2, pp. 335-370 (1989).

Miller and Pionk, "The practical aspects of litigating against foreign corporations", 54 Journal of Air Law and Commerce 123 (Fall 1988), esp. pp. 128-137.

Mitsui, "Ratification of Convention Relating to Civil Procedure on the Service Abroad of Judicial and Extra-Judicial Documents in Civil and Commercial Matters", 16 Japanese Annual Int'l. L. 7 (1972).

Nanda and Pansius, Litigation of International Disputes in U.S. Courts, Vol. 4, International Business and Law Series, (1996), Sec. 2.02(2), pp. 2-4 - 2-15.

Note, "Closing the Chasm of International Judicial Assistance: Extraterritorial Service of Documents, 12 How. L. J. 238 (1966).

Ristau, International Judicial Assistance (Civil and Commercial), International Law Institute (1984, supp. 1990, 1995).

Schwartz, "Obtaining Evidence Overseas: Discovery on Foreign Shores", 9 Family Advocate 28 (1987) [includes discussion of service abroad].

Vazquez, "Hague Service Convention - scope and application - role of internal law: Volkswagen Aktiengesellschaft v. Schlunk, 82 American Journal of International Law 816 (1988).

ADDITIONAL INFORMATION:

The Office of American Citizens Services has available general information flyers on international judicial assistance many of which are available through our automated fax system or via our Internet Consular Affairs Home Page. These topics include country-specific information about service of process and obtaining evidence abroad.

Using the Autofax System:

* Dial (202) 647-3000 using the phone on your fax machine.

* Follow the prompt to obtain a printed index of judicial assistance topics. There are four indexes.

Travel Information - Index of Countries - Press 1

Passports and Visas - Index of Flyers - Press 2

Child Custody and Adoption - Index of Flyers - Press 3

Judicial Assistance - General and Country Specific - Press 4

* Enter the four digit code for the document desired as listed in the index.

* When the prompt identifies the document and asks if you want that document, enter Y (9) for yes or N (6) for no.

* If you want another document, enter the four digit code, using the same procedures noted in the previous step.

* When you finish selecting, press the # key on the phone keyboard and press the start button on your fax machine.

* After a brief delay of up to a minute, the documents will print automatically on your fax machine.

Autofax General Judicial Assistance Codes:

1052 - Hague Evidence

1051 - Hague Service

1049 - Service of Process - General

1047 - Obtaining Evidence - General

1045 - Preparation of Letters Rogatory - General

1050 - Foreign Sovereign Immunities Act

1053 - Hague Legalization of Documents

1046 - Authentication - General

1208 - Inter-American Letters Rogatory Convention on Service

For Country-Specific Codes, See Autofax Index.

Using the Internet: Many of our judicial assistance flyers are also available on the Internet via the Department of State, Bureau of Consular Affairs Home Page at the URL: http://travel.state.gov. See also, the Department of State, Office of the Legal Adviser for Private International Law (L/PIL) Home Page at the URL: http//www.lpil.com for information regarding the work of the Hague Conference on

Private International Law. See also the Home Pages for many of our embassies which are linked to the Consular Affairs Home Page. As noted above, the text of the Convention and updated information concerning countries which have acceded to the Convention can be found in the Martindale-Hubbell Law Directory, Law Digest Volume. See the Martindale-Hubbell Home Page on the Internet at the URL:
http://www.martindale.com/products/digests.html.

QUESTIONS:

1. U.S. Central Authority: Additional questions regarding the operation of the Hague Service Convention should be addressed to the U.S. Central Authority, the Office of International Judicial Assistance, Civil Division, Department of Justice, tel: (202) 307-0983.

2. General questions may also be addressed to the appropriate geographic division of the Office of American Citizens Services, at telephone (202) 647-5225 or 202-647-5226.

International Legal Assistance