**Factoring**

**Sum of Cubes**

A binomial is factorable only if it is one of three things a Difference of Squares, a Difference of Cubes, or a Sum of Cubes. A binomial is a Sum of Cubes if both terms are perfect cubes. Recall we may have to factor out a common factor first.

If we determine that a binomial is a Sum of cubes, we factor it into a binomial and a trinomial. The binomial being the cube root of the first term plus the cube root of the second term. The trinomial comes from the binomial. We square the first term of the binomial, change the sign to subtraction, multiply the two terms together, and square the second term of the binomial, as in the following formula

A |

1. 8x^{3} + 27: solution

2. 54x^{7} + 16x: solution

3. 3x^{5} - 3x^{2}: solution

1. 8x^{3} + 27

We first check that we have a sum of cubes.

since 8x^{3} and 27 are both perfect cubes we do have a sum of cubes.

the cube root of 8x^{3} is 2x, and the cube root of 27 is 3

so our binomial is (2x + 3)

we now use the binomial to create the trinomial

we square the first term 2x to get 4x^{2} as our first term

we change the sign from + to - and multiply 2x and 3 to get -6x as our middle term

we square the second term 3 to get 9 as our third term

so the trinomial is (4x^{2} - 6x + 9)

thus our answer is (2x + 3)(4x^{2} - 6x + 9)

2. 54x^{7} + 16x

In checking if we have a sum of cubes, we see neither 54x^{7} or 16x are perfect cubes

But we have a common factor we must factor out first, 2x

this gives us 2x(27x^{6} + 8)

Now both 27x^{6} and 8 are perfect cubes

the cube root of 27x^{6} is 3x^{2} , and the cube root of 8 is 2

so our binomial is (3x^{2} + 2)

Now to get the trinomial we square 3x^{2} to get 9x^{4} as our first term

we change the sign to - and multiply 3x^{2} and 2 to get -6x^{2} as the middle term

we square 2 to get 4 as our third term

so the trinomial is (9x^{4} - 6x^{2} + 4)

and the answer is 2x(3x^{2} + 2)(9x^{4} - 6x^{2} + 4)

3. 3x^{5} + 3x^{2}

Here again we do not have a sum of cubes, but we do have a common factor 3x^{2}

3x^{2} (x^{3} + 1), now both x^{3} and 1 are perfect cubes

the cube root of x^{3} is x and the cube root of 1 is 1

so our binomial is (x + 1)

to get the first term of our trinomial we square x: x^{2}

to get the second term we change the sign to - and multiply x and 1: - x

to get the third term we square 1 : 1

so our trinomial is (x^{2} -x + 1)

and the answer is 3x^{2} (x + 1)( x^{2} - x + 1)