Radiation Safety-Terms & Definitions


  1. Agreement State:  Any U.S. state which has entered into an agreement with the USNRC to regulate the radioactive materials users within its own borders.  The USNRC has retained the regulation of all commercial power reactors, however.
  2. ANSI:  American National Standards Institute.
  3. BEIR:  Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiation Committee.  International scientific organization which provides guidance on the properties and use of radiation sources.
  4. EPA or USEPA:  United States Environmental Protection Agency (Title 40, Code of Federal Regulations).
  5. ICRP:  International Commission on Radiological Protection.  International scientific organization which provides guidance on the properties and use of radiation sources.
  6. NCRP:  National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements.  The United States scientific organization which recommends standards for radiation protection.
  7. NRC or USNRC:  United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations).
  8. OSHA:  Occupational Safety & Health Administration (Title 29, Code of Federal Regulations).
  9. The abbreviation 10 CFR 20 means Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations Part 20.  For example, 10 CFR 20.101 refers to Section 20.101 of 10 CFR.
  10. The abbreviation 17 CCR 30100 means Title 17 of the California Code of Regulations, Section 30100.  For example, 17 CCR 20101 refers to Section 20101 of 17 CCR.

II. Common Acronyms:

  1. ALARA:  As Low As Reasonably Achievable.
  2. ALI:  Annual Limit on Intake
  3. ANSI:  American National Standards Institute.
  4. AU:  Authorized User.
  5. BEIR:  Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiation Committee.
  6. CEDE: Committed Effective Dose Equivalent
  7. CCR:  California Code of Regulations.
  8. CFR:  Code of Federal Regulations.
  9. CDPH:  California Department of Public Health.
  10. EH&S:  CSUN’s Department of Environmental Health & Safety.
  11. EPA or USEPA:  United States Environmental Protection Agency (Title 40, Code of Federal Regulations).
  12. ICRP:  International Commission on Radiological Protection.
  13. IRUA:  Ionizing Radiation Use Authorization.
  14. nALI: Non stochastic Annual Limit on Intake.
  15. NCRP:  National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements.
  16. NRC or USNRC:  United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations).
  17. OSHA:  Occupational Safety & Health Administration (Title 29, Code of Federal Regulations).
  18. QF:  quality factor.
  19. RAM:  Radioactive Material
  20. sALI:  Stochastic Annual Limit on Intake
  21. RHB:  Radiologic Health Branch.
  22. RSC:  Radiation Safety Committee.
  23. RSO:  Radiation Safety Officer.

III. Definitions:

  • activation:  the process of inducing radioactivity by neutron irradiation.
  • activity:  the number of nuclear transformations (decays) occurring in a given quantity of material per unit time.
  • ALARA (As Low As Reasonably Achievable):  policy of maintaining ionizing radiation exposures as low as reasonably achievable.
  • alpha particle:  a charged particle having a mass and charge equal in magnitude to a helium nucleus; a cluster of two protons and two neutrons emitted from the nucleus of an atom.
  • analysis, activation:  a method of chemical analysis, especially for small traces of material, based on the detection of characteristic radiations following a nuclear bombardment.
  • analysis, Feather:  a technique for the determination of the range in aluminum of the beta particles of a radionuclide by comparison of the absorption curve with the absorption curve of a reference source, usually Bi-210 (range = 501 mg/cm2).
  • analysis, isotope dilution:  a method of chemical analysis for a component of a mixture, based on the addition to the mixture of a known specific activity, followed by the isolation of a quantity of the component and measurement of the specific activity of that sample.
  • annihilation (electron):  an interaction between a positron and an electron in which they both disappear with their mass and energy being converted into electromagnetic radiation ("annihilation gammas").
  • area, controlled:  any area to which access is controlled for the purposes of radiation safety.
  • atom:  smallest particle of an element which is capable of entering into a chemical reaction.  It consists of a nucleus and a less dense outer area consisting of electrons in motion.
  • atomic number (Z):  the number of protons in the nucleus of an atom of a nuclide.  The "effective atomic number" is calculated from the composition and atomic numbers of a compound or mixture.  An element of this atomic number would interact with photons in the same way as the compound or mixture.
  • atomic weight (AW):  the weighted mean of the masses of the neutral atoms of an element expressed in atomic mass units.
  • attenuation:  a decrease in the magnitude in transmission from one point to another expressed as a ratio or in decibels.  The process by which a beam of radiation is reduced in intensity when passing through some material.  It is the combination of absorption and scattering processes and leads to a decrease in flux density of the beam when projected through matter.
  • autoradiograph:  record of radiation from radioactive material in an object, made by placing the object in close proximity to a photographic emulsion.
  • average life (mean life):  the average of the individual lives of all the atoms of a particular radioactive substance.  Equal to 1.443 times the radioactive half-life.
  • backscattering:  deflection of radiation by scattering processes through angles greater than 90 degrees, with respect to the original direction of motion.
  • barn:  unit of area.  Expresses the probability of a specific nuclear reaction in terms of cross-sectional area.  Equals 10-24 cm2.
  • beam:  a unidirectional or approximately unidirectional flow of electromagnetic radiation or of particles.
  • beam, useful:  radiation which passe through the aperture, cone, or other collimating device of the source housing.  Sometimes called the primary beam.
  • becquerel (Bq):  the SI unit of quantity of radioactive material.  One becquerel equals one nuclear disintegration per second (1 Bq = 1 dps).
  • beta particle:  charged particle emitted from the nucleus of an atom, with a mass and charge equal in magnitude to that of an electron.
  • bone seeker:  any substance which migrates in the body preferentially into bone.
  • brachytherapy:  the treatment of disease with sealed radioactive sources placed near, or inserted directly into, the diseased area of the body.
  • Bremsstrahlung:  secondary photon radiation produced by deceleration of charged particles passing through matter.
  • build-up factor (B):  ratio of the intensity of x- or gamma rays (both primary and scattered) at a point in an absorbing medium to the intensity of just the primary radiation.
  • by-product material:  any radioactive material (except special nuclear material) yielded in or made radioactive by exposure to radiation incident to the process of producing or utilizing special nuclear   material.
  • capture, electron:  a mode of radioactive decay involving the capture of an orbital electron by its nucleus.  Capture from a particular shell is designated as "K-electron capture, " "L-electron capture,” etc.
  • carcinogenic:  capable of producing cancer.
  • cataractogenesis:  production of cataracts (opacification) in the lens of the eye.
  • cells, somatic:  body cells, usually with two sets of chromosomes, as opposed to germ cells, which have only one set.
  • chamber, ionization:  an instrument designed to measure a quantity of ionizing radiation in terms of the charge of electricity associated with ions produced within a defined volume.
  • charge:  the fissionable material or fuel placed in a reactor to produce a chain reaction.
  • collimator:  a device for confining the elements of a beam within an assigned solid angle.
  • committed dose equivalent (HT,50):  the dose equivalent to organs or tissues received from intake of radioisotopes during fifty (50) years following exposure.
  • committed effective dose equivalent (HE,50):  the sum of products of committed dose equivalent to organs or tissues and the weighing factors (WT) applicable to organs or tissues.
  • Compton effect:  an attenuation process for x- or gamma rays in which an incident photon interacts with an orbital electron of an atom to produce: i)  a recoil electron, and ii)  a scattered photon of energy less than the incident photon.
  • contamination, radioactive:  radioactive material in any place where it is not desired, particularly where its presence may be harmful.
  • continuous wave (CW):  theoretically, continuous wave emission in which the radiated power is non-varying in time.  Practically, all signals which are not pulsed with very short pulse widths, i.e., radar.
  • cosmic rays:  high energy particulate and electromagnetic radiations which originate outside the Earth's atmosphere.
  • counter, gas flow:  device in which an appropriate atmosphere is maintained in the counter tube by allowing a suitable gas to flow slowly through the sensitive volume.
  • counter, Geiger-Mueller (GM):  highly sensitive, gas-filled radiation detection device.  It operates at voltages sufficiently high to produce avalanche ionization.
  • counter, proportional:  gas-filled radiation detection device.  The pulse produced is proportional to the number of ions formed in the gas by the primary ionizing particle.
  • counter, scintillation:  the combination of phosphor, photomultiplier tube, and associated circuits for counting light emissions produced in the phosphors.
  • counting, coincidence:  technique in which particular types of events are distinguished frombackground events by coincidence circuits which register coincidences caused by the type of events under consideration.
  • Curie (Ci):  unit of quantity of radioactive material.  One curie equals 3.7 x 1010 nuclear disintegrations   per second (1 Ci = 3.7 x 1010 dps).
  • daughter:  synonym for radioactive decay product.
  • decay, radioactive:  disintegration of the nucleus of an unstable nuclide by spontaneous emission of charged particles and/or photons.
  • delta rays:  any secondary ionizing particle ejected by recoil when primary ionizing particle passes through matter.
  • dose:  a general form denoting the quantity of radiation or energy absorbed.  For special purposes it must be appropriately qualified.  If unqualified, it refers to absorbed dose.
  • dose, absorbed:  the energy imparted to matter by ionizing radiation per unit mass of irradiated material at the place of interest.  The unit of absorbed dose is the gray.  One gray 1 Joule per kilogram.
  • dose, cumulative:  the total dose resulting from repeated exposures to radiation.
  • dose, occupational:  the total dose received in performance of work-related activities.  Does not include any exposure from dental or other medical sources of radiation received as a patient.
  • dose equivalent (H):  a quantity used in radiation protection.  It expresses all radiation on a common scale for calculating the effective absorbed dose.  It is defined as the product of the absorbed dose (in rads or grays) and certain modifying factors.  The units of dose equivalent are the rem and the sievert.
  • dose fractionation:  a method of administering radiation therapy, in which relatively small doses are given daily or at longer intervals.
  • dose, protraction:  a method of administering radiation by delivering it continuously over a relatively long period at a low dose rate.
  • dosimeter:  instrument to detect and measure accumulated radiation exposure.  See film badge and TLD.
  • effective dose equivalent (HE ):  sum of products of dose equivalent to organs or tissues and weighing factors (WT) applicable to organs or tissues.
  • electromagnetic radiation:  emission of energy in the form of electromagnetic waves in any portion of the electromagnetic spectrum.
  • electron:  a stable elementary particle having an electric charge equal to -1.60210 x 10-19 C and a rest mass equal to 9.1091 x 10-31 kg.
  • electron, Auger:  an electron ejected from an atom as a result of internal conversion characteristic x-rays being absorbed within the same atom from which it was released.  This process is similar to an internal photoelectric effect.
  • electron, secondary:  an electron ejected from an atom, molecule, or surface as a result of an interaction with a charged particle or photon.
  • electron, valence:  electron which is gained, lost, or shared in a chemical reaction.
  • electron volt (eV):  a unit of energy equivalent to the energy gained by an electron in passing through a potential difference of one volt. 1 eV = 1.6 x 10-19 J.
  • equilibrium, secular:  when a parent element has a very much longer half-life than its daughters, then a secular equilibrium will be reached in which equal numbers of atoms of both members of the series disintegrate in unit time.
  • equilibrium, transient:  when a parent element's half-life is longer than its daughters, then a transient equilibrium will be reached in which both members of the series decrease in amount exponentially with the half life of the parent.
  • erythema:  redness of the skin caused by congestion of underlying capillaries.
  • exposure:  a measure of the ionization produced in air by gamma or x-ray radiation.  It is the sum of the electrical charges on all ions of one sign produced in air when all electrons liberated by photons in a volume of air are completely stopped in air, divided by the mass of the air in the volume.
  • fertile:  of a nuclide, capable of being transformed, directly or indirectly, into a fissile nuclide by neutron capture.  Of a material, containing one or more fertile nuclides.
  • film badge:  a pack of photographic film which measures radiation exposure for personnel monitoring.  The badge may contain two or three films of differing sensitivity and filters to shield parts of the film from certain types of radiation.
  • fissile:  a nuclide capable of undergoing fission by interaction with slow neutrons.
  • fission, nuclear:  a nuclear transformation characterized by interaction with slow neutrons.
  • fissionable:  of a nuclide, capable of undergoing fission by any process.
  • fluence:  the number of particles passing through a unit cross-sectional area.
  • fluoroscope:  a fluorescent screen, suitably mounted with respect to an x-ray tube for ease of observation and user protection, used for indirect visualization of internal structures in apparatus or in masses of material.
  • flux density (fluence rate):  the number of particles passing through a unit cross-sectional area per unit time.
  • fusion, nuclear:  act of coalescing two or more atomic nuclei.
  • gain, antenna power:  measure of the ability of an antenna to enhance radiation in a particular direction with respect to an isotropic, omnidirectional radiator.  Usually specified in decibels (dB).
  • gamma rays:  high energy, short wavelength electromagnetic radiation emitted from the nucleus.  Gamma rays are similar to x-rays, but are usually more energetic.
  • gas amplification:  as applied to gas ionization radiation detecting instruments, the ratio of the charge collected to the charge produced by the initial ionizing event.
  • Geiger region:  in an ionization radiation detector, the operating voltage interval in which the charge collected per ionizing event is essentially independent of the number of primary ions produced in the initial ionizing event.
  • Geiger threshold:  the lowest voltage applied to a counter tube for which the number of pulses    produced in the counter tube is essentially the same, regardless of a limited voltage increase.
  • gram atomic weight:  a mass in grams numerically equal to the atomic weight of an element.
  • Gray (Gy):  the SI unit of absorbed dose, equal to 1 J/Kg in any medium.  Also equal to 100 rads.
  • half-life, biological:  the time required for the body to eliminate one half of an administered dosage of any substance by regular processes of elimination.  Approximately the same for both stable and radioactive isotopes of a particular element.
  • half-life, effective:  time required for a radioactive element in an animal body to be diminished 50% as a result of the combined action of radioactive decay and biological elimination.
  • half-life, radioactive:  time required for a radioactive substance to lose 50% of its activity by decay.  Each radionuclide has a unique half-life.
  • half value layer (HVL):  the thickness of a specified substance which, when introduced into the path of a given beam of radiation, reduces the exposure rate by one-half.
  • hardness (x-rays):  a relative specification of the quality or penetrating power of x-rays.  In general, the shorter the wavelength, the "harder" the radiation.
  • hot cell:  a heavily shielded enclosure for handling, processing or storing highly radioactive materials.
  • infrared light:  electromagnetic waves in the approximate frequency range of 3 x 1011 to 4 x 1014 Hz.
  • interlock:  a device, usually electrical and/or mechanical, to prevent activation of a control until a preliminary condition has been met, or prevent hazardous operations.  Its purpose usually is safety.
  • internal conversion (I.C.):  one of the possible mechanisms of radioactive decay from the metastable state in which the transition energy is transferred to an orbital electron, causing its ejection from the atom.
  • ion:  atomic particle, atom, or chemical species bearing an electrical charge, either negative or positive.
  • ionization:  the process by which a neutral atom or molecule acquires a positive or negative charge.
  • ionization, specific:  number of ion pairs per unit length of path of ionizing radiation in a medium;  e.g., per cm of air or per micrometer of tissue.
  • ionization, total:  the total electric charge of one sign on the ions produced by radiation in the process of losing its kinetic energy.  For a given gas, the total ionization is closely proportional to the initial ionization and is nearly independent of the nature of the ionizing radiation.  It is frequently used as a measure of radiation energy.
  • ionizing radiation:  electromagnetic radiation with sufficient energy to produce ions in matter that it strikes.  Includes gamma rays, x-rays, alpha and beta particles, neutrons, protons, high speed electrons and other nuclear particles, but not visible light, sound, radio waves, or microwave radiation.
  • ion pair:  particles of opposite charge, usually referring to the electron and positive atomic or molecular residue resulting after the interaction of ionizing radiation with the orbital electrons of atoms.
  • irradiation:  exposure to radiation.
  • isobars:  nuclides having the same mass number but different atomic numbers.
  • isomers:  nuclides having the same number of neutrons and protons but capable of existing in different quantum states with different energies and radioactive properties.
  • isotopes:  atoms having the same number of protons in their nuclei, and therefore the same atomic number, but differing in the number of neutrons, and therefore differing in the mass number.  Almost identical chemical properties exist between isotopes of a particular element.
  • kilovolt peak (kVp):  the crest value in kilovolts of the potential difference of a pulsating potential generator.  When only half the wave is used, the value refers to the useful half of the cycle.
  • laser:  an acronym for "Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation".  Laser radiation falls into ultraviolet (UV), visible, infrared (IR), and x-ray regions of the electromagnetic spectrum.
  • latent period:  the period or state of seeming inactivity between the time of exposure of tissue to an injurious agent and its response.
  • lead equivalent:  the thickness of lead affording the same attenuation, under specified conditions, as     the material in question.
  • linear energy transfer (LET):  the amount of energy transferred to matter as radiation interacts with it (keV per micrometer of path length).
  • mass number (A):  number of nucleons (protons and neutrons) in the nucleus of an atom.
  • mean life:  see average life.
  • metastable state:  an excited nuclear state having a half-life long enough to be observed.
  • microwaves:  electromagnetic radiation in the approximate frequency range from 300 MHz to 300,000 MHz.
  • monitoring:  periodic or continuous determination of the amount of ionizing radiation or radioactive contamination present in an area.
  • monitoring, area:  routine monitoring of the radiation level or contamination of a particular are, building, room, or equipment.  Some laboratories or operations distinguish between routine monitoring and survey activities.
  • monitoring, personnel:  monitoring of an individual, including breath, excretions, or any part of the clothing.
  • nucleus/nuclei:  the small positively charged core of an atom.  It is about 1/100,000 the diameter of the atom (determined by the position of the electrons), but contains nearly all the atom’s mass.  All nuclei contain both protons and neutrons, except the nucleus of ordinary hydrogen ion which consists of a single proton.
  • pair production:  an absorption process for gamma radiation in which the incident photon is annihilated in the vicinity of the nucleus of the absorbing atom, with subsequent production of an electron and positron pair.  This reaction only occurs for incident photon energies exceeding 1.02 MeV.
  • parent:  a radionuclide which, upon disintegration, yields a specified nuclide either directly or as a later member of a radioactive series.
  • photoelectric effect:  process by which a photon ejects an electron from an atom.  All the energy of the photon is absorbed in ejecting the electron and in imparting kinetic energy to it.
  • photon:  a quantity of electromagnetic energy (E) whose value in joules is the product of its frequency (in Hz) and Planck's constant (h).
  • poison:  material of high absorption cross-section which absorbs neutrons unproductively and reduces the reactivity of a nuclear reactor.
  • polarization:  the orientation of a time-varying electric or magnetic field vector.
  • positron:  particle equal in mass to the electron and having an equal but opposite charge.
  • PRF (pulse repetition frequency):  the number of pulses occurring during one second.
  • proton:  elementary nuclear particle with a positive electric charge equal numerically to the charge of the electron and a mass of 1.007277 atomic mass units.
  • pulse width:  time duration of a pulse, usually measured in units of microseconds (µsec).
  • quality factor (QF):  the linear energy transfer dependent factor by which absorbed doses are multiplied to obtain (for radiation protection purposes) a quantity that expresses (on a common scale for all ionizing radiations) the relative biological effectiveness of the absorbed dose.
  • rad:  the unit of absorbed dose, equal to 0.01 J/Kg in any medium.
  • radar:  acronym for "RAdio Direction And Ranging".  Any system which radiates electromagnetic waves   and utilizes their reflection from distant objects to determine their existence or position.
  • radiation:  see ionizing radiation.
  • radiation-producing machine:  any device capable of producing radiation when the associated control devices are operated or electrical circuits are energized.
  • radiation therapy:  treatment of disease with any type of ionizing radiation.
  • radioactive material:  any material which emits ionizing radiation spontaneously.
  • radioactivity:  see activity.
  • rem:  the unit of dose equivalent.  The dose equivalent in rems is numerically equal to the absorbed dose in rads multiplied by the quality factor.
  • repetition frequency:  the number of times a repetitive phenomenon occurs per unit time.
  • restricted area:  any area in which a person may receive an occupational exposure to radiation.
  • RF burn:  occurs if there is sufficient induced RF voltage on a metallic object to cause pain, visible skin damage, or involuntary reaction to a person who comes into contact with the object.  This is distinct from electrical shock and is the result of heating the skin by RF currents.
  • Roentgen (R):  the unit of exposure.  One Roentgen equals 2.58 x 10-4 coulomb per kg of air.
  • rotation therapy:  radiation therapy during which either: i)  the patient is rotated in front of the radiation source, or ii)  the radiation source itself is revolved around the patient.  A larger dose is received at the center of rotation within the patient's body than on any area of the patient's skin.
  • scattering:  change of direction of subatomic particles or photons as a result of a collision or interaction.
  • sealed source:  any radioactive material permanently encapsulated in such a manner that it will not be released under the most severe conditions likely to be encountered.
  • sievert (Sv):  the SI unit of dose equivalent.  The dose equivalent in sieverts is numerically equal to the absorbed dose in grays multiplied by the quality factor (1 Sv = 100 rems).
  • skin effect:  a phenomenon in which high frequency currents tend to concentrate in a thin layer, or skin, on the surface of conductors..
  • source material:  uranium or thorium or any combination thereof, in any physical or chemical form except SNM and ores which contain less than one-twentieth of one percent (0.05%) of uranium or thorium.
  • special nuclear material (SNM):  plutonium, uranium-235, or material enriched in U-233, U-235, or plutonium.
  • specific activity:  total radioactivity of a given nuclide per gram of a compound.
  • streaming:  the increased transmission of electromagnetic or particulate radiation through a medium resulting from the presence of extended voids or other regions of low attenuation.
  • teletherapy:  the treatment of disease with gamma radiation from a source located at a distance from the patient.
  • thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD):  a crystalline material used to measure accumulated radiation xposure.  When exposed to radiation at ambient temperatures, electrons migrate to crystal lattice defects.  When heated, the crystal releases this energy as light which can be detected by a photomultiplier tube and correlated to the amount of radiation exposure.
  • tissue equivalent material:  material made up of the same elements in the same proportions as they occur in a particular biological tissue.  In some cases, the equivalence may be approximated with sufficient accuracy on the basis of effective atomic number.
  • tracer, isotopic:  the isotope or non-natural mixture of isotopes of an element which may be incorporated into a sample to permit observation of the course of that element, alone or in combination, through a chemical, biological, or physical process.  The observations may be made by measurement of radioactivity or of isotopic abundance.
  • transition, isomeric:  the process by which a nuclide decays to an isomeric nuclide (i.e., one of the same mass number and atomic number) of lower quantum energy.  Isomeric transitions, often abbreviated "I.T.", proceed by gamma ray and/or internal conversion electron emission.
  • transmutation:  any process in which a nuclide is transformed into a different nuclide, or more specifically, when transformed into a different element by a nuclear reaction.
  • tube, photomultiplier:  an electron multiplier tube in which the electrons initiating the cascade originate by photoelectric emission.
  • ultraviolet light:  electromagnetic waves in the approximate frequency range of 7 x 1014 to 3 x 1016 Hz.
  • visible light:  electromagnetic waves in the approximate frequency range of 4 x 1014 to 7 x 1014 Hz.  The actual range depends on the observer and the intensity of the light.
  • voltage, operating:  as applied to radiation detection instruments, the voltage across the electrodes in the detecting chamber required for proper detection of an ionizing event.
  • voltage, starting:  for a counter tube, the minimum voltage that must be applied to obtain counts with the particular circuit with which it is associated.
  • volume, sensitive:  that portion of a counter tube or ionization chamber which responds to a specific radiation.
  • water, heavy:  popular name for water molecule in which the hydrogen component is deuterium (D2O).
  • wavelength:  distance between the same point on two successive waves of a periodic function in the direction of propagation in which the oscillation has the same phase.
  • weighing factors (WT ): the proportion of risks of stochastic effects resulting from irradiation of that organ or tissue to the total risk of stochastic effects when the whole body is irradiated uniformly.
  • x-rays:  penetrating electromagnetic radiation having a wavelength much shorter than that of visible light.  These rays are usually produced by excitation of the electron field around certain nuclei.

IV. References:

  • 10 CFR.  Parts 0-199, "Energy", US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, USGPO, Washington, DC.
  • 17 CCR.  "California Radiation Control Regulations", State of California, Department of Health Services, Sacramento, CA.
  • 21 CFR 1040.  "Performance Standards for Light-Emitting Products", US Food and Drug Administration, USGPO, Washington, DC.
  • 29 CFR 1926.  "Non-Ionizing Radiation", US Occupational Safety and Health Administration, USGPO, Washington, DC.
  • ANSI C95.1-1982.  "American National Standard Safety Levels with Respect to Human Exposure to Radio Frequency Electromagnetic Fields, 300 kHz to 100 GHz", The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc., New York, NY, 1982.
  • ANSI C95.5-1981.  "American National Standard Recommended Practice for the Measurement of Hazardous Electromagnetic Fields - RF and Microwave", The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc., New York, NY, 1981.
  • ANSI Z136.1-1986.  "American National Standard for the Safe Use of Lasers", Laser Institute of America, Orlando, FL, 1986.
  • BEIR Committee.  The Effects on Populations of Exposure to Low Levels of Ionizing Radiation, Committee on the Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiation.  National Academy of Sciences, 1980.
  • Brodsky, Allen.  Handbook of Radiation Measurement and Protection, Vol. 1, CRC Press, West Palm Beach, FL, 1978.
  • California State University, Northridge, "Radiation Safety Manual", March 1990.
  • Cember, Herman.  Introduction to Health Physics, Second Edition, Pergamon Press, New York, NY, 1983.
  • Health, Education and Welfare, Department of.  Radiological Health Handbook, Public Health Service, FDA, Bureau of Radiological Health, Revised Edition, Rockville, MD, 1970.
  • Healy.  Surface Contamination:  Decision Levels.  Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico.  LA-4558-MS, 1971.
  • Polk, C., Postow, E.  Handbook of Biological Effects of Electromagnetic Fields, CRC Press, West Palm Beach, FL, 1986.
  • NCRP.  A Handbook of Radioactivity Measurement Procedures, Number 58, National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements, Washington, D.C., 1978.
  • NCRP.  Radiofrequency Electromagnetic Fields, Properties, Quantities and Units, Biophysical Interaction, and Measurements, Number 67, National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements, Washington, D.C., 1981.
  • Shapiro, Jacob.  Radiation Protection, A Guide for Scientists and Physicians, Third Edition, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA, 1990.
  • Stanford University, "Radiation Protection Manual."
  • University of California, Los Angeles, "Technical Information for Radiation Safeguards."
  • University of California, San Diego, "Radiation Safety: A Worker's Guide".  First Edition, August 1989.
  • Upton, Arthur.  "The Biological Effects of Low Level Ionizing Radiation", by Arthur Upton, Scientific American, Volume 246, Number 2, February 1982.
  • USNRC, "Instruction Concerning Prenatal Radiation Exposure", USNRC Regulatory Guide 8.13, November 1975.
  • USNRC, "Instruction Concerning Risks From Occupational Radiation Exposure", USNRC Regulatory Guide 8.29, July 1981.