Biblio: Int¼l Development, Urbanization, and Globalism
To PPD 461: Sustainability Planning Home To URBS 350 : Cities of the Third World

International Development, Urbanization, and Globalism:
Working Bibliography

Ashwani Vasishth        [Last Update: Feb 6, 1999]

Abramovitz, Janet N. 1998.  "Putting a Value on Nature¼s „Free¾ Services,"  World Watch, v11n1 (Jan 1998): 10-19.
[Contrary to popular opinion, most of the value of the world economy comes from the normal functioning of the world resources, not from pulling things out of them. A look at some natural wonders is featured.]

Abu-Lughod, Janet L. 1987.  "The Islamic City: Historic Myth, Islamic Essence and Contemporary Relevance,"  International Journal of Middle Eastern Studies, v19 (1987): 155-176.

Abu-Lughod, Janet L. 1989. Before European Hegemony: The World System A.D. 1250-1350. New York: Oxford University Press.

[Challenging Wallerstein"s singularized world system hypothsis.]

Abu-Lughod, Janet L. 1993.  "Discontinuities and Persistence: One World System or a Succession of Systems?" 278-291 in Andre Gunter Frank & Barry K. Gills, The World System: Five Hundred Years or Five Thousand? London, New York: Routledge.

[Challenges Wallerstein"s argument that only the system after 1450 is interesting and worthy of being called a world system. The book itself is an expression of this debate. Some interesting maps of trade routes over time.]

Abu-Lughod, Janet Lippman. 1984.  "Culture, "Modes of Production," and the Changing Nature of Cities in the Arab World,"  94-119 in John Agnew, John Meercer & David Soper (eds.) The City in Cultural Context. Boston, MA: Allen & Unwin.

Adams, Patrica. 1991. Odious Debts: Loose Lending, Corruption, And The Third World¼s Environmental Legacy. London: Earthscan.

Adams, Robert M. 1960.  "The Origin of Cities,"  Scientific American, v203n3 (Sep 1960): 153 (11).

[Agriculture as prerequisite to cities, which were necessary settings for storage, exchange and redistribution. Describes what was known about ancient cities at the time of writing.]

Adelman, Irma & Cynthia Taft Morris. 1997.  "Development History and its Implications for Development Theory,"  World Development, v25n6 (Jun 1997): 831-840.

Agnew, John & John Mercer & David Sopher (eds.). 1984. The City in Cultural Context. Boston: Allen & Unwin.

Agrawal, A. 1995.  "Dismantling the Divide between Indigenous and Scientific Knowledge,"   Development & Change, v26n3 (1995): 413-439.

Ahmad, Nesar. 1988.  "Origins of Hindu-Muslim Conflict: Impact of the World Economic Crisis (1873-96),"  139-148 in Francisco O. Ramirez (ed.), Rethinking the Nineteenth Century: Contradictions and Movements, (Studies in the Political Economyof the World System: Contributions in Economics and Economic History, No. 76.) New York: Greenwood Press.

[Britain needed India to export capital to help it ease its balance of payment deficits with Europe and North America. Quotes Tomlinson, "...India formed the vital third leg in a triangular pattern of settlements between Britain and the rest of the world, financing over two-fifths of Britain"s balance ofpayments deficit..." Quotes Bagchi, "...the systematic manner in which Britain was investing capital in the white colonies by generating export surplus out of the nonwhite colonies..." The shift from a dual silver/gold-based currency system to a purely gold-based one, inherently disadvantaged the silver-based countries (India and China). Suggests that the crisis (the "Great Depression") created economic policies within colonial India that favored the Hindu commercial elite over the Muslim landowning-elite.]

Al-Haqeel, Abdallah S. & Srinivas R. Melkote. 1995.  "International Agenda-setting Effects of Saudi Arabian Media: A Case Study,"  Gazette, v55n1 (1995): 17-37.

Alonso, William. 1980.  "Five Bell Shapes in Development,"  Papers of the Regional Science Association, v45 (1980): 5-16.

Altschull, J.H. 1984. Agents of Power: The Role of News Media in Human Affairs. New York: Longman.

Amin, Samir. 1991.  "The Ancient World-Systems Versus the Modern Capitalist World-System,"  Review, v14n3 (Summer 1991): 349-385. (Reprinted in Frank & Gills, 1993, The World System: Five Hundred Years or Five Thousand? London, New York: Routledge.)

[Surveys the structure of proto-capitalist exchange, and estimates flows of trade and trade surpluses between 300BC and 1500AD. Makes two time-lines: 3000BC-200BC and 300BC-1500AD. Critique of capitalism at the world-system level, in that, since capital and goods are free to move, but not labor, prices tend to even out but not wages. Shows systemic constraints of certain forms of capitalism.]

Anand, A. 1993. „Introduction,¾ 1-24 in Women¼s Feature Service (ed.), The Power to Change: Women in the Third World Redefine their Environment. New Jersey: Zed Books.

Andersen, P.A. & M.W. Lustig & J.F. Andersen. 1990.  "Changes in Latitude, Changes in Attitude: The Relationship between Climate and Interpersonal Communication Predispositions,"  Communication Quarterly, v38 (1990): 291-311.

[Examine the relationship between climate and cultural predispositions within the US. Argue that 42% of the variance in cultural interpersonal arousal can be accounted for by average temperature. ]

Anderson, Elizabeth. 1995.  "Feminist Epistemology: An Interpretation and a Defense,"  Hypatia, v10n3 (Summer 1995): 50-84.

[Feminist epistemology as the branch of naturalized, social epistemology that studies the various influences of norms and conceptions of gender and gendered interests and experiences on the production of knowledge. This understanding avoids dubious claims about feminine cognitive differences.]

Annez, Patricia & Alfred Friendly. 1996.  "Cities in the Developing World: Agenda for Action Following Habitat II,"  Finance and Development, v33n4 (Dec 1996): 12-14.

[Rapid urbanization is creating cities that are full of new opportunities for economic and social advance but also beset by grave physical, financial, and management shortcomings that endanger the hopes, and even the health, of their swelling populations. New and determined efforts are made to ensure environmental protection, adequate infrastructure, and fiscal reforms. Such shifts in investment and government policies are urgent and affordable.]

Anonymous. 1992.  "A Greener Bank,"  Economist, v323n7760 (May 23, 1992): 79-80.

[Wise environmental policies could make poor countries less poor, according to the World Bank¼s new World Development Report. Development can be strengthened through sound environmental policies.]

Anonymous. 1992. „Human Development Report 1992: Making the HDI Gender-Sensitive,¾ WIN News (Women"s International Network), v18n3 (Summer 1992): 8-9.

[Of the many inequalities in human development, the most striking is that along gender lines. A gender-sensitive HDI--Human Development Index--from the UN"s "Human Development Report 1992" is presented.]

Anonymous. 1994. „Women in Development,"  WIN News (Women¼s International Network), v20n2 (Spring 1994): 36-37.

[The importance of integrating women into AID¼s programs is discussed. The importance of women¼s contributions to households in LDCs is even more important today because they are often the sole bread winners.]

Anonymous. 1995.  "Latin America¼s Drift to the Cities,"  Economist, v337n7936 (Oct 14, 1995): 56.

[International conference to deal with rural-urban migration.]

Anonymous. 1995. „Women and Development: World Bank Structural Adjustment and Gender Policies,"  WIN News (Women¼s International Network), v21n2 (Spring 1995): 31-33.

[General analysis of structural adjustment programmes (SAPs), their impact on women and gender relations, reviews the roles of women and men in economy, society and policy-making. Several ways to modify SAPs based on an analysis of linkages between SAPs and changes in gender relations and women¼s positions.]

Anonymous. 1996. „What Price Progress?,¾ New Scientist, v151n2046 (Sep 7, 1996): 3.

[The UK¼s Office for National Statistics has produced a set of pilot accounts that attempt to set environmental costs of different sectors of the economy against their contribution to GDP. These measures will be beneficial in measuring the true costs of economic growth. The „genuine progress indicator¾ or „GPI¾ is an alternative indicator that includes the work done at home. The GPI is useful in assessing the true economic health of a nation.]

Anonymous. 1997.  "Civilization Under Siege,"  UN Chronicle, v34n3 (1997): 30-34.

[Argues that irrepairable damage is being done to the planet by wasting precious resources and using inefficient economic methods. Advocates eco-efficiency in production processes, taxes on fossil fuels, and targeted subsidies as strategies. No citations.]

Askew, Marc & William S. Logan (eds.). Cultural Identity and Urban Change in Southeast Asia

Atkinson, Giles & Kirk Hamilton. 1996. „Accounting for Progress: Indicators for Sustainable Development,¾ Environment, v38n7 (Sep 1996): 16-20+.

[To assess progress toward sustainable development, a suitable set of indicators is clearly needed, such as air quality indices and water quality classifications. Some recent attempts at „green accounting¾ and the issues they raise are discussed.]

Atkinson, Giles & W. R. Dubourg & K. Hamilton & M. Munasinghe & D. W. Pearce. ???? Measuring Sustainable Development: Macroeconomy and Environment. ****: Edward Elgar.

Aturupane, Harsha & Paul Glewwe & Paul Isenman. 1994.  "Poverty, Human Development, and Growth: An Emerging Consensus?" American Economic Review, v84n2 (May 1994): 244-249.

[Discusses the debate on the extent to which poverty, or development progress in general, should be measured by income or by a broader set of objectives. Advocate a basic set of three social indicators for measuring progress.]

Ausubel, Jesse H. & Cesare Marchetti. 1996. „Elektron: Electrical Systems In Retrospect and Prospect,¾ Daedalus, v125n3 (Summer 1996): 139-169.

Ausubel, Jesse H. & David G. Victor & Iddo K. Wernik. 1995.  "The Environment Since 1970,"  Consequences, v1n3 (Autumn 95): http://gcri

[Three sorts of environmental change: the underlying forces of economic and population growth; indicators of the environment itself; and changes in management and institutions. Using quantifiable, objective measures only.]

Ausubel, Jesse H. 1996.  "The Liberation of the Environment,"  Daedalus, v125n3 (Summer 1996): 1-17.

[Argues that well-established trajectories that raise the efficiency with which people use energy, land, water and materials can cut pollution and leave more soil unturned. In altering the landscape so dramatically, humans have secured a new insecurity in that more has been transformed than is needed or prudent.]

Auty, R.N. 1997.  "Pollution Patterns During the Industrial Transition,"  The Geographical Journal, v163n2 (1997): 206-215.

[In the transition from a traditional to a developed economy, pollution first intensified and then eased. The total volume of emissions traced an S-shaped curve. As the industrial structure diversified from agro-processing into capital- and skill-intensive intermediates, and finally into research-intensive products, emissions shift from water-borne organic pollutants:to urban-centred airborne pollution and solid waste, followed by high growth of hazardous materials. South East Asian countries support this pattern, but differences between countries in natural resource endowment, industry and environment policies, and institutional capacity will continue to modify the pollution intensity curve as economic development proceeds.]

Auvinen, Juha Y. 1996.  "IMF Intervention and Political Protest in the Third World: A Conventional Wisdom Refined,"  Third World Quarterly, v17n3 (Sep 1996): 377-400.

[Statistical analysis of the literature criticizing IMF"s austerity-driven adjustment policies. Assesses sources of resistance.]

Avery, William P. 1990.  "The Origins of Debt Accumulation among LDCs in the World Political Economy,"  The Journal of Developing Areas, v24n4 (Jul 1990): 503-522.

[Discusses the endogenous and exogenous determinants of indebtedness. Role of IMF as lender, as credit-rater, and as policy enforcer.]

Ayres, Ed. 1996.  "The Expanding Shadow Economy,"  World Watch, v9n4 (Jul 1996): 10-23.

[Increasing globalization,increasing informal-sector. Threat to civil society, opportunity to reform business practice.]

Baer, M. Delal. 1997.  "Misreading Mexico,"  Foreign Policy, n108 (Fall 1997): 138-150.

[Challenges public and policy statements in US. Some arguments strong, others at least interesting and provocative.]

Bagchi, Amiya Kumar. 1982. The Political Economy of Underdevelopment. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Banerjee, Tridib. 1996.  "Role of Indicators In Monitoring Growing Urban Regions: The Case of Planning In India¼s National Capital Region,¾ Journal of the American Planning Association, v62n2 (Spring 1996): 222-235.

[Demonstrates how various indicators based on easily obtained data can help in making strategic choices about managing future growth in the case of India¼s National Capital Region (Delhi and its hinterland).]

Banerjee, Tridib. 1996.  "Role of Indicators in Monitoring Growing Urban Regions: The Case of Planning in India"s National Capital Region,"  Journal of the American Planning Association (JAPA), v62n2 (Spring 1996): 222-235.

[Role of indicators, India"s National Capital Region.]

Barber, Benjamin R. 1995. Jihad vs. McWorld. New York: Times Books.

Barker, John. 1996.  "Village Inventions: Historical Variations upon a Regional Theme in Uiaku, Papua New Guinea,"  Oceania, v66n3 (Mar 1996): 211-229.

[Examines the reshaping of local understandings of the village among the Maisin people of Oro Province. Three contexts within which Maisin notions of the village have been formed: colonial models of village government imposed before the Second World War; Christian village cooperatives in the post-war colonial period; and village meetings in the 1980s. Idea of the village complex, overlapped.]

Bartone, C. & J. Bernstein & J. Leitmann & J. Eigen. 1994. Towards Environmental Strategies for Cities; Policy Considerations for Urban Enrironmental Management in Developing Countries. (UNDP/ UNCHS/World Bank Urban Management Program No.18.) Washington, DC: World Bank.

Bascom, William. 1955.  "Urbanization Among the Yoruba,"  American Journal of Sociology, v60 (1955): 446-454.

[Reprinted in Press & Smith 1980: 48-60.]

Batterbury, Simon & Timothy Forsyth & Koy Thomson. 1997.  "Environmental Transformations in Developing Countries: Hybrid Research and Democratic Policy,"  Geographical Journal, v163 (Part 2) (Jul 1997): 126-132.

[Introduces a special edition on the theme of åenvironmental transformations in developing countries¼. Many recent studies of political ecology or constructivist approaches to environment either overlook biophysical aspects of environmental change, or uncritically accept åorthodox¼ explanations of physical degradation without appreciating the social and political construction of such models. This paper, and those following, attempt to outline ways in which environmental research may remain sensitive to political and cultural debates, yet also give insights to practical environmental management of biophysical resources åexternally real¼ to human experience. It is argued that understanding human impacts on environment may only be achieved through long-term environmental histories compiled using locally-based åhybrid¼ social and physical research methods; plus an awareness of the social and political construction of environmental åorthodoxies¼ by powerful domestic and global agendas. As such, åtransformations¼ may be viewed as both physical changes in factors such as land cover or health hazards; but also as the socio-economic transitions in the driving forces of environmental degradation and perceptions of risk which in turn fuel new orthodoxies in research and policy.]

Beckerman, Wilfred & Jesse Malkin. 1994.  "How Much Does Global Warming Matter?" Public Interest, n114 (Winter 1994): 3-16.

[What the world¼s population needs most are more lavatories and better sewage systems.]

Beckerman, Wilfred. 1992.  "Economic Growth and the Environment: Whose Growth? Whose Environment? (Special Issue: Linking Environment to Development: Problems and Possibilities),"  World Development, v20n4 (Apr 1992): 481(16)..

[The call for action on the danger of global warming is an unjustifiable diversion of attention from the far more serious environmental problems facing developing countries. The likely economic damage done by climate change would be negligible compared to the results of inadequate access to safe drinking water and sanitation, or of urban air pollution. These should be given priority over the interests of future generations.]

Beckerman, Wilfred. 1996.  "Beware Rules and Regulations,"  New Statesman and Society, v9n395 (Mar 22, 1996): 29-30.

[In the longer run, economic growth is essential for environmental protection. It leads to the requisite change in public priorities and provides the required resources. The speed with which growth leads to environmental protection varies from country to country, and from time-period to time-period, according to how rapidly the necessary policies are introduced.]

Beckman, Peter R. & Francine D¼Amico (eds.). 1994. Women, Gender, and World Politics: Perspectives, Policies and Prospects. South Hadley, MA: Bergin and Garvey.

[Critique of the gender blindness of the dominant International Relations (IR) theories. Offers gender analysis as an alternative approach to the study of world politics. Discusses issues such as: "how strategies for economic development and the operations of the international political economy affect women; how the interplay of class, nationality, ethnicity and gender characterizes the struggle of Third World women and create a tension between their gender interests and their national interests; how international development assistance affects women¼s roles and power in the developing world.]

Bell, Judith Kjellberg. 1992.  "Women, Environment and Urbanization in a Third World Context: A Guide to the Literature,"  Women & Environments, v13n2 (Spring 1992): 12(6).

[A list of materials concerning women and urbanization, issues of resource availability, shelter, environmental impacts and collective action.]

Beneria, Lourdes & Amy Lind. 1995. Engendering International Trade: Concepts, Policy, and Action, GSD Working Paper Series, n5, July 1995. (Gender, Science and Development Programme) < GSD/Beneria.Contents.html > GSD Home Page / GSD Publications / IFIAS Home Page

[Explores the effects of trade policy on employment (specifically women¼s employment), issues of gender and technology, the feminization of the labour force, free trade zones (FTZs), and the gender and trade aspects of structural adjustment.]

Berger, Peter L & Francis Fukuyama et al. 1992.  "Is America on the Way Down? (Round Two),"  Commentary, v93n5 (May 1992): 19-29.

[A debate on the posited decline of US society, a position stated by Edward N. Luttwak in an earlier issue.]

Birnbaum, Norman. 1996.  "Socialism Reconsidered--Yet Again,"  World Policy Journal, v13n3 (Fall 1996): 40-51.

[The socialist movement initially sought the total transformation of Western society and the creation of a new set of institutions. Contemporary historical and philosophical debate about socialism attaches to the collapse of the USSR.]

Blaikie, P. 1985. The Political Economy of Soil Erosion in Developing Countries. Development Series. London: Longman.

Blaut, J.M. 1992. The Colonizer"s Model of the World: Geographical Diffusionism and Eurocentric History. New York, London: The Guilford Press.

[That the "rise" of Europe over other civilizations did not begin until 1492--the colonization of the Americas. This gave Europe its edge. Challenges the "myth of the European Miracle." Well referenced.]

Blitzer, Sylvia et al. 1988. Outside the Large Cities: Annotated Bibliography and Guide to the Literature on Small and Intermediate Urban Centres in the Third World. London; Washington, D.C.: International Institute for Environment and Development, Human Settlements Programme.

Bolak, Hale Cihan. 1997.  "Marital Power Dynamics: Women Providers and Working Class Households in Istanbul," 218-247 in Joseph Gugler (ed.), Cities in the Developing World: Issues, Theory, and Policy. New York: Oxford University Press.

[Nice discussion of patterns of negotiation within traditional marital structures at the crossroads of urbanization. Discusses the ways in which "economic, cultural and affective dynimics" intersect, challenges stereotypes and conventional description.]

Bond, Michael H. & Peter B. Smith. 1996.  "Cross-cultural Social and Organizational Psychology,"  Annual Review of Psychology, v47 (1996): 205-235.

[Decent survey of indicators, criteria and traits found useful in cross-cultural psychological research.]

Bose, Nirmal Kumar. 1965 (1973).  "Calcutta: A Premature Metropolis,"  Scientific American, (Sep 1965).

[Reprinted in Cities: Their Origin, Growth and Human Impact. (Readings from Scientific American, with an introduction by Kingsley Davis.) San Francisco: W.H. Freeman & Company: 251-262.]

Bossen, Laurel. 1996.  "Wives and Servants: Women in Middle-Class Households, Guatemala City,"  353-365 in George Gmelch & Walter P. Zenner (eds.), 1996, Urban Life: Readings in Urban Anthropology. Prospect Heights, IL: Waveland Press.

[Describes the socio-econmic stratification of women in an urban context, where the affluence of one group is related to the poverty of the other, and the tensions that arise from this.]

Boulding, Kenneth E. 1963.  "The Death of the City: A Frightened Look at Postcivilization,"  133-145 in Oscar Handlin & John Burchard (eds.), The Historian and the City. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press & Harvard University Press.

Bradshaw, York W. & Rita Noonan. 1997.  "Urbanization, Economic Growth, and Women"s Labour-Force Participation: A Theoretical and Empirical Reassessment,"  6-22 in Joseph Gugler (ed.), Cities in the Developing World: Issues, Theory, and Policy. New York: Oxford University Press.

Bradshaw, York W.. 1987.  "Urbanization and Underdevelopment: A Global Study of Modernization, Urban Bias, and Economic Dependency,"  American Sociological Review, v52n2 (Apr 1987): 224-239.

[Panel regression analysis to assess the validity of theories that posit modernization, urban bias, and economic dependency as causes and effects of Third World urbanization. Some support for each theory is found, but some previous studies are also contradicted.]

Brettell, Caroline B. 1996.  "Women are Migrants Too: A Portugese Perspective,"  245-258 in George Gmelch & Walter P. Zenner (eds.), 1996, Urban Life: Readings in Urban Anthropology. Prospect Heights, IL: Waveland Press.

[Profiles the forces surrounding a Portugese woman who migrates to Lisbon, France, Venezuela, and back to Portugal, as a way of exploring the gender frame.]

Brimblecombe, Peter. 1987. The Big Smoke: A History of Air Pollution in London Since Medieval Times. London, UK; New York, NY: Methuen.

Brinkman, Richard. 1995.  "Economic Growth Versus Economic Development: Toward a Conceptual Clarification,"  Journal of Economic Issues, v29n4 (Dec 1995): 1171-1188.

[An attempt is made to further clarify the distinction between economic growth and economic development. Some recognition of this problem is evident in the older literature of development economics.]

Brockway, George P. 1985. Economics: What Went Wrong, and Why, and Some Things to Do About It. New York: Harper & Row.

Brockway, George P. 1991. The End of Economic Man: Principles of any Future Economics. New York: Cornelia & Michael Bessie Books.

Brockway, George P. 1995. Economists Can Be Bad for Your Health: Second Thoughts on the Dismal Science. New York: W.W. Norton,.

Bromley, Ray. 1988.  "Working in the Streets: Survival Strategy, Necessity, or Unavoidable Evil?" 161-182 in Gugler, Josef. 1988. "Overurbanization Reconsidered,"  74-92 in Josef Gugler (ed.), The Urbanization of the Third World. New York: Oxford University Press.

[Categories and political economy characteristics of street occupations based on Cali, Columbia--increasing competition, reducing cost of living, encouraging consumerism. That, in the main, the informal sector is an asset and policies should support rather than repress.]

Brown, Lawrence A.; Sierra, Rodrigo; Digiacinto, Scott; Smith, W. Randy. 1994. "Urban-System Evolution in Frontier Settings,"  Geographical Review, v84n3 (Jul 1994): 249-265.

[Questions existent frameworks of frontier urbanization applied to third-world regions. Reviews conceptual frameworks of urban-system evolution in frontier settings and related generalizations. Provides overview of Ecuador and its Oriente. Evaluates the applicability of conceptual frameworks to this region by considering changes in settlement pattern, urban size, and urban economic functions, which are the elements of urban-system evolution.]

Brown, Lester et al. 1997. State of the World 1997: A Worldwatch Institute Report on Progress Toward a Sustainable Society. New York: Norton.

Brown, Robert U. 1007.  "Concern Over NWIO Revival,"  Editor and Publisher, v130n15 (Apr 12, 1997): 13, 43.

[Members of the International Press Institute express grave concern about calls by ministers of information of non-aligned countries to resurrect the concept of a „new world information and communication order¾ at the United Nations, UNESCO and elsewhere.]

Browne, Harry. 1994. For Richer, For Poorer: Shaping U.S.Mexican Integration. The U.S.Mexico Series, No. 4. Albuquerque, NM: Resource Center Press; London: Latin America Bureau.

["The US-Mexico economic partnership has become a highly influential model for the rest of the world. However, the neoliberal economic policies which have cleared the way for booming crossborder trade and investment are wreaking havoc on workers and small businesses. (The book) explains the nuts and bolts of globalization and free trade (and) offers alternative strategies that can promote business interests while still protecting workers¼ rights and the environment."]

Butalia, U. 1993. „Women and Alternative Media (India)¾ 51-60 in P. Lewis (ed.), Alternative Media: Linking Global and Local. Paris: UNESCO Publishing.

Butterworth, Douglas S. 1962.  "A Study of the Urbanization Process Among Mistec Migrants from Tilantrongo in Mexico City,"  American Indigena, v22 (1962): 257-274.

[Reprinted in Press & Smith 1980: 241-256.]

Bye, Pascal & Alain Mounier. 1996.  "Growth Patterns and the History of Industrialization,"  International Social Science Journal, v48n4 (Dec 1996): 537-549.

[Bye and Mounier address the relations between the history of industrialization in the north in the past and economic and social development in the south today. Their main concern is whether economic development theories provide relevant tools to explain the fast-growing spread of industrialization to new spaces.]

Carpenter, Ted Galen. 1995. The Captive Press: Foreign Policy Crises and the First Amendment. Washington, DC: Cato Institute.

[„...correspondents, editors, pundits, and publishers who work for major media outlets tend to see themselves as members of an opinion-making elite. They consider themselves on an intellectual and social par with high-level policymakers, an attitude that increases the prospect of their being co-opted by ambitious and determined policymakers.¾]

Carter, Harold. 1977.  "Urban Origins: A Review,"  Progress in Human Geography, v1n1 (Mar 1977): 12-32.

Castells, Manuel & Alejandro Portes. 1989.  "World Underneath: The Origins, Dynamics, and Effects of the Informal Economy,"  11-37 in Alejandro Portes & Manuel Castells & Lauren A. Benton (eds.), The Informal Economy: Studies in Advanced and Less Developed Countries. Baltimore, London: The Johns Hopkins University Press.

[Challenge notion that recent growth of informal economy is a temporary phase. Instead, the root form of all market organization. Informal economy not just survival strategy of poor. All work unregulated by legal and sociat institutions, but not including criminal. Can refer to: status of labor; conditions of work; form of management. New informalization different from historical forms. Post-fordist production.]

Castells, Manuel. 1977. The Urban Question: A Marxist Approach, translated by Alan Sheridan. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press.

Castells, Manuel. 1983. The City and the Grassroots: a Cross-Cultural Theory of Urban Social Movements. Berkeley: University of California Press.

Cavanagh, John & Daphne Wysham & Marcos Arruda (eds.). 1994. Beyond Bretton Woods: Alternatives to the Global Economic Order. Boulder, CO: Pluto Press.

["An excellent anthology by over twenty economists and researchers which reviews the history and policies of the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and World Bank . The contributing authors offer engaging ideas for reforms in order to confront the economic devastation that these organizations have created in the Third World."]

Celik, Zeynep. 1996.  "Colonialism, Orientalism, and the Canon,"  Art Bulletin, v78n2 (Jun 1996): 202-205.

[Colonialism and Orientalism as newcomers to the discourse of „rethinking the canon.¾ An 1830s urban design intervention in Algiers Algeria and the thematic repertory of Ottoman artist Osman Hamdi are discussed.]

Chakravorty, Sanjoy. 1994.  "Equity and the Big City,"  Economic Geography, v70n1 (Jan 1994): 1-22.

[Examines some of the causal and temporal relationships between the expected bell-shaped curves for population concentration, income inequality, and regional inequality.]

Chaliand, Gerard. Undated .  "Third World," ml>

[Definition, description, characteristics, global political history, and prospects. Slanted but useful account of the development of underdevelopment and the growth of poverty.]

Chambers, R. 1995.  "Poverty and Livelihoods: Whose Reality Counts?" Environment and Urbanization, v7n1 (1995): 173-204.

Chang, Tsan-Kuo & Jae-Won Lee. 1993.  "U.S. Gatekeepers and the New World Information Order: Journalistic Qualities and Editorial Positions,"  Political Communication, v10n3 (Jul 1993): 303-316.

Chant, Sylvia. 1991. Women and Survival in Mexican Cities: Perspectives on Gender, Labour Markets, and Low-Income Households. Manchester, New York: Manchester University Press; Distributed in the USA and Canada by St. Martin"s Press.

Chase-Dunn, Christopher. 1993. Global Formation: Structures of the World Economy. Oxford: Blackwell.

Chew, Sing C. & Robert A. Denemark (eds.). 1996. The Underdevelopment of Development: Essays in Honor of Andre Gunder Frank. Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications.
[Frank¼s polemics in the 1960s challenged the very idea of modernization by arguing that many countries became underdeveloped because of colonial rule and capitalist penetration, stressing the role of history (the development of underdevelopment) and of external forces (the salience of colonialism and neocolonialism).]

Chowdhury, Kanishka. 1995. „Revisioning History: Shashi Tharoor¼s Great Indian Novel,"  World Literature Today, v69n1 (Winter 1995): 41-48.

[The efforts of contemporary Indian writer Shashi Tharoor to break out of Western discursive constrictions in order to recover and rearticulate events on the subcontinent in the 20th century are examined.]

Cities: Their Origin, Growth and Human Impact. 1973. (Readings from Scientific American, with an introduction by Kingsley Davis.) San Francisco: W.H. Freeman & Company.

Cobb, Clifford W. & John B. Cobb & Carol S. Carson. 1994. The Green National Product: A Proposed Index of Sustainable Economic Welfare. Lanham: University Press of America; [Mankato, MN]: Human Economy Center.

Cobb, Clifford W. & Ted Halstead & Jonathan Rowe. 1995. „If the GDP is Up Why is America Down? (need to replace the Gross Domestic Product as a measure of economic progress) (Cover Story),¾ The Atlantic Monthly, v276n4 (Oct 1995): p59(14).

[Most Americans are not experiencing an economic boom in spite of improvements in the GDP and other indicators. A group called Redefining Progress proposes replacing the GDP with the genuine progress indicator, which would measure the social value of economic activity. Article also at http: //]

Cobb, Clifford W. & Ted Halstead & Jonathan Rowe. 1995. The Genuine Progress Indicator; Summary of Data and Methodology. San Francisco: Redefining Progress (4th Floor, One Kearny Street, San Francisco, CA 94108; Tel. 415.781.1191, September, 1995).

[$10.00 from Redefining Progress.]

Cobb, Clifford W. & Ted Halstead & Jonathan Rowe. 1997. „What¼s Wrong with the GDP?,¾ Population Today, v25n11 (Nov 1997): 3.

[Brief article. Flaws in the GDP and reasons why a Genuine Progress Indicator (GPI) more accurately measures US economic conditions are discussed. The GPI comes much closer to the economy that Americans actually experience than does the GDP.]

Cobb, John B. Jr.. 1995.  "Toward a Just and Sustainable Economic Order,¾ Journal of Social Issues, v51n4 (Winter 1995): 83-100 1995.

[The possibility of developing an economic order that is geared to meeting the needs of people rather than increasing production. Such an economy would be decentralized and organized from the bottom up.]

Collinson, Helen (ed.). 1996. Green Guerrillas: Environmental Conflicts and Initiatives in Latin America and the Caribbean.

Connah, Graham. 1987. African Civilizations. Precolonial Cities and States in Tropical Africa: An Archeological Perspective. London, New York: Cambridge University Press.

Courant, Paul N. 1994. „How Would You Know a Good Economic Development Policy if You Tripped Over One? Hint: Don"t Just Count Jobs,¾ National Tax Journal, v47n4 (Dec 1994): 863-881.

[Economists concerned with economic development should direct more energy to examining the potential for improving economic welfare as distinct from measuring the consequences of development programs.]

Crafts, N. F. R. & David S. Landes. 1995.  "Macroinventions, Economic Growth, and åIndustrial Revolution¼ in Britain and France--Comment/reply,"  Economic History Review, v48n3 (Aug 1995): 591-601

Crafts, N. F. R. 1977..  "Industrial Revolution in England and France: Some Thoughts on the Question. "Why was England First?","  Economic History Review, v30n2 (May 1977): 429-441.

Crosby, Alfred W. 1988.  "Ecological Imperialism: The Overseas Migration of Western Europeans as a Biological Phenomenon,"  103-117 in Donald Worster (ed.), The Ends of the Earth: Perspectives on Modern Environmental History. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

Currie, L. 1976. Taming the Megalopolis. Oxford: Pergamon.

Daly, Herman E. & John B. Cobb, Jr. & Clifford W. Cobb. (1989) 1994. For the Common Good: Redirecting the Economy Toward Community, the Environment, and a Sustainable Future. Second edition. Boston: Beacon Press.

[See "index of social welfare," pgs. 443-507.]

Daly, Herman E. 1973.  "The Steady-State Economy: Toward a Political Economy of Biophysical Equilibrium and Moral Growth,"  149-173 in Herman E. Daly (ed.), Toward a Steady-State Economy, San Francisco: W.H. Freeman and Company.

Daly, Herman E.. 1991. „Towards an Environmental Macroeconmics,¾ Land Economics, v67n2 (May 1991): 255-259.

[Environmental economics is usually taught in colleges and practiced in government agencies and development banks as microeconomics. The development of a system of environmental macroeconomics is discussed.]

Daly, Herman E.. 1993. „The Perils of Free Trade,¾ Scientific American, v269n5 (Nov 1993): 50-57.

[It has long been presumed that free trade is good until proved otherwise. The hidden costs of free trade on the environment and community are discussed.]

Daly, Herman. (1991).  "From Empty-World to Full-World Economics: Recognizing an Historical Turning Point in Economic Development,". in Robert Goodman, Herman Daly & Salah El Serafy (eds.), Environmentally Sustainable Development: Building on Brundtland. World Bank Working Paper No. 46. (July 1991): 18-26.

Danaher, Kevin (ed.). 1994. 50 Years is Enough: The Case Against the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund. Boston: South End Press.

[Argues that free markets, åopen door¼ investment policies, and privatization (the recipes of the World Bank and the IMF for ådevelopment¼, which go by the name of åstructural adjustment¼) are synonymous with declining standards of living, massive cuts in social welfare, large scale unemployment, economic polarization, environmental degradation, extreme poverty and all around human suffering. Examines the structure and purpose of the World Bank and International Monetary Fund, and how they have contributed to the debt burden and economic devastation in the South. Offers case studies from various third world countries, ranging from the vast foreign debt in Brazil and agricultural structural adjustment in Costa Rica to postapartheid neoliberalism in South Africa. Also examines worldwide environmental concerns and gender and ethnic inequalities, and argues that there is an urgent need to redefine „economic development¾ in order to find solutions to crushing and dehumanizing poverty caused by current economic policies around the globe.]

Danaher, Kevin. 1994.  "Down with the World Bank,"  Progressive, v58n12 (Dec 1994): 14.

[The campaign by the Washington-based 50 Years Is Enough opposing the World Bank, demands for accountability.]

Davis, Kingsley. 1955.  "The Origin and Growth of Urbanization in the World,"  American Journal of Sociology, v60n5 (Mar 1955): 429-437.

Davis, Kingsley. 1973.  "Burgeoning Cities in Rural Countries,"   219-223 in Cities: Their Origin, Growth and Human Impact. (Readings from Scientific American, with an introduction by Kingsley Davis.) San Francisco: W.H. Freeman & Company.

[That LDC urbanization is not similar to urbanization paths in industrialized countries.]

Davis, Kingsley. 1973.  "The First Cities: How and Why Did They Arise?" 9-17 in Cities: Their Origin, Growth, and Human Impact. (Readings from Scientific American.) San Franicisco, CA: W.H. Freeman & Co.

[Reprinted in Press & Smith 1980: 133-143.]

Davison, Graeme. 1983.  "The City as a Natural System: Theories of Urban Society in Early Nineteenth-Century Britain,"  349-394 in Derek Fraser & Anthony Sutcliffe (eds.), The Pursuit of Urban History, London: Edward Arnold.

[History of natural history approaches to the study of urban society--organic metaphors and ecological analogies. Role of health care and sanitation in directing urbanization.]

Dawson, Philip & Sam B. Warner. 1963.  "A Selection of Works Relating to the History of Cities,"  271-290 in Oscar Handlin & John Burchard (eds.), The Historian and the City. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press & Harvard University Press.

[Thematic bibliography.]

de Jesus, Carolina Maria. 1962. Child of the Dark: The Diary of Carolina Maria de Jesus. New York: The New American Library.

[Powerful narrative of the everyday lives of the favelados, lived in monotony and hope. Radical in that some reforms took place after its publication.]

de Steiguer, J. E. 1995.  "Three Theories from Economics about the Environment,"  Bioscience, v45n8 (Sep 1995): 552-557.

[That three of the most influential environmental theories were formally stated by English economists. The Malthusian doctrine of population growth and scarcity, John Stuart Mill¼s theory of the steady-state economy, and the neoclassical notion of efficient markets together offer a comprehensive scheme for solving environmental problems.]

del Rio, Vincente. 1992.  "Urban Design and Conflicting City Images of Brazil,"  Cities, v9 (1992): 270-279.

[That the image (and imageability) of places is conditioned by public and politic media depictions, which are necessarily partial. Marketing strategies can then manipulate these partialities to re-present realities. Uses Rio de Janeiro and Curitiba as a case.]

Desai, M. 1994. Greening of the HDI? (Background paper for United Nations Development Programme, Human Development Report 1994.) New York: UNDP.

Detweiler, Robert & Jon H. Sutherland & Michael S. Werthman (eds.). 1973. Environmental Decay in its Historical Context. Glenview, IL: Scott, Foresman.

Dogan, Mattei and John D. Kasarda (eds.). 1988. The Metropolis Era: Vol. 1. A World of Giant Cities. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage Publications.

Doraid, Moez. 1997.  "Analytical Tools for Human Development," (UNDP: Human Development Report Office. Third Edition; August 1997). p/hdro/anatools.htm>

[Brief description of the various indices and ratios used in constructing UNDP"s Human Development Report.]

Drakakis-Smith, David. 1987.  "The Historical Perspective: The Changing Nature of Colonial and Post-Colonial Urbanization,"  11-28 in David Drakakis-Smith, The Third World City. London, New York: Methuen.

Drakakis-Smith, David. 1987. The Third World City (Methuen Introductions to Development). New York: Methuen & Co.

Drakakis-Smith, David. 1995.  "Third World Cities: Sustainable Urban Development. (part 1),"  Urban Studies, v32, n4-5 (May 1995): p659(19).

[Cities in developing countries are mired in environmental problems, including overcrowding, pollution and inadequate waste disposal facilities. Since cities draw a large number of rural migrants, they transform into volatile areas, where residents dissatisfied with the delivery of social services could create social disorder. The central government cannot provide everything for the city dwellers. The private sector should play a bigger role in the delivery of social services and in the promotion of sustainable urban development.]

Drakakis-Smith, David. 1996.  "Third World Cities: Sustainable Urban Development II-Population, Labour and Poverty,"  Urban Studies, v33n4-5 (May 1996): 673-701.

Drakakis-Smith, David. 1997.  "Third World Cities: Sustainable Urban Development III--Basic Needs and Human Rights,"  Urban Studies, v34n5-6 (May 1997): 797-823.

Dunham, Peter S. 1994.  "Into a Mirror Darkly: The Ancient Maya Collapse and Modern World Environmental Policy,"  441-468 in James E. Hickey, Jr. & Linda A Longmire (eds.) The Environment: Global Problems, Local Solutions, Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.

Dunlap, Riley E. & Angela G. Mertig. 1995.  "Global Concern for the Environment: Is Affluence a Prerequisite?,"  Journal of Social Issues, v51n4 (Winter 1995): 121-137.

[Tests assumption that public concern for environmental quality is dependent on affluence, and is therefore stronger in wealthy nations than in poor nations using results from a 1992 international survey conducted by the George H. Gallup International Institute that obtained data on a wide range of environmental perceptions and opinions from citizens in 24 economically and geographically diverse nations. Aggregate, national-level scores for a variety of measures of public concern for environmental quality were created and correlated with per capita gross national product. Although the results vary considerably depending upon the measure, overall national affluence is more often negatively rather than positively related to citizen concern for environmental quality-contradicting conventional wisdom.]

Dunlap, Riley E. & Georre H. Gallup Jr.; & Alec M. Gallup. 1993.  "Of Global Concern: Results of the Health of the Planet Survey,"  Environment, v35n9 (Nov 1993): 6-15+.

[Results of the Health of the Planet Survey, an international survey of public opinion about the environment, are discussed. They indicate a strong public concern for environmental protection exists in many nations.]

Dunn, J. 1993. Western Political Theory in the Face of the Future, 2nd Ed. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Dworetsky, Tom. 1993.  "Will the Real GNP Please Stand Up: Now¼s the Time for Really Gross Economics,"  Omni, v15n6 (Apr 1993): 14.

[Useful one-page summary arguing that the way the GNP is calculated may be part of the country¼s economic problems. The GNP ignores many key figures, such as distribution of income, estimation of resource depletion and international borrowing.] {Economic indicators; Gross National Product; GNP}

Dwyer, D.J. (ed.). 1974. The City in the Third World, New York, NY: Harper and Row Publishers.

Dwyer, D.J. 1974.  "Attitudes Towards Spontaneous Settlement in Third World Cities,"  204-218 in D.J. Dwyer (ed.), The City in the Third World, New York, NY: Harper and Row Publishers.

[Wordy survey of conditions. Mild critique Turner"s shelter strategies. Nice discussion of Hong Kong"s policies.]

Eames, Edwin & Judith Granich Goode. 1973.  "Material Deprivation: A Cross-Cultural View in Contemporary Developing Societies,"  94-156 in Edwin Eames & Judith Granich Goode, 1973, Urban Poverty in a Cross-Cultural Context. New York, NY: Free Press.

Eames, Edwin & Judith Granich Goode. 1973. Urban Poverty in a Cross-Cultural Context. New York, NY: Free Press.

Eckstein, Susan. 1977. The Poverty of Revolution: The State and the Urban Poor in Mexico. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press.

Eichengreen, Barry. 1992. „A Second Bretton Woods?,¾ International Economy, v6n1 (Jan 1992): 44-45+.

[A new Bretton Woods Conference to confront international economic problems head on should be held. Holding a conference to address trade, aid and international lending is discussed.]

Eisler, Riane & David Loye & Kari Norgaard. 1995.. "Women, Men and the Global Quality of Life,"  WIN News (Women¼s International Network), v21n4 (Autumn 1995): 80-81.

[Discusses the Gender Equity and Quality of Life Project.]

Eldredge, H. Wentworth. 1974.  "Alternative Possible Urban Futures," 456-470 in Irwin Press & M. Estellie Smith (eds.), 1980, Urban Place and Process: Readings in the Anthropology of Cities. New York, NY: Macmillan Publishing Co., Inc.

Elson, Diane (ed.). 1991. Male Bias in the Development Process. Manchester, New York: Manchester University Press. Distributed exclusively in the USA and Canada by St. Martin¼s Press.

Elson, Diane. 1995.  "Gender Awareness in Modeling Structural Adjustment,"  World Development, v23n11 (Nov 1995): 1851-1868.

[Discusses strategies for introducing gender analysis into macroeconomic models underpinning the design of structural adjustment programs. Evaluates strengths and weaknesses of the models from a gender perspective.]

England, Kim. 1994.  "From "Social Justice and the City" to Women-Friendly Cities? Feminist Theory and Politics,¾ Urban Geography, v15n7 (1994): 628-643.

[Uses Harvey"s piece as a foil to discuss North American feminist theory.]

Epstein, David G. 1972.  "The Genesis and Function of Squatter Settlements in Brasilia,"  51-58 in Thomas Weaver and Douglas White (eds.) The Anthropology of Urban Environments, Society for Applied Anthropology Monograph No. 11. Washington, DC: Society for Applied Anthropology.

Epstein, Seymour & Petra Meier. 1989. „Constructive Thinking: A Broad Coping Variable with Specific Components,¾ Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, v57n2 (Aug 1989): 332-350.

[The structure of constructive thinking and the development of an instrument for measuring it, the Constructive Thinking Inventory, are discussed.]

Epstein, Seymour & Petra Meier. 1989. „Constructive Thinking: A Broad Coping Variable with Specific Components,¾ Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, v57n2 (Aug 1989): 332-350.

[The structure of constructive thinking and the development of an instrument for measuring it, the Constructive Thinking Inventory, are discussed.]

Evans, Peter. 1995. Embedded Autonomy: States and Industrial Transformation. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

Everett, Margaret. 1997. „The Ghost in the Machine: Agency in "Poststructural" critiques of development,¾ Anthropological Quarterly, v70n3 (Jul 1997): 137-151.

[The uses of, and popular responses to, "sustainable development" and other development strategies in Bogota, Colombia, show that the development discourse is neither as monolithic nor as hegemonic as some critics suggest.]

Everts, Saskia. 1998.  "Technology and Development: Strategies for the Integration of Gender,"  WE International, n42/43 (Fall 1997/Winter 1998): 40-41.

[Discusses the TOOL and TOOLConsult¼s International Conference on Gender and Technology]

Ezcurra, Exequiel & Marisa Mazari-Hiriart. 1996.  "Are Megacities Viable? A Cautionary Tale from Mexico City,"  Environment, vv38n1 (Jan/Feb 1996): 6(20).

Ezrahi, Yaron. 1995.  "The Theatrics and Mechanics of Action: The Theater and the Machine as Political Metaphors,"  Social Research, v62n2 (Summer 1995): 299-322.

[Argues that the political metaphors of the theater and the machine played an important role in the amoralization of behavior as an object of scientific inquiry and the definition of modern categories of social, political, economic, or psychological phenomena.]

Fawcett, James T. & Siew-Ean Khoo & Peter C. Smith (eds.). 1984. Women in the Cities of Asia: Migration and Urban Adaptation. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.

Featherstone, Mike. 1995. Undoing Culture: Globalization, Postmodernism and Identity. London: Sage Publications.

Feng, Yi. 1996.  "Democracy and Growth: The Sub-Saharan African Case, 1960-1992,"  Review of Black Political Economy, v25n1 (Summer 1996): 95-126.

[That the economy grows faster under a regime that enjoys a higher level of institutionalized democracy. And, positive feedback relationship; democracy promotes growth, growth leads to higher level of democratization. Also, duration of authoritarian rule decreases economic growth, while growth shortens tenure of autocratic government.]

Fincher, Ruth & Jacinta McQuillen. 1989.  "Women in Urban Social Environments,¾ Urban Geography, v10n6 (1989): 604-613.

[Review-type article, US.]

Finger, M. 1992.  "The Changing Green Movement: A Clarification,"  229-246 in M. Finger (ed.), The Green Movement Worldwide. Greenwich, CT: JAI Press. Founex Report.

Flower, Joe. 1997. „Beyond Economics: Healthy Communities and Healthy Economies,¾ National Civic Review, v86n1 (Spring 1997): 53-59.

[A car crash or an oil spill may be „good¾ for the economy when measured in traditional economic terms. Perhaps it is time to rethink the approach to economics. If a healthy community is a whole community, then an economics is needed that goes beyond dollars and that will measure and maximize the true community wealth.]

Folke, Carl & Asa Jansson & Jonas Larsson & Robert Costanza. 1997. "Ecosystem Appropriation by Cities,"  Ambio, v26n3 (May 1997): 167-172.

Forsyth, T. 1996.  "Science, Myth, and Knowledge: Testing Himalayan Environmental Degradation in Thailand,"  Geoforum v27n3 (1996): 375 92.

Fox, Johnathan & L. David Brown (eds.). The Struggle For Accountability: The World Bank, NGOs, And Grassroots Movements. Cambridge: MIT Press.

Fox, Richard G. 1977 (1980).  "Cultural Roles and Primary Urban Types," 32-36 in Richard G. Fox, Urban Anthropology: Cities in Their Cultural Settings. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, Inc.

[Reprinted in Irwin Press & M. Estellie Smith, Urban Place and Process: Readings in the Anthropology of Cities. New York, NY: Macmillan Publishing Co., Inc. 1980: 205-209.]

Fox, Richard G. 1977. Urban Anthropology: Cities in Their Cultural Settings. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, Inc.

Frank, David John. 1997. Science, Nature, and the Globalization of the Environment, 1870-1990,"  Social Forces, v76n2 (Dec 1997): 409-435.

[Data on the themes of international environmental treaties from 1870 to 1990 are used to demonstrate an historical shift in the definition of „nature¾ from resource to life-sustaining global ecosystem. This newer scientific model increased nature¼s relevance to world society, and thus catalyzed an exponential rise in international discourse and activity concerning the environment. Two organizational changes also played a role in the proliferation of international environmental treaties: the overall structuration of the world polity had a positive effect, and the consolidation of an official intergovernmental environmental domain had a negative effect, even with the effects of population growth and industrial degradation held constant.]

Fraser, Derek & Anthony Sutcliffe (eds.). 1983. The Pursuit of Urban History, London: Edward Arnold.

Friedman, Jonathan. 1994. Cultural Identity and Global Process. London: Sage.

Friedmann, John. 1986 (1995).  "The World City Hypothesis,"  Development and Change, v17n1 (1986): 69-83. (Reprinted in Paul L. Knox & Peter J. Taylor (eds.), World Cities in a World System. Cambridge, New York: Cambridge University Press. 317-331.)

[Some cities are different than others. There"s a spatial pattern and hierarchy to their relative place in global economy. These cities generate social costs that exceed the capacity of the state, and the weak increasingly pay the price.]

Fritz, John M. & George Michell. 1987.  "Interpreting the Plan of a Medieval Hundu Capital, Vijayanagara," World Archeology, v19n1 (Jun 1987): 105-129.

Frosch, Robert A. 1996. „Toward the End of Waste: Reflections On A New Ecology of Industry,¾ Daedalus, v125n3 (Summer 1996): 199-212.

Fuchs, Roland J. & Gavin W. Jones & Ernesto M. Pernia (eds.). 1987. Urbanization and Urban Policies in Pacific Asia. Boulder: Westview Press.

Fuchs, Roland J. et al. (eds.). 1994. Mega-city Growth and the Future. Tokyo; New York: United Nations University Press.

Fukuyama, Francis. 1995.  "Reflections on The End of History, five years later,"  History and Theory, v34n2 (May 1995): 27-43.

[Defense of his 1989 argument for the normative principles of liberal democracy as the "least worst" hope for mankind. That "the progressive unfolding of modern natural science determines in broad outline the economic modernizaion process, which in turn creates a predisposition toward liberal democracy."]

Gale Research Inc. 1995. Gale Country and World Rankings Reporter. Detroit, MI: Gale Research Inc.

Gallagher, M. & L. Zuindoza-Santiago (eds.). 1994. Women Empowering Communication: A Resource Book on the Globalization of Media. New York: International Women¼s Tribune Center.

Galtung, J. & R.G. Vincent. 1992. Global Glasnost: Toward a New World Information and Communication Order? Cresskill, NJ: Hampton Press.

Gandy, hz. 1996.  "Crumbling Land: The Postmodernity Debate and the Analysis of Environmental Problems,"  Progress in Human Geography, v20n1 (1996): 23-40.

George, Susan & Fabrizio Sabelli. 1994. Faith And Credit: The World Bank¼s Secular Empire. Boulder: Westview.

Gereffi, Gary & Miguel Korzeniewicz (eds.). 1994. Commodity Chains and Global Capital. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers.

Ghazi, Polly & Judy Jones. 1996.  "O, to be a Mexican,"  New Statesman (1996), v9n419 (Sep 6, 1996): 26-27.

[A large salary and a job for life are not Britons¼ prime goals any more. If politicians don¼t want to lose touch, they must realize what makes people happy. The psychology of happiness is discussed.]

Gibson-Graham, J.K. (Julie Graham & Katherine Gibson). 1996. The End of Capitalism (As We Knew It): A Feminist Critique of Political Economy. New York: Blackwell Publishers.

Gilbert, Alan & Josef Gugler. 1992. Cities, Poverty, and Development : Urbanization in the Third World. 2nd ed. Oxford; New York: Oxford University Press.

Gilbert, Alan. 1990. Latin America. London; New York: Routledge.

Gilbert, Alan. 1992.  "Must Global Politics Constrain Democracy?" Political Theory, v20n1 (Feb 1992): 8(30).

Gilbert, Alan. 1993.  "Third World Cities: The Changing National Settlement System,"  Urban Studies, v30n4-5 (May 1993): 721(20).

[Second in a trilogy of review articles. Need for changes in spatial organization and government policy, given trend towards privatization and reduced intervention.]

Gilbert, Alan. 1994.  "Third World Cities: Poverty, Employment, Gender Roles and the Environment During a Time of Restructuring,"  Urban Studies, v31n4-5 (May 1994): 605-633.

[Third in trilogy of review articles. Considers four key elements of urban life in third world cities--poverty, work, gender roles and the environment. The ways in which these have been affected by shifts in the nature of world organization and development. Some nay-saying, some slippery preconceptions.]

Gilbert, Alan. 1994. The Latin American City. London: LAB; New York: Monthly Review Press.

Glasberg, Davita Silfen & Kathryn B. Ward,. 1993.  "Foreign Debt and Economic Growth in the World System,"  S ocial Science Quarterly, v74n4 (Dec 1993): 703-720.

[It is argued that the present phase of world-system development is shaped by finance capital and debt dependency. Although debt might once have stimulated economic growth, current levels of debt service and stocks on nonconcessional loans may hinder growth.]

Glasberg, Davita Silfen & Kathryn B. Ward,. 1993.  "Foreign Debt and Economic Growth in the World System,"  S ocial Science Quarterly, v74n4 (Dec 1993): 703-720.

[It is argued that the present phase of world-system development is shaped by finance capital and debt dependency. Although debt might once have stimulated economic growth, current levels of debt service and stocks on nonconcessional loans may hinder growth.]

Gmelch, George & Walter P. Zenner (eds.). 1996 Urban Life: Readings in Urban Anthropology. 3rd. ed. Prospect Heights, IL: Waveland Press.

Gmelch, George & Walter P. Zenner (eds.). 1996. Urban life: Readings in Urban Anthropology, 3rd ed. Prospect Heights, Ill.: Waveland Press.

Goldberg, Michael A. 1989. On Systemic Balance: Flexibility and Stability In Social, Economic, and Environmental Systems. New York, NY: Praeger.

Goldsmith, William W. 1997.  "The Metropolis and Globalization: The Dialectics of Racial Discrimination, Deregulation, and Urban Form,"  American Behavioral Scientist, v41n3 (Nov 1997): 299-310.

[Examines how shape of the city influences the global economy, argues that the peculiar spatial form of the US metropolis drags down the global economy.]

Gonzalez de la Rocha, Mercedes . 1994. The Resources of Poverty: Women and Survival in a Mexican City. Oxford; Cambridge, MA: Blackwell.

[Study of "Guadalajara¼s working-class households poised on the cusp of Mexico¼s „lost decade¾ of debt crisis, structural adjustment, and neoliberal reform. Her project is squarely situated at the end of an era that has been called the „paradox of modern Mexico,¾ involving the persistence and indeed growth of poverty within a context of overall dynamic economic growth."]

Goode, Judith G. & Edwin Eames. 1996.  "An Anthropological Critique of the Culture of Poverty,"  405-417 in George Gmelch & Walter P. Zenner (eds.), 1996, Urban Life: Readings in Urban Anthropology. Prospect Heights, IL: Waveland Press.

Goode, Judith G. 1972.  "Poverty and Urban Analysis,"  Western Canadian Journal of Anthropology, v3n2 (1972-1973): 1-19.

[Reprinted in Press & Smith 1980: 374-391.]

Goodfriend, Marvin & John McDermott. 1995.  "Early Development,"  American Economic Review, v85n1 (Mar 1995): 116-133.

[A study integrated the four fundamental process of long-term economic development--the exploitation of increasing returns to specialization, the transition from household to market production, knowledge and human-capital accumulation and industrialization--into a coherent framework for examining economic history.]

Goodland, Robert & Herman Daly & Salah El Serafy (eds.). 1991. Environmentally Sustainable Development: Building on Brundtland. World Bank Working Paper No. 46. (July 1991).

Goodland, Robert et al. (eds.). 1991. Environmentally Sustainable Economic Development: Building on Brundtland. Paris: UNESCO.

Goodland, Robert. 1991.  "The Case that the World has Reached Limits,"  5-17 in Robert Goodland & Herman Daly & Salah El Serafy (eds.), Environmentally Sustainable Development: Building on Brundtland. World Bank Working Paper No. 46. (July 1991).

Gordon, April A. 1996. Transforming Capitalism and Patriarchy: Gender and Development in Africa. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner.

Gordon, David M. 1996. Fat and Mean. New York: Free Press.

[Critique of multinational corporations.]

Greenfeld, Liah. 1996. „Nationalism and Modernity,"  Social Research, v63n1 (Spring 1996): 3-40.

[The character of modern societies is defined to a significant extent by the specific character of their nationalism. At the same time, the very fact of adopting national identity and defining the polity as a nation determines certain fundamental qualities and thereby ensures profound similarity between societies thus defined: nationalism makes a society modern. To claim that one nation--say, an economically successful, liberal democratic one--is more modern than another (economically unsuccessful and a dictatorship) is as little justified as to insist that a university professor, for instance, is more human than an illiterate farmer or a new-born infant. Modernity is a qualitative, not a quanititative concept. Nice intro to history of the idea of development in first three pages. Rest seems tedious.]

Greenhalgh, Susan. 1996.  "The Social Construction of Population Science: An Intellectual, Institutional, and Political History of Twentieth-Century Demography,"  Comparative Studies in Society and History, v38n1 (Jan 1996): 26-66.

[Very thick writing.]

Greenpeace. 1992. The World Bank¼s Greenwash: Touting Environmentalism While Trashing The Planet. Greenpeace International, April 1992.

Greer, Scott et al. (eds.). 1968. The New Urbanization. New York, NY: St. Martin Press.

Griffin, Eric . 1996.  "Gender Analysis and International Financial Institutions: The Perspective of a Grassroots Environmental NGO,"  Natural Resources Forum, v20n2 (May 1996): 153-161.

[An attempt is made to reconcile the opinions of various activist-oriented nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) on the use of gender analysis as a policy tool in the field of international development and macroeconomic policy. The evolving relationship between international financial institutions and grassroots environmental NGOs seeking reform in macroeconomic policy is described.]

Griffin, Keith & Terry McKinley. 1992. Towards a Human Development Strategy. UNDP Human Development Report Occasional Paper No. 6.

[Long document. 101 pages. Describes the structure of incentives, public sector resource and structural reforms used for UNDP"s Human Development effort. < o/oc6.htm>]

Gross, B. M. & J. Straussman. 1974. „The Social Indicators Movement,¾ Social Policy, (Sep-Oct 1974): 43-44.

Grossberg, L. 1979.  "Interpreting the „Crisis¾ of Culture in Communication Theory,"  Journal of Communication, v29 (1979): 56-68.

Grubler, Arnulf. 1996. „Time for a Change: On the Patterns of Diffusion of Innovation,¾ Daedalus, v125n3 (Summer 1996): 19-42.

Gugler, Josef (ed.). 1988. The Urbanization of the Third World. New York: Oxford University Press.

Gugler, Josef (ed.). 1996. The Urban Transformation of the Developing World. New York: Oxford University Press.

Gugler, Josef (ed.). 1997. Cities in the Developing World: Issues, Theory, and Policy. New York: Oxford University Press.

Gugler, Josef. 1988.  "Overurbanization Reconsidered,"  74-92 in Josef Gugler (ed.), The Urbanization of the Third World. New York: Oxford University Press.

[Overurbanization if if shift in population causes misallocation of labor or increases social costs. Discusses the economic rationale for rural-urban migration, argues for targeted redistribution of surplus investment.]

Gugler, Josef. 1991.  "Life in a Dual System Revisited: Urban-Rural Ties in Enugu, Nigeria, 1961-87,"  World Development, v19, n5 (May 1991): p399(11).

[That urban dwellers lived in a dual sytem; committed to urban life and to the rural community from which they had come. The 1987 replication of a survey carried out in 1961 in Enugu, the largest city in southeastern Nigeria, allows an assessment of changes in urban-rural ties over a generation. Indicates the need to distinguish between different patterns and consequences of rural-ruban migration .]

Gugler, Josef. 1994.  "How Ngugi wa Thiong"o Shifted from Class Analysis to a Neo-Colonialist Perspective,"  The Journal of Modern African Studies, v32, n2 (June 1994): p329(11).

[African writer Ngugi wa Thiong"o"s novels "Petals of Blood" and "Devil on the Cross" depict a shift in emphasis from evaluation of the privileged class in Kenya to neo-colonialism. The latter book focuses on foreign capitalists who dominated the Kenyan economy while "Petals of Blood" gives a true picture of the privileged class who had almost total political power in Kenya. The books have similar themes but differ in structure, language and content.]

Guitian, Manuel. 1995. „Conditionality: Past, Present, Future,¾ International Monetary Fund Staff Papers, v42n4 (Dec 1995): 792-835.

[The practice of conditionality as developed by the IMF and its membership over the first 45 years of the institution"s existence is discussed, and current issues and practices in the implementation of conditionality are featured.]

Gulick, John. 1973.  "Urban Anthropology," 979-1029 in John J. Honigmann (ed.), Handbook of Social and Cultural Anthropology. Chicago, IL: Rand McNally.

[Excerpted in Press & Smith 1980: 61-78.]

Hagen, Everett E. 1962. On the Theory of Social Change. Homewood, IL: Dorsey.

[Sources of entrepreneurship.  "Withdrawal of Status Respect." The progeny of individuals who have been humiliated, after a few generations, rebel. Reject traditional roles and strike out in creative ways.]

Hall, Peter. 1987.  "Metropolitan Settlement Strategies,"  230-259 in Lloyd Rodwin (ed.), Shelter, Settlement, and Development. Boston: Allen & Unwin.

Hamill, Pete. 1996. Piecework: Writings on Men and Women, Fools and Heroes, Lost Cities, Vanished Friends, Small Pleasures, Large Calamities, and How the Weather Was. Boston: Little, Brown and Company.

[Partial contents: The cities of New York; The lawless decades; Mexico; Out there; The talent in the room; Position papers; Rolling the dice.]

Hamlin, Christopher. 1995. „Could You Starve to Death in England in 1839? The Chadwick-Farr Controversy and the Loss of the „Social¾ in Public Health,"  American Journal of Public Health, v85n6 (Jun 1995): 856-866.

[Hamlin explores an 1839 controversy between the statistician William Farr and the pioneering sanitary reformer Edwin Chadwick on the role of starvation as a cause of death. The controversy is considered in relation to the social implications of „constitutional¾ medicine.

Hammond, Allen et al. 1995. Environmental Indicators : A Systematic Approach to Measuring and Reporting on Environmental Policy Performance in the Context of Sustainable Development. Washington, DC: World Resources Institute.

Handlin, Oscar & John Burchard (eds.). 1963. The Historian and the City. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press & Harvard University Press.

Haq, M. 1995.  "The Vision and the Reality,"  26-33 in M. Haq & R. Jolly & P. Streeten & K. Haq (eds.), The United Nations and Bretton Woods Institutions: New Challenges for the Twenty-first Century. London: Macmillan.

Haq, Mahbub ul. 1992 Human Development in a Changing World. Human Development Report Occasional Paper No. 1. < o/oc1.htm> New York, UNDP.

[Introduces (?) the 1992 Human Development Report, and the central thesis of these reports--that people, their role in the development porcess, and the consequences of the development process for them, is what needs to be measured.]

Haq, Mahbub ul. 1995. Reflections on Human Development: How the Focus of Development Economics Shifted from National Income Accounting to People-Centred Policies. New York: Oxford University Press.

[Argues that there"s too much attention to national income targets and physical capital, insufficient attention to human capital. Strong criticism of the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund for urging countries to reduce the size of their governments without distinguishing between useful and nonuseful programs. That the „quality of government action¾ is a neglected factor of development. He"s one of the people credited with pushing the UN to develop their Human Development Index.]

Haq, Mahbub ul, et al (eds.). 1995. The UN and the Bretton Woods Institutions: New Challenges For The Twenty-First Century. New York : St. Martin¼s Press.

[An historical perspective / H.W. Singer -- The vision and the reality / Mahbub ul Haq -- A changing institution in a changing world / Alexander Shakow -- The Keynesian vision and the developing countries / Lal Jayawardena -- An African perspective on Bretton Woods / Adebayo Adedeji -- A West European perspective on Bretton Woods / Andrea Boltho -- A comparative assessment / Catherine Gwin -- A blueprint for reform / Paul Streeten -- A new international monetary system for the future / Carlos Massad -- On the modalities of macroeconomic policy coordination / John Williamson -- Gender priorities for the twenty-first century / Khadija Haq -- Biases in global markets : can the forces of inequity and marginalization be modified? / Frances Stewart -- Poverty eradication and human development : issues for the twenty-first century / Richard Jolly -- Role of the multilateral agencies after the Earth Summit / Maurice Williams -- New challenges for regulation of global financial markets / Stephany Griffith-Jones -- A new framework for development cooperation / Mahbub ul Haq.]

Hardoy, Jorge & David Satterthwaite. 1987.  "The Legal and the Illegal City,"  304-338 in Lloyd Rodwin (ed.), Shelter, Settlement, and Development. Boston: Allen & Unwin.

Hardoy, Jorge E. & David Satterthwaite. 1989.  "The Dimensions of Urban Change,"  222-257 in Jorge E. Hardoy & David Satterthwaite, Squatter Citizen: Life in the Urban Third World. London, UK: Earthscan Publications Ltd.

Hardoy, Jorge E. & David Satterthwaite. 1989. Squatter Citizen: Life in the Urban Third World. London, UK: Earthscan Publications Ltd.

Hardoy, Jorge E. & Diana Mitlin & David Satterthwaite. 1992. Environmental Problems in Third World Cities. London: Earthscan.

[Report prepared for the Earth Summit (the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development) in Rio de Janeiro in June 1992, at the request of the UK Overseas Development Administration.]

Hardoy, Jorge E. 1968. Urban Planning in Pre-Columbian America. New York, Braziller.

Hardoy, Jorge E. 1973. Pre-Columbian Cities, translated by Judith Thorne. New York: Walker.

Harris, Nigel. 1997.  "Cities in a Global Economy: Structural Change and Policy Reactions,"  Urban Studies, v34n10 (Oct 1997): 1693-1703.

[Examines economic structural change and policy reactions to programs that deal with cities adapting to a global economy after the Habitat I conference in 1976. Comments on the relevance of structural change policies to spatial change.]

Harvey, David L. & Michael H. Reed. 1996.  "The Culture of Poverty: An Ideological Analysis,"  Sociological Perspectives, v39, n4 (Winter 1996): p465(31).

[Oscar Lewis" subculture of poverty theory has been misunderstood for 30 years as a concept which argues that poor people are themselves to be blamed for their poverty. This common interpretation is in error since Lewis" idea is based on a Marxist argument against capital. Lewis" theory is therefore a salute for the poor people"s flexibility and resourcefulness instead of a defamation of needy people.]

Harvey, David L. 1974.  "Population, Resources, and the Ideology of Science,"   Economic Geography, (July 1974): 256-277.

[Argues that dialectical materialism is the only way to understand the dynamic relationship between questions of population and resource use. Rejects the notion that science is ideology-free and hence ethically neutral. Uses material from Malthus on to argue the constructedness of ideas such as overpopulation, which are more expressions of social relations than of objective fact.]

Harvey, David L. 1989. The Condition of PostModernity: An Enquiry into the Origins of Cultural Change. Cambridge, MA: Blackwell.

Harvey, David L. 1991.  "Flexibility: Threat or Opportunity?" Socialist Review, v21n1 (Jan 1991): 65-77.

[The types of flexibility that can be seen in capitalism include flexibility in relation to the labor processes, flexibility in labor markets, flexibility in state policy and flexibility in geographic mobility.]

Harvey, David L. 1992.  "Capitalism: The Factory of Fragmentation (Time, Form and Ethics in the Wake of Modernism),"   New Perspectives Quarterly, v9n2 (Spring 1992): 42(4).

[The postmodern worldview denies a general and systematic principle that can explain the course of history. The historical materialist view refutes this claim and asserts that political and economic developments are influenced by the motive to acquire capital. Growth, change and conflict are inevitable results of capitalism.]

Harvey, David L. 1992.  "Social Justice, Postmodernism and the City,"   International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, v16n4 (Dec 1992): 588-601.

[Social justice and social rationality in urban planning have changed. Negative consequences of dominant power relations and market mechanisms can be confronted by an appeal to notions of social justice.]

Harvey, David L. 1992.  "Social Justice, Postmodernism and the City,"   International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, v16n4 (Dec 1992): 588-601.

[Five faces of oppression, and six propositions of social justice.]

Hasan, Farhat. 1992.  "Indigenous Cooperation and the Birth of a Colonial City: Calcutta, c. 1698-1750,"   Modern Asian Studies, v26 (Pt. 1) (Feb 1992): 65-82.

[Early trade in Calcutta was accompanied by English soldiers, resulting in a reputation for security and an atmosphere that encouraged investments.]

Hauser, Philip M. & Leo F. Schnore (eds.). 1965. The Study of Urbanization, New York: Jonh Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Hays-Mitchell, Maureen. 1995.  "Voices and Visions from the Streets: Gender Interests and Political Participation Among Women Informal Traders in Latin America,¾ Society and Space, v13n4 (1995): 445-470.

Henderson, Hazel. 1994.  "Paths to Sustainable Development: The Role of Social Indicators,𔄭 Futures, v26n2 (Mar 1994): 125-137.

[Reviews current debate about new indicators of wealth and progress and how the meaning of "development" is changing. The goal of sustainable development is to clarify the confusion of means with truly evolutionary human development as the ends to be pursued within the ecological tolerances of the Earth.]

Henderson, Hazel. 1996.  "What¼s Next in the Great Debate about Measuring Wealth and Progress?,¾ Challenge, v39n6 (Nov 1996): 50-56.

[The inadequacy of incorporating additional new indicators into GDP measures is addressed. It is better to have separate indicators that more clearly define GDP measurements.]

Hicks, Douglas A.. 1997.  "The Inequality-Adjusted Human Development Index: A Constructive Proposal,𔄭 World Development, v25n8 (Aug 1997): 1283-1298.

[Hicks proposes a method to incorporate a concern for distributional inequalities of income, education, and longevity into the framework of the Human Development Index as it is designed by the United Nations Development Programme.]

Hilhorst, J.G.M & M. Klatter. 1985. Social Development in the Third World: Level of Living Indicators and Social Planning. London; Dover, NH: Croom Helm (In co-operation with the Institute of Social Studies at the Hague).

Hojman, David E. 1996.  "Poverty and Inequality in Chile: Are Democratic Politics and Neoliberal Economics Good for You?,"  Journal of Interamerican Studies and World Affairs, v38n2/3 (Summer 1996): 73-96.

[Discusses the free-market, open-economy model adopted by Chile¼s civilian, democratically elected adminstrations and analyzes whether this model has affected the country¼s distribution of income and degree of poverty. The Chilean model is extremely good for the upper-middle quintile.]

Holdgate, Martin W. 1995.  "Pathways to Sustainability: The Evolving Role of Transnational Institutions,"  Environment, v37n9 (Nov 1995): 16-20+.

[Transnational organizations have become important, but many will need to change appreciably. The evolving role of transnational organizations in sustainability is examined.]

Honigmann, John J. (ed.). 1973. Handbook of Social and Cultural Anthropology. Chicago, IL: Rand McNally.

Hug, James E. 1993.  "Health Care: A Planetary View,"  America, v169n19 (Dec 11, 1993): 8-12.

[An examination of the World Bank¼s 1993 World Development Report, entitled „Investing in Health: World Development Indicators,¾ is presented. The report assumes that the wealthy industrial nations will continue to consume more than 90% of global health resources.]

Hughes, J. Donald. 1975. Ecology In Ancient Civilizations. Albuquerque, NM: University of New Mexico Press.

Humphrey, John. 1996.  "Responses to Recession and Restructuring: Employment Trends in the Sao Paulo Metropolitan Region, 1979-87,"  Journal of Development Studies, v33n1 (Oct 1996): 40-62.

[Examines the impact of recession and restructuring on the labor markets and households, focusing on the differential impact of recession and restructuring on men and women in Greater Sao Paulo.]

Humphrey, John. 1997.  "Gender Divisions in Brazilian Industry," 171-183 in Joseph Gugler (ed.), Cities in the Developing World: Issues, Theory, and Policy. New York: Oxford University Press.

[The segmentation of labour markets, the gender division of labour, and the implications for these of recent manufacturing techniques such as Just in Time and Total Quality Management.]

IBRD. 1967. World Bank Atlas. (Annual, 1988 et seq.) Washington, DC: International Bank for Reconstruction and Development.

IMF. 1980. World Economic Outlook. Biannual. (1980 et seq.; Occasional Paper Series. ) Washington, DC: The Fund.

Inglehart, Ronald & Marita Carballo. 1997.  "Does Latin America Exist? (And is there a Confucian Culture?): A Global Analysis of Cross-Cultural Differences,"  PS, v30n1 (Mar 1997): 34-47.

[Uses the World Values Surveys to explore orientations toward religion, politics, work, economic growth, family values, sexual norms, and gender roles. Examines linkages between the value systems of given societies and their economic, linguistic, religious, geographical, and political characteristics, using multivariate cluster analysis.]

Inkeles, Alex. 1966.  "The Modernization of Man,"  138-150 in M. Weiner (ed.), Modernization: The Dynamics of Growth. New York: Basic Books.

[Nine point scale of attitudes and individual character pre requisite to economic growth.]

Inkeles, Alex. 1969.  "Making Men Modern: On the Causes and Consequences of Individual Change in Six Countries,"  American Journal of Sociology, v75 (Sep 1969): 208-225.

Inkster, Ian. 1991. Science and Technology in History: An Approach to Industrial Development. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press.

[The links among science, technology, and industrial development in the world economy of the 18th and 19th centuries, and briefly upto the mid-1980s. Argues that the ability of the state, in Japan, to promote information flows, to reduce the risks of innovation, and to maintain authority through the transition to rapid growth is of central importance. The governments of 19th-century India and China lacked this ability, and so were doomed to backwardness in the age of consumerism.]

IRN. 1994. Damming The Rivers: The World Bank¼s Lending For Large Dams. International Rivers Network. 1847 Berkeley Way, Berkeley CA, 94703.

Jackson, C. 1995.  "RadicaL Environmental Myths: A Gender Perspective,"  New Left Review, v210 (1995): 124-140.

Jackson, T. & N. Marks. 1994. Measuring Sustainable Economic Welfare: A Pilot Index 1950-1990. Stockholm: Stockholm Environment Institute.

Jacobs, Jane M. 1969.  "Cities First--Rural Development Later,"  3-48 in Jane Jacobs, The Economy of Cities. New York: Random House.

[Evocative description of the rise and role of industry as an engine of economic growth. That cities would have to have arisen before agriculture, or that agriculture would not have arisen without the forces that generated cities in the first place.]

Jacobs, Jane M. 1993.  "The City Unbound: Qualitative Approaches to the City,"  Urban Studies, v30n4-5 (May 1993): 827-848.

[Review article, alternative ways of viewing and knowing the city, such as feminism.]

Jacobsen, Joyce. 1994. The Economics of Gender. Cambridge MA: Blackwell.

Jacobson, Jodi L. et al. 1992. Gender Bias: Roadblock to Sustainable Development. Washington, DC: Worldwatch Institute.

[The dimensions of gender bias -- Sustenance from the commons -- Cash crops vs. food security -- Who manages the forests -- Female poverty and the population trap -- A new framework for development.]

Jacobson, R. E. 1979.  "The Hidden Issues: What Kind of Order?" Journal of Communication, v29 (1979): 149-155.

Jameson, Kenneth P. & Charles K. Wilber, 1996. The Political Economy of Development and Underdevelopment. 6th ed. New York NY: McGraw-Hill.

Jellinek, Lea. 1997.  "Displaced by Modernity: The Saga of a Jakarta Street-Trader"s Family from the 1940s to the 1990s,"  139-155 in Joseph Gugler (ed.), Cities in the Developing World: Issues, Theory, and Policy. New York: Oxford University Press.

[Account of a woman"s resilient efforts to keep pace with changing circumstances.]

Jencks, Charles. 1996.  "The City That Never Sleeps,"  New Statesman (1996), v9n409 (Jun 28, 1996): 26-28.

[History of urban life as one of both planned change and chaotic flux. Debates on London¼s future.]

Johnston, Barbara Rose (ed.). 1994. Who Pays the Price?: The Sociocultural Context of Environmental Crisis. Washington, D.C.: Island Press

Kabeer, Naila. 1994. Reversed Realities: Gender Hierarchies in Development Thought. London; New York: Verso.

Kacapyr, Elia. 1996. „The Well-being Index,¾ American Demographics, v18n2 (Feb 1996): 32-35+.

[The GDP and other broad economic measures were not meant to measure well-being--but until now, nothing better existed. A new index gets beyond economic numbers to see how well Americans are really doing.]

Kamarck, Andrew M. 1976. The Tropics and Economic Development: A Provocative Inquiry into the Poverty of Nations. Baltimore, London: The Johns Hopkins Universty Press, published for The World Bank.

[Industrialized countries are in cold, temperate climates and developing countries are in hot, tropical. Rejects notion of sloth or inherent inferiority, traces characteristics of climate significant to different sectors in economic development. Argues that there are material reasons grounded in geography and climatology for differences in the nature and pace of development across nations.]

Kamarck, Andrew M. 1983. Economics and the Real World. Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania Press.

Kamdar, Mira. 1996. „India: Multicultural Democracy at the Millennium,¾ World Policy Journal, v13n3 (Fall 1996): 71-79.

Karan, P. P. 1994. „Environmental Movements in India,"  Geographical Review, v84n1 (Jan 1994): 32-41.

[Grassroots environmental movements following Gandhian nonviolent tradition are expanding in India. The Chipko movement in the Himalaya, Save the Narmada movement in central India and the Silent Valley movement in the Malabar region of southern India are discussed.]

Kasarda, John D. & Allan M. Parnell. 1993. Third World Cities: Problems, Policies, and Prospects. London, New Delhi: Sage Publications.

Kasarda, John D. & Edward M. Crenshaw. 1991.  "Third World Urbanization: Dimensions, Theories, and Determinants,"  Annual Review of Sociology, v17 (Annual 1991): 467(35).

[Review of interdisciplinary research, trends and dimensions of urbanization, major theories guiding global urban studies. Critique of cross-national investigations of the determinants of urbanization. Issues that warrant additional investigations.]

Kates, Robert W. & Viola Haarmann. 1992.  "Where the Poor Live: Are the Assumptions Correct?" Environment, v34n4 (May 1992): 4-11+.

[A review of recent reports and papers linking poverty and the poor to environmental concerns reveals limited and selective documentation of the causal relationships between poverty and environmental degradation, but implicitly assume of a strong relationship between the two. An assessment of what global overviews, country comparisons, and local and regional case studies exist that link poor people to threatened environments should provide insights into the validity of this assumption.]

Kates, Robert W. & William C. Clark. 1996.  "Expecting the Unexpected?" Environment, v38n2 (Mar 1996): 6-7+ [ Environmental surprises, such as ozone depletion and legionnaire¼s disease, have four characteristics in common--they confound social expectations, they are not completely unpredictable, they are often dangerous and they open a window for increasing capabilities to deal with environmental problems.]

Kates, Robert W. 1996.  "Population, Technology, and the Human Environment: A Thread Through Time,"  Daedalus, v125n3 (Summer 1996): 43-71.

[Employs a sequence of four temporal frames--ages, millenia, centuries and decades--to examine the dynamics of population, resources and technology. It appears that the Earth is about halfway in numbers into the third great population surge.]

Kates, Robert W. 1997.  "Climate Change 1995: Impacts, Adaptations, and Mitigation,"  Environment, v39n9 (Nov 1997): 29-33.

[The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change¼s Second Assessment Report discusses the impact of human-induced climate change as well as possible methods for responding to that change. Forests, coastal zones and small islands, human health, and agriculture were named as the four areas particularly vulnerable to climate change. The gap between U.S. decarbonization and emissions rates will not change substantially until the public bridges the gap between what they view as dangerous and what they are willing to do about it. For this reason, the forthcoming assessment in the year 2000 will need to address ideology as well as technology.]

Kates, Robert W. 1997.  "Unnatural Disaster,"  Environment, v39n10 (Dec 1997): 0_2 .

[Editorial: Indonesian Pres Suharto has called the smog and haze that blanketed portions of his country, Malaysia, Thailand and Singapore a „national natural disaster,¾ but there is nothing natural or national about it. This unnatural disaster stems directly from human action.]

Keller-Herzog, Angela . 1996.  "Globalisation and Gender Development: Perspectives and Interventions,"  < e/gagdindex.html> (Dec 1996). (Prepared for: Women in Development and Gender Equity Division, Policy Branch, Canadian International Development Agency).

[Excerpt, Chapter 4, "Globalisation: Gender Implications." Examines how globalisation affects the work of different groups of women and men in developing countries. General discussion. Two short lists of obstacles and disadvantages.]

Kemper, Robert Veracruz. 1996.  "Migration and Adaptation: Tzintzuntzenos in Mexico City and Beyond,"  196-209 in George Gmelch & Walter P. Zenner (eds.), 1996, Urban Life: Readings in Urban Anthropology. Prospect Heights, IL: Waveland Press.

Khilnani, Sunil. 1997.  "India¼s Theaters of Independence,"  Wilson Quarterly, v21n4 (Autumn 1997): 16-45.

[Political economy of post-independence--1947--urbanization.]

Khoury, Nabil F. & Valentine M. Moghadam (eds.). 1995. Gender and Development in the Arab World: Women"s Economic Participation Patterns and Policies. London; Atlantic Highlands, NJ: Published for the United Nations University, World Institute for Development Economics Research by Zed Books and United Nations University Press, Tokyo.

Kidder, Thalia & Mary McGinn. 1995.  "In the Wake of NAFTA: Transnational Workers Networks,"  Social Policy, v25n4 (Summer 1995): 14-21.

[Growing organization of formal, non-union non-hierarchic networks. Limits and potential for change.]

Klugman, Jeni. 1991.  "Decentralization: A Survey of Literature from a Human Development Perspective." UNDP Human Development Report Occasional Paper No. 13. < o/oc13.htm>

[Assesses the impact of decentralisation of government expenditures and revenues upon human development. Reviews the literature on decentralisation, to argue a lack of quantitative and rigorous studies. Suggests that detailed analysis of the various dimensions of decentralisation - participation, financing and comparative priorities - and of the relevant effects upon efficiency, resource availability and equity, may provides some lessons.]

Knox, Paul L. & Peter J. Taylor (eds.). 1995. World Cities in a World-System. Cambridge; New York: Cambridge University Press.

Knox, Paul L. 1995.  "World Cities in a World System,"  3-20 in Paul L. Knox & Peter J. Taylor (eds.), World Cities in a World System. Cambridge, New York: Cambridge University Press.

[Globalization of economy--corporations are anational and focused on US, Europe, Japan. World cities as control points. Functional scales at which world cities can be described. Core-periphery divided by speed of processes--Toffler"s fast world, where time has increasing marginal returns.]

Kofman, Eleonore & Gillian Youngs. 1996. Globalization: Theory and Practice. London: Pinter.

Konadu-Agyemang, Kwadwo O.. 1991. Reflections on the Absence uf Squatter Settlements in West African Cities: The Case of Kumasi, Ghana, Urban Studies, v28n1 (Feb 1991): 139-151.

[Squatter and spontaneous settlements often listed as characterizing Third World cities. Several issues regarding blanket statements on and stereotyping of Third World cities are discussed.]

Konvitz, Josef W. 1995. „Cities and the Global Economy,¾ OECD Observer, n197 (Dec 1995/Jan 1996): 6-8.

Konvitz, Josef W. 1996. „Mexico City: Metaphor for the World¼s Urban Future,¾ Environment, v38n2 (Mar 1996): 3-4.

Korten, David C. 1991.  "Sustainable Development,"  World Policy Journal. (Winter 1991-92): 157-190.

Kothari, Smitu. 1997.  "Whose Independence? The Social Impact of Economic Reform in India,"  Journal of International Affairs, v51n1 (Summer 1997): 85-116.

[Kothari documents the social impact of economic liberalization in India. He contends that disparities between the poor and the wealthy have actually increased since 1991.]

Kotkin, Joel. 1991.  "Global Bedouins: Tribes That Have Made It,"  New Perspectives Quarterly, v8n4 (Fall 1991): 46-51.

Kruger, Loren. 1997.  "The Drama of Country and City: Tribalization, Urbanization, and Theatre Under Apartheid,"  Journal of Southern African Studies, v23n4 (Dec 1997): 565-584.

[In a reversal of the classic notion of city as progress, the Africanized city came to signify barbarism for white South Africans, who then proposed a counter-civitas, a perverse modernity defined not by urban civility but by isolation in the country. This essay takes the tensions between and within the racial appropriations of country and city in apartheid¼s perverse modernity as the point of departure for a critical revaluation of the affinities and differences among African, Afrikaans, and white English drama and performance in South Africa.]

Krugman, Paul. 1997.  "Is Capitalism too Productive?" Foreign Affairs, v76n5 (Sep 1997): 79-94.

[Argues against the implicit assumption of "global glut" in current development policy (US?) --that 3rd world countries are growing too fast, capitalism is too successful for the good of industrialized countries, and fear that production will outstrip demand.]

Kupfer, David & Paul Glover & Olaf Egeberg. 1995. „To Stitch the World Back Together Again,¾ Whole Earth Review, n87 (Fall 1995): 22-29.

[In an interview, economist and writer Hazel Henderson discusses her economic theories, including her proposal for an alternative to the GNP. Paul Glover discusses Ithaca NY¼s use of local paper money, and Olaf Egeberg explains how his Washington DC neighborhood uses a neighborhood exchange directory.]

Kurian, George T. 1984. The New Book of World Rankings. New York: Facts on File Publishers.

Lacey, Linda & Irit Sinai, Irit. 1996.  "Do Female-Headed Households Have Different Shelter Needs Than Men? The Case of Monrovia, Liberia,"  Journal of Comparative Family Studies, v27n1 (Spring 1996): 89-108.

[Analysis of survey data of male and female heads of households in low-income settlements in Monrovia Liberia, Lacey and Sinai to explore the shelter and related needs of female-headed households. Results indicate that while women represent the poorest families in the settlements, they obtain shelter of similar quality to that of men.]

Lagerfeld, Steven. 1996. „At Issue: Don¼t Count on It,¾ Wilson Quarterly, v20n2 (Spring 1996): 8-10.

[The nation¼s dependence on statistical temperature-taking is transforming politics into a form of numerical warfare. While evidence suggests that Americans are doing much better than many indexes suggest, the numbers indicate with clarity that income inequality has been on the rise for more than 20 years.]

Lambert, Thomas. 1995.  "What they Missed in Cairo: Defusing the Population Bomb,"  USA Today: The Magazine of the American Scene, v123n2596 (Jan 1995): 33-35.

[In the context of the Sep 5-13, 1994 International Conference on Population and Development in Cairo, questions the widely held belief that the planet cannot sustain an increasing population.]

Landes, David S. 1989.  "Rich Country, Poor Country,"  New Republic, v201n21 (Nov 20, 1989): 23-27.

Landes, David S. 1990.  "Rich Country, Poor Country: How Do Nations Develop?" Current, n321 (Mar 1990): 11-16.

Landes, David S. 1990.  "Why Are We So Rich and They So Poor?" American Economic Review, v80n2 (May 1990): 1-13.

Landes, David S. 1994.  "What Room for Accident in History?: Explaining Big Changes by Small Events,"  Economic History Review, v47n4 (Nov 1994): 637-656.

Leach, M. & R. Mearns (eds). 1996. The Lie of the Land: Challenging Received Wisdom on the African Environment. Oxford: James Currey.

Leacock, Eleanor & Helen I. Safa (eds.). 1986. Women"s Work: Development and the Division of Labor by Gender. South Hadley, MA: Bergin & Garvey.

Lele, Sharachandra M. 1991. „Sustainable Development: A Critical Review,¾ World Development, v19n6 (1991). 607-621.

Lents, James M. & William J. Kelly. 1993.  "Clearing the Air in Los Angeles (California),"  Scientific American, v269n4 (Oct 1993): 32(8).

[Ozone levels and smog levels in Los Angeles, CA, have fallen since the 1970s as a result of pollution research and control efforts that began in the 1940s. Pollution-control measures include reducing certain pollutants and using technologies that do not pollute the air.]

Lerman, Nina & Arwen Mohun & Ruth Oldenziel. 1997.  "Versatile Tools: Gender Analysis and the History of Technology,"  Technology and Culture v38n1 (January 1997):

[Also at: http://hfm.umd.]

Lerner, Daniel. 1958. The Passing of Traditional Society: Modernizing the Middle East. New York: Free Press.

[Empathy, imagine oneself in some other role, as key personality trait.]

Lewandowski, Susan J. 1984.  "The Built Environment and Cultural Symbolism in Post-colonial Madras,"  237-254 in John Agnew, John Meercer & David Soper (eds.) The City in Cultural Context. Boston, MA: Allen & Unwin.

[Suggests that looming changes in cultural and social views can be read from changes in the built environment. Shows the case of an emergent Hindu fundamentalism.]

Lewis, Oscar. 1966.  "The Culture of Poverty,"  Scientific American, v215n4 (Oct 1966): 19-25.

Lewis, P. (ed.). 1993. Alternative Media: Linking Global and Local. Paris: UNESCO.

Lind, Amy. 1997.  "Gender, Development and Urban Social Change: Women¼s Community Action in Global Cities,"  World Development, v25n8 (Aug 1997): 1205-1223.

[Addresses the gender dimensions of women¼s community action in global cities, focusing on two types of women¼s organizations--food provision and anti-violence.]

Lind, Niels C.. 1992. „Some Thoughts on the Human Development Index,¾ Social Indicators Research, v27n1 (Aug 1992): 89-101.

[The Human Development Index (HDI) of a nation is the average of its score, relative to all other nations, on three basic indicators: gross domestic product per person, life expectancy and literacy. Results from research using the HDI suggest that the index is potentially a powerful instrument for world social development.]

Linden, Eugene. 1996. "The Exploding Cities of the Developing World,"   Foreign Affairs, v75n1 (Jan 1996): 52-65.

[The rhythm of urban history as: the rise, collapse, and occasional rebirth of cities as disease, changes in trade and technology, and shifting political fortunes rewarded some cities and penalized others. Rhythm has been interrupted in the developing world, where urban populations almost always rise.]

Lipton, Michael. 1977. Why Poor People Stay Poor: Urban Bias in World Development. London: Maurice Temple Smith.

[Doubling of per capita production since 1945, so why such slight change for poorest? Systemic emphasis on urban-industrial growth. Decent argument for balanced development.]

Lipton, Michael. 1988 (1977).  "Why Poor People Stay Poor: Urban Bias in World Development,"  40-51 in Josef Gugler (ed.), The Urbanization of the Third World. New York: Oxford University Press. (Excerpt of introductory chapter from Michael Lipton, 1977, Why Poor People Stay Poor: Urban Bias in World Development. London: Maurice Temple Smith.)

[Doubling of per capita production since 1945, so why such slight change for poorest? Systemic emphasis on urban-industrial growth. Decent argument for balanced development.]

Little, Jo & Linda Peake & Pat Richardson. 1988. „Introduction: Geography and Gender in the Urban Environment,¾ in Jo Little & Linda Peake & Pat Richardson (eds.), Women in Cities: Gender and the Urban Environment. New York: New York University.

[Focuses on Britain.]

Little, Jo & Linda Peake & Pat Richardson. 1988. Women in Cities: Gender and the Urban Environment. New York: New York University Press.

Lockwood, Matthew. 1992. Engendering Adjustment ar Adjusting Gender?: Some New Approaches to Women and Development in Africa. Brighton: University of Sussex, Institute of Development Studies.

Logan, Kathleen. 1996.  "Urban Women as Political Activists: Mérida, Yucatan, Mexico,"   445-458 in George Gmelch & Walter P. Zenner (eds.), 1996, Urban Life: Readings in Urban Anthropology. Prospect Heights, IL: Waveland Press.

[Attempts to disaggregate the category of women, in general, and women activists, in particular.]

Lomnitz, Larissa. 1997.  "The Social and Economic Organization of a Mexican Shanty-Town,"  204-217 in Joseph Gugler (ed.), Cities in the Developing World: Issues, Theory, and Policy. New York: Oxford University Press.

London, Bruce. 1987.  "Structural Determinants of Third World Urban Change: An Ecological and Political Economic Analysis,"  American Sociological Review, v52n1 (Feb 1987): 28-43.

[Examines roles of human ecology and political economy play in peripheral urbanization. Both theories important to a complete analysis of Third World urbanization.]

Luthra, Rashmi. 1996.  "International Communications Instruction with a Focus on Women,"  Journalism and Mass Communication Educator, v50n4 (Winter 1996): 42-51.

[Makes the case for a wider adoption of both feminist content, and feminist and critical pedagogies in the teaching of development communication, international communication, and international journalism courses.]

Luttwak, Edward N. & Robert L. Bartley. 1992.  "Is America on the Way Down?" Commentary, v93n3 (Mar 1992): 15-27.

[The idea that the US is in decline might itself have been expected to decline with the collapse of the USSR and the US¼s emergence as the only remaining superpower. However, declinism, instead of disappearing, has shifted its focus from the political, ideological and military conflict with the USSR to the issue of economic competition, especially with Japan. Views supporting and criticizing this new school of declinist thought are presented.]

MacFarlane, Lindsay. 1996. „Growing Awareness of Gender in Urban Policies,"  Women and Environments, n39/40 (Summer 1996): 32-34.

[The growing awareness of gender in the urban policies of OECD nations is discussed. The discussion in several OECD committees has helped strengthen the integration of the gender variable into OECD policies.]

MacGregor, Sherilyn. 1996.  "Rethinking Planning--Reframing Difference,"  Women and Environments, n39/40 (Summer 1996): 22-25.

[In order for planning theory to understand the full range of visions and choices that are available to communities, it must be more open to different types of knowledge and new methods of obtaining information.]

Mackenzie, Suzanne. 1989. „New Models in the City,¾ 109-126 in Richard Peet & Nigel Thrift, (eds.), New Models in Geography: The Political Economy Perspective, Volume 2. London; Boston: Unwin Hyman.

MacNeill, Jim & John E. Cox & Ian Jackson. 1991.  "Sustainable Development: The Urban Challenge. (Nature and Urban Nature),"  EKISTICS: The Problems and Science of Human Settlements, v58, n348-49 (May-Aug 1991): 195(4).

Major, David C. & Peter Brimblecombe & Michael Cohen. 1996.  "Mexico City: Metaphor for the World"s Urban Future. (responses to Exequiel Ezcurra and Marisa Mazari-Hiriart in this issue, p. 6),"  Environment, v38n1 (Jan-Feb 1996): 32(4).

[Mexico City exemplifies the megacities of the Third World. Like other megalopolises in developing countries, the Mexican capital is plagued by such problems as heavily polluted air, land subsidence due to pumping groundwater and poor solid waste management.]

Makhijani, Arjun. 1992. From Global Capitalism to Economic Justice: An Inquiry into the Elimination of Systemic Poverty, Violence and Environmental Destruction in the World Economy. New York: The Apex Press, the Council of International and Public Affairs.

[No index; no biblio. Transform capitalism for benefit of the Third World, and severely limit the power of global corporations. Critique of "the racist, sexist, and ecologically destructive elements of the status quo, without getting trapped in statism or former Soviet-style economies."]

Malthus, Thomas R. & Julian Huxley & Frederick Osborn. 1963 (1960). On Population; Three Essays. New York: New American Library.

Malthus, Thomas Robert. 1992 (1798, 1803). An Essay on the Principle of Population, Or, A View of its Past and Present Effects on Human Happiness: With an Inquiry Into Our Prospects Respecting the Future Removal or Mitigation of the Evils Which it Occasions. Cambridge UK; New York: Cambridge University Press.

[Selected and introduced by Donald Winch using the text of the 1803 edition as prepared by Patricia James for the Royal Economic Society, 1990, showing the additions and corrections made in the 1806, 1807, 1817, and 1826 editions.]

Mandel, Ernest. 1995. Long Waves of Capitalist Development: A Marxist Interpretation. (2nd revised edition.) London: Verso.

Mangin, William. 1967.  "Squatter Settlements,"  Scientific American, v217n4 (Oct 1962): 21-29.

[Excerpted in Press & Smith 1980: 362-369.]

Mann, Michael. 1986. The Sources of Social Power. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

["...the radical Christian universalization of the human being..."]

Mansell, M. 1981.  "Transcultural Experience and Expressive Response,"  Communication Education, v30 (1981): 93-108.

Marchand, Marianne H. & Jane L. Parpart (eds.), 1995. Feminism/Postmodernism/Development. London; New York: Routledge.

[History of the development expert from engineering and technology to economics. Cooptation of gender protests by creation of WID experts. WID to WAD to GAD.]

Marston, Sally. 1990.  "Who are "The People"?: Gender, Citizenship, and the Making of the American Nation,¾ Society and Space, v8n4 (1990): 449-458.

Marx, Leo. 1997. „Technology: The Emergence of a Hazardous Concept,"  Social Research, v64n3 (Fall 1997): 965-988.

[The changes in society and culture marked by the emergence of technology are examined. The chief danger of technology is the mystification, passivity and fatalism it helps to engender.]

Marxsen, Craig S.; Daly, Herman E.. 1992. „Towards an Environmental Macroeconomics--Comment/Reply,¾ Land Economics, v68n2 (May 1992): 241-245.

[Marxsen comments on Herman E. Daly"s article on environmental economics. The concept of a Plimsoll mark is hardly foreign to the best known texts of classical economic literature. Daly replies to Marxsen.]

Mayer, Margit. 1991.  "Politics in the Post-Fordist City,"  Socialist Review, v21n1 (Jan-Mar 1991): 105-124.

[Remarks the polarization of urban society, and the opportunities and obstacles emerging as formal and informal institutions evolve over time.]

Mayne, Alan James C. 1993. The Imagined Slum: Newspaper Representation In Three Cities 1870-1914. Leicester, UK; New York: Leicester University Press; Distributed in the U.S. and Canada by St. Martin¼s Press

[The construction of "slum" stereotypes.]

Mayur, Rashmi & Bennett Daviss. 1998.  "How not to Develop an Emerging Nation,"  Futurist, v32n1 (Jan 1998): 27-31.

[Developing countries strive for mass industrialization but may find mass disappointment. Mayur and Daviss discuss the new approach that is needed for industrial development.]

Mazumdar, Krishna. 1996. „Level of Development of a Country: A Possible New Approach,¾ Social Indicators Research, v38n3 (Jul 1996): 245-274.

[Attempts to find income elasticities of eight social indicators of development with respect to per capita real gross domestic product adjusted for purchasing power parity and expressed in international dollars.]

Mazumdar, Krishna. 1996. „Level of Development of a Country: A Possible New Approach,¾ Social Indicators Research, v38n3 (Jul 1996): 245-274.

[Attempts to find income elasticities of eight social indicators of development with respect to per capita real gross domestic product adjusted for purchasing power parity and expressed in international dollars.]

McClelland, David. 1966.  "The Impulse to Modernization,"  28-39 in M. Weiner (ed.), Modernization: The Dynamics of Growth. New York: Basic Books.

[That there is a "mental virus," n-Ach (need to Achieve), and the move tp modernization is seen when samples of thought from a society, eg. from popular literature, show high incidence of urge to do better (more efficiently, faster) the next time.]

McClelland, David. 1967. The Achieving Society. New York: Free Press.

McDonnell, Mark J. & Steward T.A. Pickett, (eds.). 1993. Humans as Components of Ecosystems: The Ecology of Subtle Human Effects and Populated Areas. New York: Springer-Verlag.

McElrath, Dennis. 1968.  "The New Urbanization," 3-12 in Scott Greer et al. (eds.), The New Urbanization. New York, NY: St. Martin Press.

[Reprinted in Press & Smith, 1980: 214-223.]

McGee, Terence G. 1967.  "The Emergence of the Colonial City,"  52-75 in Terence G. McGee, The Southeast Asian City: A Social Geography of the Primate Cities of Southeast Asia. London: G. Bell and Sons, Ltd.

McGee, Terence G. 1967.  "The Impact of the West and the Beginnings of the Colonial City,"  42-51 in Terence G. McGee, The Southeast Asian City: A Social Geography of the Primate Cities of Southeast Asia. London: G. Bell and Sons, Ltd.

McGee, Terence G. 1967. The Southeast Asian City: A Social Geography of the Primate Cities of Southeast Asia. London: G. Bell and Sons, Ltd.

McGee, Terence G. 1971.  "The Urbanization Process: Western Theory and Third World Reality,"  13-34 in Terence G. McGee, The Urbanization Process in the Third World. London: Bell & Hyman.

McGee, Terence G. 1971. The Urbanization Process in the Third World. London: Bell & Hyman.

McMorran, Ronald & Laura Wallace. 1995.  "Why Macroeconomists and Environmentalists Need Each Other,"  Finance and Development, v32n4 (Dec 1995): 46-49.

[Need for policymakers to simultaneously tackle environmental and macroeconomic problems. Draws on an IMF seminar held on May 11, 1995, attended by about 80 individuals from the IMF, the World Bank, academic institutions, and nongovernmental organizations (NGOs).]

McMurdy, Deirdre. 1995. „The Numbers Game,¾ Maclean¼s, v108n44 (Oct 30, 1995): 42.

[Some of the items in Canada¼s economic tool kit have become blunt instruments. The real condition of the economy is often obscured by outdated measurements of progress and prosperity.]

McMurtry, John. 1997.  "The Contradictions of Free Market Doctrine: Is There a Solution?" Journal of Business Ethics, v16n7 (May 1997): 645-662.

[Considers six standard arguments in favour of an unfettered free market, argues incoherence on the grounds that the market doctrine systematically omits non-business costs and benefits from its analysis.]

McNelly, John T. & Fausto Izcaray. 1986.  "International News Exposure and Images of Nations,"  JQ: Journalism Quarterly, v63n3 (Autumn 1986): 546-553.

[Exposure to the mass media is associated with relatively positive, but not necessarily well-informed, images of foreign countries and to the perception of these countries as being successful. Attempts to provide some evidence bearing on the effects of the mass media on international news and on people¼s images of nations. Results of a study from Venezuela are discussed.]

Mearns, Robin. 1991. Environmental Implications of Structural Adjustment: Reflections on Scientific Method. (IDS discussion paper ; no. 284.) Brighton, UK: Institute of Development Studies at the University of Sussex.

Melendez, Edwin & Clara Rodriguez & Janis Barry Figueroa (eds.). 1991. Hispanics in the Labor Force: Issues and Policies. New York: Plenum Press.

[Hispanics in the labor force : an introduction to issues and approaches / Edwin Melendez, Clara E. Rodriguez, and Janis Barry Figueroa -- An even greater „u-turn¾: Latinos and the new inequality / Raul Hinojosa-Ojeda, Martin Carnoy, and Hugh Daley -- The effects of literacy on the earnings of Hispanics in the United States / Francisco L. Rivera-Batiz -- The effect of race on Puerto Rican wages / Clara E. Rodriguez -- Labor market structure and wage differences in New York City : a comparative analysis of Hispanics and non-Hispanic Blacks and Whites / Edwin Melendez -- Latinos and industrial change in New York and Los Angeles / Vilma Ortiz -- Hispanic employment in the public sector : why is it lower than Blacks¼? / Cordelia Reimers and Howard Chernick. Racial, ethnic, and gender employment segmentation in New York City agencies / Walter Stafford -- A comparison of labor supply behavior among single and married Puerto Rican mothers / Janis Barry Figueroa -- Work and family responsibilities of women in New York City / Terry J. Rosenberg -- Wage policies, employment, and Puerto Rican migration / Carlos E. Santiago -- Latino research and policy : the Puerto Rican case / Andres Torres and Clara E. Rodriguez -- Latinos, class, and the U.S. political economy : income inequality and policy alternatives / Rodolfo D. Torres and Adela de la Torre -- Epilogue / Edwin Melendez, Clara E. Rodriguez, and Janis Barry Figueroa.]

Melkote, S. 1991. Communication for Development in the Third World: Theory and Practice. New Delhi; Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications.

[Useful summaries of timelines in development theory, interleaved with developments in communication theory. Nice base from which to discuss mutually constitutive relationships in social theory.]

Melmed-Sanjak, Jolyne & Carlos E. Santiago & Alvin Magid (eds.) 1993. Recovery or Relapse in the Global Economy: Comparative Perspectives on Restructuring in Central America. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers.

["The culmination of several years of intellectual exchange between the State University of New York at Albany and the University of Costa Rica in San Jose. The book offers diverse perspectives on economic, political and social development in Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, and Nicaragua. It also outlines how political-economic restructuring ought to be planned in the future, including such factors as agrarian policy, industrialization and foreign investment. Finally, it addresses the economic integration of Central America into the global economy."]

Meyer, William H. 1989.  "Global News Flows: Dependency and Neoimperialism,"  Comparative Political Studies, v22n3 (Oct 1989): 243-264.

[A news flow study using dailies from Africa and Latin America. Seeks to test hypotheses proposed by structural theorists like Johan Galtung, or the proponents of the New World Information Order (NWIO): that developing nations are dependent on Western news agencies; that this news dependency promotes the adoption of Western news values and subsequent cultural imperialism; and finally, that this news dependency is neo-colonial, in the sense that not only does information flow in "vertical" channels (North to South), but that there are distinct spheres of influence controlled by each of the major Western news agencies. This establishes a cultural hegemony and sets up power relations not unlike any other form of colonization.]

Meyer, William H. 1991.  "Structures of North-South Informational Flows: An Empirical Test of Galtung¼s Theory,"  JQ: Journalism Quarterly, v68n1-2 (Spring 1991): 230-237.

Meyer, William H. 1996.  "Human Rights and MNCs: Theory versus Quantitative Analysis,"  Human Rights Quarterly, v18n2 (May 1996): 368-397.

Meyer-Abich, Klaus Michael. 1996. „Humans In Nature: Toward A Physiocentric Philosophy,¾ Daedalus, v125n3 (Summer 1996): 213-234.

Millon, Rene. 1967 (1973).  "Teotihuacan,"  Scientific American, (Jun 1967).

[Reprinted in Cities: Their Origin, Growth and Human Impact. (Readings from Scientific American, with an introduction by Kingsley Davis.) San Francisco: W.H. Freeman & Company: 82-92.]

Mills, Sara. 1995.  "Discontinuity and Postcolonial Discourse,"  Ariel, A Review of International English Literature, v26n3 (Jul 1995): 73-88.

[A picture taken after the free elections in South Africa in 1994 depicts a black man and a white woman showering off together at a beach. Mills considers the contradictions that the photograph presents in order to explore some of the difficulties of theorizing postcolonialism and its constitution in discursive structures.]

Mills, Sara. 1996.  "Gender and Colonial Space,¾ Gender, Place & Culture, v3n2 (1996): 125-148.

[Scholarly article, i.e., obscure.]

Miringoff, Marc. 1995. Index of Social Health: Monitoring the Social Well-Being of the Nation. Tarrytown, N.Y: Fordham Institute for Innovation in Social Policy.

Mitlin, D. & D. Satterthwaite. 1996.  "Sustainable Development and Cities,"  23-61 in Cedric Pugh (ed.), Sustainability, the Environment and Urbanization. London: Earthscan:

Mittelman, James H. (ed.). 1996. Globalization: Critical Reflections. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner Publications.

Mohanty, C.T. (1991). „Under Western Eyes: Feminist Scholarship and Colonial Discourses.¾ 51-80 in C.T. Mohanty (ed.), Third World Women and the Politics of Feminism. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.

Momsen, Janet Henshall & Vivian Kinnaird (eds.). 1993. Different Places, Different Voices: Gender and Development in Africa, Asia, and Latin America. London; New York: Routledge.

Montague, Peter. 1996.  "Measuring Progress,"  Rachel"s Environment & Health Weekly, < gt; n516 (Oct 17, 1996).

Moser, Caroline O.N. & A. Herbert & R. Makonnen. 1993. Urban Poverty in the Context of Structural Adjustment: Recent Evidence and Policy Responses. TWP DP No. 4, Urban Development Division, World Bank, Washington, DC.

Moser, Caroline O.N. 1993. Gender Planning and Development: Theory, Practice, and Training. London; New York: Routledge

Moser, Caroline O.N. 1995.  "Urban Social Policy and Poverty Reduction,"  Environment and Urbanization, v7(1995):159-171.

Muir, Star A. 1994.  "The Web and the Spaceship: Metaphors of the Environment,"  Et Cetera, v51n2 (Summer 1994): 145-152.

[Two metaphors commonly used by the environmental movement--the web of life metaphor and the spaceship metaphor. Examines their implications.]

Munasinghe, Mohan & Walter Shearer (eds.). 1995. Defining and Measuring Sustainablity: The Biogeophysical Foundations. Washington, DC: The United Nations University (UNU) and The World Bank.

Murphey, Rhoads. 1984.  "City as a Mirror of Society: China, Tradition and Transformation,"  186-204 in John Agnew, John Meercer & David Soper (eds.) The City in Cultural Context. Boston, MA: Allen & Unwin.

Nakicenovic, Nebojsa. 1996. „Freeing Energy From Carbon,¾ Daedalus, v125n3 (Summer 1996): 95-112.

Nalbanto"glu, Gülsüm B. & Wong Chong Thai (eds.) 1997. Postcolonial Space(s). New York: Princeton Architectural Press

Nalini Visvanathan, Nalini & Lynn Duggan & Laurie Nisonoff & Nan Wiegersma (eds.). 1997. The Women, Gender, and Development Reader. Atlantic Highlands, NJ: Zed Books.

Namaste, Ki. 1996. „Genderbashing: Sexuality, Gender, and the Regulation of Public Space,¾ Society and Space, v14n2 (1996): 221-240.

National Research Council. 1989. Global Change and Our Common Future. Washington, DC: National Acamedy Press.

Nelson, Julie A. 1996.  "The Masculine Mindset of Economic Analysis,"  Chronicle of Higher Education, v42n42 (Jun 28, 1996): B3.

[Scholars need to recognize how sexist biases shape the assumptions, models and methods of analysis used in the field of economic analysis, which reflects deep-seated, gender-related biases closely linked to cultural notions of masculinity.]

Nelson, Nici. 1996.  "Surviving in the City: Coping Strategies of Female Migrants in Nairobi, Kenya,"  259-278 in George Gmelch & Walter P. Zenner (eds.), 1996, Urban Life: Readings in Urban Anthropology. Prospect Heights, IL: Waveland Press.

[Uses the life-histories of three women migrants to explore survival strategies and the role of matri-focal linkages in economic advancement.]

Nelson, Nici. 1997.  "How Women and Men Got By, and Still Get By (Only Not So Well): The Gender Division of Labour in a Nairobi Shanty-Town,"  156-170 in Joseph Gugler (ed.), Cities in the Developing World: Issues, Theory, and Policy. New York: Oxford University Press.

Neuhouser, Kevin. 1995.  "¾Worse Than Men¾: Gender Mobilization in an Urban Brazilian Squatter Settlement, 1971-91,"  Gender and Society, v9n1 (Feb 1995): 38-59.

[Gender plays a significant role in generic movements. Over a 20-year period, an urban squatter settlement in Brazil experienced five collective campaigns, not one of which was gender conscious not had gender-specific goals, but all were shaped by gender. In these campaigns, everything was grounded in the gender-based division of labor in the community.]

Neuman, Johanna. 1996. Lights, Camera, War: Is Media Technology Driving International Politics? New York: St. Martin¼s Press.

[That the critical factor in power politics remains the quality of leadership, which is dictated neither by journalism nor by new communications technologies.]

Nielsen, Francois & Arthur S. Alderson. 1997. „The Kuznets Curve and the Great U-Turn: Income Inequality in U.S. Counties, 1970 to 1990,"  American Sociological Review, v62n1 (Feb 1997): 12-33.

[Nielsen and Alderson examine the determinants of inequality in the distribution of family income in approximately 3,100 counties of the US in 1970, 1980, and 1990. Such a study provides a window on global trends in social inequality during the period, which spans the tail end of the Kuznets curve and the more recent upswing in income inequality.]

Nielsen, Francois. 1994. „Income Inequality and Industrial Development: Dualism Revisited,"  American Sociological Review, v59n5 (Oct 1994): 654-677.

[It is argued that the inverted-U shaped relationship between income inequality and development is largely accounted for by transitional development processes related to the dualism of traditional and modern sectors of developing societies.]

Nolan, Patrick & Gerhard Lenski. 1996. „Technology, Ideology and Societal Development,¾ Sociological Perspectives, v39n1 (Spring 1996): 23-28.

[To address the question of whether ideology or technology has been the more powerful force shaping societies and their development, log-linear models are used to assess the association of typologies based on religious beliefs and on subsistence technology with indicators of community size, political complexity, stratification, marital patterns and premarital sex norms.]

Nordenstreng, K. & H.I. Schiller (eds.). 1979. National Sovereignty and International Communication. Norwood, NJ: Ablex.

Nussbaum, Martha C. 1995.  "Human Capabilities, Female Human Beings,"  in Martha C. Nussbaum & J. Glover (eds.), Womnen, Culture and Development. New York: Oxford University Press.

Nussbaum, Martha C. & Amartya Sen (eds). 1993. The Quality of Life. Oxford: Clarendon.

O"Bannon, Brett. 1994.  "The Narmada River Project: Toward a Feminist Model of Women in Development,"  Policy Sciences, v27n2-3 (May 1994): 247-267.

[Discusses competing models of women in development, and compares the merits of the liberal integration model, the marginalization model, the capitalist exploitation model and the socialist feminist model.]

Phillip Anthony. 1997.  "A New Measure of Macroeconomic Performance and Institutional Change: The Index of Community, Warranted Knowledge, and Participation,"  Journal of Economic Issues, v31n1 (Mar 1997): 103-128.

[Develops a macroeconomic measure of socioeconomic progress based on the holistic view of the instrumental and ceremonial functions of institutions.]

OECD. (1977 et seq., annual). Main Economic Indicators: Sources and Methods. Statistics Directorate. Paris: Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development.

Ogwang, Tomson. 1995.  "The Economic Development-Income Inequality Nexus: Further Evidence on Kuznets¼ U-Curve Hypothesis,"  American Journal of Economics and Sociology, v54n2 (Apr 1995): 217-230.

[The empirical status of Kuznet¼s U-curve hypothesis (UCH) is reassessed using three indicators of development. The results indicate that the use of radically different measures of development does not appear to invalidate the UCH.]

Olpadwala, Porus & William W. Goldsmith. 1992.  "The Sustainability of Privilege: Reflections on the Environment, The Third World City, And Poverty. (Special Issue: Linking Environment to Development: Problems and Possibilities),"  World Development, v20n4 (Apr 1992): 627(14).

[Combine discussion of urbanization, problems of the environment, and poverty , using concepts of social class to make the connections. Stress the human element over matters of inanimate technology or nature. By disaggregating society into competing groups it reveals environmental problems to be essentially those of people and social and political organization, not of nature and technology. Improvement of the environment in large cities of the Third World will require social change.]

Olsen, John W. 1992.  "Digging Beneath the Silk Road,"  Natural History, v101n9 (Sep 1992): 30-39.

[The wastelands of Mongolia and western China are being scoured for fossils as it is assumed that central Asia was the cradle of humanity. The great Silk Road, lying along the northern and southern margins of the Tarim Basin in China, is the site of much archaeological activity and is discussed.]

Orloff, Ann. 1996.  "Gender in the Welfare State,"  Annual Review of Sociology, v22 (1996): 51-78.

[Summarizes the current state of understanding about the varying effects of welfare states on gender relations and vice versa, using a comparative historical approach.]

Ostergaard, Lise (ed.). 1992. Gender and Development: A Practical Guide. (Based on a study prepared for the Directorate-General for Development Commission of the European Communities.) London; New York: Routledge, 1992.

Osunde, Egerton O. & Josiah Tlou & Neil L. Brown. 1996.  "Persisting and Common Stereotypes in U.S. Students¼ Knowledge of Africa: A Study of Pre-service Social Studies Teachers" Social Studies, v87n3 (May 1996): 119-124.

[Statistical analysis of misconceptions. Arguments and techniques for dismantling stereotypes. Sources of information.]

Overholt, Catherine & Kathleen Cloud & Mary B. Anderson. 1991 "Gender Analysis Framework,"  9-20 in Aruna Rao & Mary B. Anderson & Catherine A. Overholt (eds.), Gender Analysis in Development Planning: A Case Book. West Hartford, CT: Kumarian Press.

Owen, Henry. 1994.  "The World Bank: Is 50 Years Enough?" Foreign Affairs, v73n5 (Sep 1994): 97-108.

[Argues that the Bank should not retire at the age of 50. Mission should be restructured to benefit from the growth of private sector financial resources and help coordinate the work of nongovernmental organizations.]

Pandey, M.D. & J.S. Nathwani. 1996. „Measurement of Socio-Economic Inequality Using the Life-Quality Index,¾ Social Indicators Research, v39n2 (Oct 1996): 187-202.

[Present a method for measuring socio-economic inequality using a composite social indicator, Life-Quality Index, derived from two principal indicators of development, the Real Gross Domestic Product per person and the life expectancy at birth. The proprosed approach is illustrated using data from urban Canada.]

Paoli, Maria Celia. 1997.  "European Theory in Brazilian Sociology,"  Contemporary Sociology, v26n3 (May 1997): 296-301.

Parayil, Govindan. 1996.  "The "Kerala Model" of Development: Development and Sustainability in the Third World,"  Third World Quarterly, v17n5 (Dec 1996): 941-957.

[Somewhat wordy but interesting case study of Kerala, an exceptionally successful progressive state in India--high literacy and life expectancy, low child mortality and birthrates, etc.]

Parenti, Michael. 1995. Against Empire. San Francisco, CA: City Lights Books.

Park, Robert Ezra. 1952. Human Communities: The City and Human Ecology. Glencoe, IL: The Free Press.

Parpart, Jane L. 1995.  "Deconstructing the Development "Expert": Gender, Development, and the "Vulnerable Groups,"  221-243 in Marianne H. Marchand & Jane L. Parpart (eds.), Feminism/Postmodernism/Development. London; New York: Routledge.

[History of the development expert from engineering and technology to economics. Cooptation of gender protests by creation of WID experts. WID to WAD to GAD.]

Parsons, Talcott. 1964a The Social System. New York: Free Press.

[Pattern Variables Scheme.]

Parsons, Talcott. 1964b.  "Evolutionary Universals in Society,"  American Sociological Review, v29n3 (1964): 339-357.

[Structural features universal to modernism.]

Pearson, Ruth. 1995.  "Bringing It All Back Home: Integrating Training for Gender Specialists and Economic Planners,"  World Development, v23n11 (Nov 1995): 1995-1999.

[Commentary on the absence of macroeconomic training for gender specialists and macroeconomists¼ lack of knowledge of gender analysis. Reports on a training course designed to integrate gender analysis and macroeconomics.]

Peattie, Lisa R. (1968) 1972. The View from the Barrio. Ann Arbor, MI: Ann Arbor Paperbacks, University of Michigan Press.

Peattie, Lisa R. 1987.  "Shelter, Development, and the Poor,"  263-280 in Lloyd Rodwin (ed.), Shelter, Settlement, and Development. Boston: Allen & Unwin.

Perlman, Janet. 1976. The Myth of Marginality. Berkeley, Los Angeles: University of California Press.

Perry, David K. & John T. McNelly. 1988.  "News Orientations and Variability of Attitudes Toward Developing Countries,"  Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media, v32n3 (Summ 1988): 323-334.

[That exposure to news reduces variation in opinion, increases convergence.]

Perry, David K. 1985.  "The Mass Media and Inference About Other Nations,"  Communications Research, v12n4 (Oct 1985): 595-614.

Perry, David K. 1987.  "The Image Gap: How International News Affects Perceptions of Nations,"  Journalism Quarterly, (Summer-Autumn 1987): 416-421+.

Pile, Steve. 1996. The Body and the City: Psychoanalysis, Space & Subjectivity. London; New York: Routledge.

Pilger, John. 1991.  "Information is Power,"  New Statesman & Society, v4n177 (Nov 15 1991): 10(2).

[The major Western news agencies, UPI, AP, Reuters, and Agence France, publish 90% of international news. Little of the coverage deals with developing countries. This situation leads to information imperialism.]

Polanyi, Karl. (1944) 1957. The Great Transformation. Boston: Beacon Press.

Ponting, Clive. 1992. A Green History of the World: The Environment and the Collapse of Great Civilizations. New York, NY: St. Martin¼s Press.

Portes, Alejandro & Manuel Castells & Lauren A. Benton (eds.). 1989. The Informal Economy: Studies in Advanced and Less Developed Countries. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press.

Portes, Alejandro. 1976.  "On the Sociology of National Development: Theories and Issues,"  American Journal of Sociology, v82n1 (1976): 55-85.

Postel, Sandra L. & Gretchen C. Daily & Paul R. Ehrlich. 1996.  "Human Appropriation of Renewable Fresh Water,"  Science, v271n5250 (Feb 9, 1996): 785-788.

[Estimate how much of Earth¼s renewable fresh water is realistically accessible to humanity; what portion of this accessible supply humanity now uses directly, diverts into human-dominated systems, or appropriates; and by how much human access to fresh water is likely to expand over the next 30 years. Derive an indicator of Earth¼s carrying capacity, as well as a measure of the sustainability of current water trends.]

Potter, Robert B. 1996.  "The Latin American City, by Alan Gilbert, 1994" Geographical Journal, v162pt1 (Mar 1996): 90-91.

[Book Review-Favorable]

Potts, Deborah. 1995.  "Shall We Go Home? Increasing Urban Poverty In African Cities and Migration Processes,"  Geographical Journal, v161 (pt. 3) (Nov 1995): 245-264.

[The rate of urban growth in some African countries has slowed considerably, and there is also some evidence that new forms of „reverse migration¾ from urban to rural areas have occurred. Potts assesses this evidence, drawing on examples from different countries.]

Prakash, Gyan. 1995. „"Orientalism" Now,"  History and Theory, v34n3 (Oct 1995): 199-212.

[Edward Said¼s book „Orientalism¾ opened the floodgate of postcolonial criticism that helped undermine the authority of Western scholarship of other societies. A critique of the book is presented.]

Pratt, Geraldine. 1990. „Feminist Analysis of the Restructuring of Urban Life,¾ Urban Geography, v11n6 (1990): 594-605.

[Review article, mainly US.]

Press, Irwin & M. Estellie Smith (eds.). 1980. Urban place and Process: Readings in the Anthropology of Cities. New York: Macmillan.

Pritchett, Lant & Lawrence H. Summers. 1996.  "Wealthier is Healthier,"  Journal of Human Resources, v31n4 (Fall 1996): 841-868.

[Estimate the effect of income on health using cross-country, time-series data on health (infant and child mortality and life expectancy) and income per capita. They conclude that over a half a million child deaths in the developing world in 1990 alone can be attributed to the poor economic performance in the 1980s.]

Proops, J. L. R. 1993. „A Proposed Alternative Approach to Integrating the Environment into the National Accounts,¾ in E. Lutz (ed.), Towards Improved Accounting for the Environment. Washington, D.C.: World Bank.

Pugh, Cedric. 1995.  "International Structural Adjustment and its Sectoral and Spatial Impacts,"  Urban Studies, v32n2 (Mar 1995): 261-285.

[Relevance of structural economic adjustment to countries in transition from socialism to capitalism and to LDCs. Evalutes structural adjustment process, and argues the emergence of a dominant new political economy (NPE) as the basis for a new city-regional theory and practice of development, written as operating guidelines.]

Pugh, Cedric. 1996.  "¼Urban Bias¼, the Political Economy of Development and Urban Policies for Developing Countries,"  Urban Studies, v33n7 (Aug 1996): 1045-1060.

[An exposition, interpretation and review of the relationships between urban bias, the political economy of development and urban processes and policies for developing countries.]

Pugh, Cedric. 1997. „Poverty and Progress? Reflections on Housing and Urban Policies in Developing Countries, 1976-96,¾ Urban Studies, v34n10 (Oct 1997): 1547-1595.

[Evaluates post-1986 reforms brought about by the UN Habitat I conference.]

Rabinovich, Jonas. 1992.  "Curitiba: Toward Sustainable Development,"  Environment and Urbanization, v4 (1992): 62-73.

Rabinovitch, Jonas & Josef Leitmann. 1996. „Urban Planning in Curitiba,¾ Scientific American, v274n3 (Mar 1996): 46-53.

[One of the fastest-growing cities in a nation of urban booms, Curitiba has less pollution, a slightly lower crime rate, and a higher educational level among its citizens than other cities, although its poverty and income profile is typical of the region.]

Radcliffe, Sarah. 1996.  "Gendered Nations: Nostalgia, Development and Territory in Ecuador,¾ Gender, Place & Culture, v3n1 (1996): 5-22.

[Lots of detailed cases. Thick writing.]

Rakodi, C. 1995.  "Poverty Lines or Household Strategies? A Review of the Conceptual Issues in the Study of Urban Poverty,"  Habitat International, v19 (1995): 407-426.

Rakow, L. (ed.). 1992. Women Making Meaning: New Feminist Directions in Communication. New York: Routledge.

Rao, Aruna & Mary B. Anderson & Catherine A. Overholt (eds.). Gender Analysis in Development Planning: A Case Book. West Hartford, CT: Kumarian Press.

Rapoport, Amos. 1984.  "Culture and the Urban Order," 50-75 in John Agnew, John Meercer & David Soper (eds.) The City in Cultural Context. Boston, MA: Allen & Unwin.

Rasheed, Sadig & Eshetu Chole. Human Development: An African Perspective. UNDP Human Development Report Occasional Paper No. 17. < ro/oc17.htm>

Rathgeber, Eva M. 1990.  "WID, WAD, GAD: Trends in Research and Practice,"  The Journal of Developing Areas, v24n4 (Jul 1990): 489-502.

[A history of efforts to recognize gender and gender roles in development efforts. Traces connections between gender-driven theories and development theories--modernization, dependency.]

Ray, Himanshu Prabha. 1987.  "Early Historical Urbanization: The Case of the Western Deccan,"  World Archeology, v19n1 (Jun 1987): 94-104.

Razavi, Shahrashoub & Carol Miller. 1995.  "From WID to GAD: Conceptual Shifts in the Women and Development Discourse," United Nations Research Institute for Social Development (UNRISD) Occasional Paper No.1, for UN Fourth World Conference On Women. <>

Redfield, Robert & Milton Singer. 1954 (1980).  "The Cultural Role of Cities,"  Economic Development and Cultural Change, v3 (1954): 53-73.
[Reprinted in Irwin Press & M. Estellie Smith, Urban Place and Process: Readings in the Anthropology of Cities. New York, NY: Macmillan Publishing Co., Inc. 1980: 183-205.]

Reed, Adolph Jr. 1994.  "The New Victorians,"  Progressive, v58n2 (Feb 1994): 20-22.

[Many people are becoming concerned about others voicing what can only be considered as Victorian-era racial ideology. Several examples of prejudicial race relations are presented.]

Rees, William E. 1992.  "EcologicaL Footprints and Appropriated Carrying Capacity,"  Environmental Urbanization, v4n2 (1992): 121-30.

Reich, Robert B. 1991.  "Brainpower, Bridges, and the Nomadic Corporation,"  New Perspectives Quarterly, v8n4 (Fall 1991): 67-71.

Reich, Robert B. 1991. The Work of Nations: Preparing Ourselves for 21st-Century Capitalism. New York: Alfred A. Knopf.

Reich, Robert B. 1991.  "Who Is "Us","  301-315 in Robert B. Reich, The Work of Nations: Preparing Ourselves for 21st-Century Capitalism, New York: Alfred A. Knopf.

Reid, Andrew & Paul Lane & Alinah Segobye & Lowe Borjeson & Nonofo Mathibidi & Princess Sekgarametso. 1997.  "Tswana Architecture and Responses to Colonialism,"  World Archaeology, v28n3 (Feb 1997): 370(13).

[Colonization not just about external imposition. Interplay of diverse relationships between colonised and colonising societies affect all aspects of material culture, interpreting and incorporating elements in ways relevant to their own society.]

Renner, Michael. 1996. Fighting for Survival: Environmental Decline, Social Conflict, and the New Age of Insecurity. New York, NY: Norton.

Repetto, R. & R. Solorzano et al. 1991. Accounts Overdue: Natural Resource Depreciation in Costa Rica. Washington, D.C.: World Resources Institute.

Repetto, R. & W. Magrath & M. Wells & C. Beer & F. Ross. 1989. Wasting Assets: Natural Resources in the National Accounts. Washington, D.C.: World Resources Institute.

Repetto, Robert (1992).  "Accounting for Environmental Assets,"  Scientific American, (Jun. 1992): 94-100.

Riano, P. 1994. Women in Grassroots Communication: Furthering Social Change. Thousand Oaks: Sage.

Rich, Bruce. 1994. Mortgaging the Earth: The World Bank, Environmental Impoverishment, and the Crisis of Development. Boston: Beacon Press.

Richardson, Harry W. 1987.  "Spatial Strategies, the Settlement Pattern, and Shelter and Services Policies,"  207-235 in Lloyd Rodwin (ed.), Shelter, Settlement, and Development. Boston: Allen & Unwin.

Richardson, Harry W. 1993.  "Efficiency and Welfare in LDC Mega-Cities," 32-57 in John D. Kasarda & Allan M. Parnell, Third World Cities: Problems, Policies, and Prospects. London, New Delhi: Sage Publications.

Rieff, David. 1991. Los Angeles: Capital of the Third World. New York: Simon & Schuster.

Rittel, Horst W.J. & Melvin M. Weber. 1973.  "Dilemmas in a General Theory of Planning,"  Policy Sciences, v4n2 (June 1973):155-169.

Roach, C. 1987. "The U.S. Position on the New World Information and Communication Order.¾ Journal of Communication v37 (1987): 36-51.

Rodrik, Dani. 1997.  "Sense and Nonsense in the Globalization Debate,"  Foreign Policy, n107 (Summer 1997): 19-37.

[As the debate on the effects of globalization on countries continues, it is getting more confusing. The impact of globalization, taken as part of a larger process of marketization, on nations is discussed.]

Rodwin, Lloyd & Bishwapriya Sanyal. 1987.  "Shelter, Settlement, and Development: An Overview,"  3-31 in Lloyd Rodwin (ed.), Shelter, Settlement, and Development. Boston: Allen & Unwin.

Rodwin, Lloyd & Donald A. Schon (eds.). 1994. Rethinking the Development Experience : Essays Provoked by the Work of Albert O. Hirschman. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution; Cambridge, MA: Lincoln Institute of Land Policy.

Rodwin, Lloyd (ed.). 1961. The Future Metropolis. New York: G. Braziller.

Rodwin, Lloyd (ed.). 1987. Shelter, Settlement, and Development. Boston: Allen & Unwin.

Rodwin, Lloyd. 1970. Nations and Cities: A Comparison of Strategies for Urban Growth. Boston: Houghton-Mifflin.

Rogers, Everett M. 1962. The Diffusion of Innovations. New York: The Free Press.

Rogers, Everett M. 1969. Modernization Among Peasants. New York: Holt, Rhinehart, & Winston.

Rosenberg, Nathan & L.E. Birdzell, Jr. 1986. How the West Grew Rich: The Economic Transformation of the Industrial World. New York: Basic Books.

[Conventional but useful account, based on (unexplained) traits of innovation, experimentation, encouraging diversity in human wants and in the means to satisfy them, giving autonomy to merchants. All these treated as neutral, objective, factual descriptions.]

Rostow, Walt W. 1960. The Stages of Economic Growth: A Non-Communist Manifesto. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

Rostow, Walt W. 1997.  "Lessons of the Plan: Looking Forward to the Next Century,"  Foreign Affairs, v76n3 (May 1997): 205-212.

[Rostow notes that three dimensions of the Marshall Plan increase in significance with the passage of time, including the plan¼s role in producing a postwar global economy that would avoid the problems that plagued the West after WWI.]

Rowbotham, Sheila & Swasti Mitter (eds.) 1994. Dignity and Daily Bread: New Forms of Economic Organizing Among Poor Women in the Third World and the First. New York: Routledge.

["Compares the lives of women in the First and Third Worlds, and examines how women around the world have resisted and reorganized existing forms of production to create alternative, more human circumstances of work and daily life. Offering a wide range of stories - from street vendors of India and garment workers of Mexico, to homeworkers in Britain - the contributors work to break down the ideological barriers that imperial colonialism and racism have built among women."]

Rowland, Allison M. and Peter Gordon. 1996.  "Mexico City: No Longer a Leviathan?" 173-202 in Alan Gilbert (ed.), The Mega-city in Latin America. Tokyo: United Nations University Press.

Ruathail, Gearoid O. 1995.  "Political Geography I.: Theorizing History, Gender and World Order Amidst Crises of Global Governance,¾ Progress in Human Geography, v19n2 (1995): 260-272.

Runge, Carlisle F. (1984).  "The Fallacy of "Privatization","  Journal of Contemporary Studies, v71 (1984): 3-17.

Sachs, Ignacy. 1988.  "Vulnerability of Giant Cities and the Life Lottery,"  337-350 in Mattei Dogan and John D. Kasarda (eds.), The Metropolis Era: Vol. 1. A World of Giant Cities. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage Publications.

Said, Edward W. (1981) 1997. Covering Islam: How the Media and the Experts Determine How We See the Rest of the World. Rev. ed. New York: Vintage Books.

Said, Edward W. 1978. Orientalism. New York: Pantheon Books.

Said, Edward W. 1993. Culture and Imperialism. New York: Knopf; Distributed by Random House.

Sanyal, Bishwapriya. 1988.  "The Urban Informal Sector Revisited: Some Notes on the Relevance of the Concept in the 1980s,"  Third World Planning Review, v10n1 (Feb 1988): 65-83.

Sassen, Saskia. 1993. „Rebuilding the Global City: Economy, Ethnicity, and Space,"  Social Justice, v20n3-4 (Fall 1993): 32-50.

Sassen, Saskia. 1994. „The Informal Economy: Between New Developments and Old Regulations,"  Yale Law Journal, v103n8 (Jun 1994): 2289-2304.

Sassen, Saskia. 1994. „The Urban Complex in a World Economy,"  International Social Science Journal, v46n1 (Feb 1994): 43-62.

Sassen, Saskia. 1996. „Cities and Communities in the Global Economy: Rethinking Our Concepts." American Behavioral Scientist, v39n5 (Mar 1996): 629-639.

[Sassen posits that the urban level and the community level need to be incorporated in the analysis of economic globalization and the study of new information technologies. This requires going beyond the relative powerlessness of localities confronted with hypermobile capital.]

Satterthwaite, David. 1996.  "Revisiting Urban Habitats. ("The Human Face of the Urban Environment: Proceedings of the Second Annual World Bank Conference on Environmentally Sustainable Development" report),"  Environment, v38, n9 (Nov 1996): p25(4).

[Interest on urban environmental issues has been growing following Habitat II, the second UN Conference on Human Settlements held in June 1996. A report examines urban infrastructure in developing countries and details efforts to build sustainable economies. Disagreements by analysts are included.]

Satterthwaite, David. 1997.  "Environmental Transformations in Cities as They get Larger, Wealthier and Better Managed,"  Geographical Journal, v163 (Part 2) (Jul 1997): 216-224.

[Implications of environmental improvements for inhabitants and ecosystems.]

Satterthwaite, David. 1997.  "Sustainable Cities or Cities that Contribute to Sustainable Development?" Urban Studies, v34n10 (Oct 1997): 1667-1691.

[Framework for assessing the environmental performance of cities.]

Sayne, Pamela & Bernard Miller. 1996.  "Right to Housing, Right to Debt: Another Patriarchal Paradigm,"  Women and Environments, n39/40 (Summer 1996): 16-22.

[Discuss how the poor, particularly the women and the South, subsidize the rich, particularly the men and the North, through the international finance system. Women are more than 50 per cent of the world¼s population. They do two thirds of the world¼s work, yet receive only 10 per cent of the wages and own less than one per cent of the property. Further, people in the north are only 25 per cent of the world¼s population, yet, they consume 73 per cent of the world¼s non-renewable resources. They propose that increased popular awareness of sustainable approaches to housing finance could provide leverage that would enable new policy directions to be created.]

Scargill, David I. 1979.  "Modernization and the Non-Western City,"  213-253 in David I. Scargill, The Form of Cities. New York, NY: St. Martin"s Press.

Scargill, David I. 1979.  "The Colonial City,"  204-212 in David I. Scargill, The Form of Cities. New York: St. Martin"s Press.

Scargill, David I. 1979. The Form of Cities. New York, NY: St. Martin"s Press.

Scargill, David Ian. 1979.  "The Pre-Industrial City,"  182-203 in David I. Scargill, The Form of Cities. New York, NY: St. Martin"s Press.

Schaedel, Richard P. & Jorge E. Hardoy & Nora Scott Kinzer (eds.). 1978. Urbanization in the Americas from Its Beginnings to the Present. The Hague (Noordeinde 41): Mouton.

[Prepared for the 9th International Congress of Anthropological and Ethnological Sciences, Chicago.]

Schiller, Dan. 1994.  "From Culture to Information and Back Again: Commoditization as a Route to Knowledge,"  Critical Studies in Mass Communication, v11n1 (Mar 1994): 93-115.

[Challenges essentialist assumptions about information and the so-called „information society.¾ Argues the need to treat information as a commodity, and to fhistoricize its study.]

Schipper, Lee. 1996. „Life-Styles and the Environment: The Case of Energy,¾ Daedalus, v125n3 (Summer 1996): 113-138.

Schmidhauser, John R. 1989. „Power, Legal Imperialism, and Dependency,¾ Law and Society Review, v23n5 (1989): 857-878.

[Elements of scholarly perspectives that deal with political and economic power, legal imperialism and dependency in different ways are examined. The contributions of contemporary scholars, like Shapiro, have set the stage for the development of indicators of considerably greater precision for transnational relationships.]

Schmidhauser, John R. 1989. „Power, Legal Imperialism, and Dependency,¾ Law and Society Review, v23n5 (1989): 857-878.

[Elements of scholarly perspectives that deal with political and economic power, legal imperialism and dependency in different ways are examined. The contributions of contemporary scholars, like Shapiro, have set the stage for the development of indicators of considerably greater precision for transnational relationships.]

Schnore, Leo F. 1965.  "On the Spatial Structure of Cities in the Two Americas,"  347-398 in Philip M. Hauser & Leo F. Schnore (eds.), The Study of Urbanization, New York: Jonh Wiley & Sons, Inc.

[A test of the Chicago concentric zones model, using seven case studies and a literature review. Discusses limits of the model, methodological structure for research agenda.]

Schon, Donald A. 1987.  "Instituional Learning in Shelter and Settlement Policies,"  360-378 in Lloyd Rodwin (ed.), Shelter, Settlement, and Development. Boston: Allen & Unwin.

Schooler, Carmi. 1996.  "Cultural and Social-Structural Explanations of Cross-National Psychological Differences,"  Annual Review of Sociology, v22 (1996): 323-349.

[Cross-national differences in individual values, attitudes, and behaviors are examined, focusing on how social-structural and cultural factors account for the differences found.]

Schorr, Melissa. 1996.  "Does gender equity promote prosperity, or vice versa?" Working Woman, v21n1 (Jan 1996): 18.

[Discusses two recent studies trying to determine whether improved living standards lead to greater empowerment of women or vice versa. The reports reached very different conclusions.]

Scott, Catherine V. 1995. Gender and Development: Rethinking Modernization and Dependency Theory. Boulder, CO: L. Rienner Publishers.

Scott, James C. 1990. Domination and the Arts of Resistance: Hidden Transcripts. New Haven: Yale University Press.

Seabrook, Jeremy. 1996. In the Cities of the South: Scenes From a Developing World. New York, NY: Verso.

[Hugely distorted portraits of "shock" scenes, with benefit of doubt always being given to establishing the dirt, danger, squalour, and pathos of masses beyond hope. No virtues, no redeeming features.]

Seers, Dudley & Leonard Joy (eds.). 1971. Development in a Divided World. Hammondsworth, UK: Penguin.

[Effects of "initial conditions," eg. climate, on development.]

Sen, Amartya. 1994.  "Population: Delusion and Reality,"  New York Review of Books, v41n15 (Sep 22, 1994): 62-71.

[Discusses problems of migration, income, food supply, poverty and women¼s rights in the context of the upcoming International Conference on Population and Development in Cairo Egypt. Argues that, just as alarmism builds on the recognition of a real problem and then magnifies it, complacency may also start off from a reasonable belief about the history of population problems and fail to see how they may have changed by now. The current anxiety in the West about the „world population problem¾ is founded on the belief that destitution caused by fast population growth in the third world is responsible for the severe pressure to emigrate to the developed countries of Europe and North America. There are two distinct questions here: first, how great a threat of intolerable immigration pressure does the North face from the South, and second, is that pressure closely related to population growth in the South, rather than to other social and economic factors? There are reasons to doubt that population growth is the major force behind migratory pressures.]

Serageldin, Ismail & Andrew Steer (eds.). 1994. Valuing the Environment: Proceedings of the First Annual International Conference on Environmentally Sustainable Development held at the World Bank, Washington, D.C., September 30-October 1, 1993. (Environmentally sustainable development proceedings series; no. 2.) Washington, DC: World Bank.

Serageldin, Ismail & Michael A. Cohen & K.C. Sivaramakrishnan (eds.). 1995. The Human Face of the Urban Environment: A Report to the Development Community on the Second Annual Conference on Environmentally Sustainable Development sponsored by the World Bank and held at the National Academy of Sciences and the World Bank, Washington, D.C., September 19-23, 1994. (Environmentally sustainable development proceedings series; no. 5.) Washington, DC: World Bank.

Sethuraman, S.V. 1997. Urban Poverty and the Informal Sector: A Critical Assissment of Current Strategies. Development Policies Department, International Labour Organization: Geneva; United Nations Development Programme: New York. <htt p://>

[This policy paper addresses the issue of raising incomes of workers in the informal sector. The paper identifies a number of areas where both policies and action programmes can be improved. More importantly it emphasizes the need to consider certain reforms and the creation of an enabling environment for the poor to help themselves.]

Sherman, Amy L.. 1992.  "Rethinking Development: A Market-Friendly Strategy for the Poor,¾ Christian Century, v109n36 (Dec 9, 1992): 1130-1137.

[Argues for a two-pronged strategy of structural adjustment-oriented market reforms and highly targeted poverty alleviation and social programs.  "When a woman is diagnosed with cancer, her friends may lament the suffering she must endure in chemotherapy treatments, but they are unlikely to discourage her from undergoing the very activity that may cure her. Instead they busy themselves babysitting the children, bringing in meals, cleaning the house and helping pay the doctor¼s bills."]

Shuman, Michael. 1994. Towards a Global Village: International Community Development Initiatives. Boulder, CO: Pluto Press. [Analyzes the emerging global movement of community-based development initiatives, or CDIs--policies and actions undertaken jointly by NGOs, community groups, and local governments to promote global development that reaches beyond the borders of a local community. Explores reasons behind development of CDIs, different CDI methodologies used to respond to diverse political, economic and environmental issues, and challenges the movement now faces. Concludes with short summaries of the CDI movement in 22 countries and a list of key contact people, publications, and other resources."]

Simon, Julian L. 1994.  "Demographic Causes and Consequences of the Industrial Revolution,"   Journal of European Economic History, v23n1 (Spring 1994): 141-158

Sit, Victor Fung-Shuen. 1993.  "Transnational Capital Flows, Foreign Investments, and Urban Growth in Developing Countries,"  180-198 in John D. Kasarda & Allan M. Parnell, Third World Cities: Problems, Policies, and Prospects. London, New Delhi: Sage Publications.

Sjoberg, Gideon. 1955.  "The Preindustrial City,"  American Journal of Sociology, v60n5 (Mar 1955): 438-445.

Sjoberg, Gideon. 1960. The Pre-Industrial City. New York, NY: The Free Press.

[See pp. 321-344, "The Pre-Industrial City: A Backward Glance, a Forward Look." Excerpt reprinted in Press & Smith 1980: 167-182.]

Sjoberg, Gideon. 1973.  "The Origin and Evolution of Cities,"  19-27 in Cities: Their Origin, Growth, and Human Impact. (Readings from Scientific American.) San Franicisco, CA: W.H. Freeman & Co.

Slocombe, C. Scott. 1993. „Environmental Planning, Ecosystem Science, and Ecosystem Approaches for Integrating Environment and Development,¾ Environmental Management, v17n3 (1993). p289-303.

Slovo, Gillian & Sarah Crowe. 1995.  "Going Home to a New World/Meet the New Neighbors,"  World Press Review, v42n142n1 (Jan 1995): 11?-143.

[Change in South Africa is uneven, a lurch into the new world followed by a step backward. South Africa¼s problems of giving dispossessed blacks their land back from farmers operating the land are discussed. Elliot Shevel and Shirley Shevel have seen their property overrun in South Africa by squatters. The Shevels know that with the ANC government in control, their hopes of living in their retirement home are shattered.]

Smith, Courtland L. 1995.  "Assessing the Limits to Growth,"  Bioscience, v45n7 (Jul 1995): 478-483.

[Attempt to synthesize Neo-Malthusian and cornucopian views of the limits-to-growth hypothesis. Discusses environmental impact of population growth.]

Smith, David A. 1996. Third World Cities in Global Perspective: The Political Economy of Uneven Urbanization. Westview Press.

Smith, M. Estellie. 1975.  "A Tale of Two Cities: The Reality of Historical Differences,"  Urban Anthropology, v4 (1975): 61-72.

[Reprinted in Press & Smith 1980: 439-450.]

Smith, Michael P. & Joe R. Feagin (eds.). 1987.

The Capitalist City: Global Restructuring and Community Politics. New York, NY: B. Blackwell.

Smith, William C. & Carlos H. Acuna & Eduardo A. Gamarra. 1994. Democracy, Markets, and Structural Reform in Latin America: Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile and Mexico. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Publishers.
["Highlights the connections between democratic politics and marketplace logic - a link reinforced by the „Washington Consensus¾ of freemarket reforms promoted by policy makers in the International Monetary Fund (IMF), the World Bank, and the U.S. government. Leading U.S. and Latin American political scientists, economists, and sociologists analyze the factors shaping democratization and economic restructuring and assess alternative scenarios for politics and economics in the region."]

Solow, Robert M. 1992.  "Sustainability: Our Debt to the Future,"  USA Today: The Magazine of the American Scene, v121n2568 (Sep 1992): 40-42.

[Sustainability as a moral obligation is a general, not a specific, one. It is not a commitment to preserve this or that. It is an obligation to maintain the capacity to be as well off as we are. That does not preclude preserving specific resources, if they have an independent value and no good substitutes. However, we should be aware that is part of their value, not a consequence of any idea of sustainability.]

Solow, Robert M. 1997.  "How Did Economics Get That Way and What Way Did It Get?" Daedalus, v126n1 (Winter 1997): 39-58.

[Details the evolution of economics over a 50-year span. Formalist economics starts with a small number of assumptions about the behavior of individual economic agents, and a few more about their interactions with each other, and goes on to study what can then be said about the resulting economic system. Modern mainstream economics is not all that formal. What the outsider really sees is model-building, which is an altogether different sort of activity. It is important, then, to understand what a model is and what it is not.]

Solow, Robert. 1995.  "An Almost Practical Step Toward Sustainability,"  Ekistics: The Problems and Science of Human Settlements, v62n370-372 (Jan 1995): 15-20.

[In proposing guidelines for the construction of a sustainability strategy, Solow demonstrates that adjustments for the net depletion of natural resources and environmental assets can be made in the very same national income accounts that account for depreciation of fixed capital. He then outlines what each generation should give back in exchange for depleted natural resources and spent environmental assets.]

Song, Fengxiang & Michael Timberlake. 1996.  "Chinese Urbanization, State Policy, and the World Economy,"  Journal of Urban Affairs, v18n3 (Summer 1996): 285(12).

[Effective official control of urban growth and international insulation prevented Chinese cities from experiencing the general Third World pattern of overurbanization and imbalances. Urban bias is a concomitant of reintegration into the global economy.]

St. Clair, Matthew. 1998.  "GDP and the Smoke Signals from Southeast Asia,"  World Watch, v11n1 (Jan 1998): 7-8.

[The gross domestic product (GDP) is not a complete measure of happiness and well-being. Southeast Asia and its disregard for the environment is a good example of this; forest fires in this region are devastating natural resources and crippling the area.]

Stack, Carol B. 1996.  "The Kindred of Viola Jackson: Residence and Family Organization of an Urban Black American Family,"  323-334 in George Gmelch & Walter P. Zenner (eds.), 1996, Urban Life: Readings in Urban Anthropology. Prospect Heights, IL: Waveland Press.

[In the case of the stereotypical fatherless household, challenges explanations from matrifocality in explaining survival strategies. Argues a dynamic, adaptive and process-driven conception.]

Starosta, W. 1979.  "Roots for an Older Rhetoric: On Rhetorical Effectiveness in the Third World,"  Western Journal of Speech Communication, v43 (1979): 278-287.

Starr, Chauncey. 1996. „Sustaining the Human Environment: The Next Two Hundred Years,¾ Daedalus, v125n3 (Summer 1996): 235-253.

Steeves, L. 1993. „Creating Imagined Communities: Development Communication and the Challenge of Feminism.¾ Journal of Communication, v43n3 (1993): 218-229.

Steffen, Jerome O. 1994. „Edenic Expectations of New Technology: A Recurring Pattern in American Culture,"  National Forum: Phi Kappa Phi Journal, v74n2 (Spring 1994): 11-15.

[Despite the impressions of the evils of the history of industrialization, Americans welcomed mechanization with open arms, believing that such evils could never infiltrate a democratic society. The Edenic expectations of new technologies and three myths that are important to US cultural stability are discussed. that the world presents unlimited opportunity; that the general interest of the nation is best served when free citizens act in their own self-interest; and, in the US, a sense of „manifest destiny,¾ a responsibility for remaking the world in its own image.]

Stephens, C. 1996.  "Healthy Cities or Unhealthy Islands: The Health and Social Implications of Urban Inequality,"  Environmental Urbanization, v8n2 (1996): 9 30.

Stephenson, Peter & Willy Brandt, et al. 1981. Handbook of World Development: the Guide to the Brandt Report. Compiled by GJW Government Relations. New York: Holmes & Meier Publishers.

Stern, Paul C. & Oran R. Young & Daniel Druckman (eds.). 1992. Global Environmental Change: Understanding the Human Dimensions. (Committee on the Human Dimensions of Global Change, Commission on the Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education, National Research Council.) Washington, DC : National Academy Press.

Stewart, F. 1995. Adjustment and Poverty: Options and Choices. London: Routledge.

Straussfogel, Debra. 1997.  "World-systems Theory: Toward a Heuristic and Pedagogic Conceptual Tool,"  Economic Geography, v73n1 (Jan 1997): 118-130.

[Uses complex systems theory, Marxist conceptions of economic structure, and four-capital model from ecological economics to operationalize core-periphery structural definitions. Theory as dynamic processes.]

Streeten, Paul. 1971.  "How Poor Are the Poor Countries,"  78+ in Dudley Seers & Leonard Joy (eds.), Development in a Divided World. Hammondsworth, UK: Penguin.

[Effects of "initial conditions," eg. climate, on development.]

Streeten, Paul. 1995. „Human Development: The Debate About the Index,¾ International Social Science Journal, v47n1 (Mar 1995): 25-37.

[The UN Development Programme"s Human Development Index is critically examined, after a definition of human development, its indicators and its institutional setting is offered. Human development is defined as the enlargement of the range of people"s choices.]

Stremlau, John. 1996.  "Dateline Bangalore: Third World Technopolis,"  Foreign Policy, n102 (Spring 1996): 152-168.

[Many US companies rely on computer software developed and tailored to their needs in Bangalore and other Indian cities. India is positioned to become a major force in the global software marketplace.]

Sussman, L.R. 1977. „Mass News Media and the Third World Challenge,¾ The Washington Papers, v5n46 (1977): **.

Swartz, Marc J.. 1996.  "Politics, Ethnicity, and Social Structure: The Decline of an Urban Community During the Twentieth Century,"  Ethnology, v35n4 (Fall 1996): 233-248.

[Conflict and the Web of Group Affiliations]

Taylor, Charles L. & David A. Jodice. 1983. World Handbook of Political and Social Indicators. (V. 1: Cross-national Attributes and Rates of Change.) 3rd Edition. New Haven: Yale University Press.

Taylor, Charles L. 1995. „Two Theories of Modernity," Hastings Center Report, v25n2 (Mar 1995): 24-33.

[The rise of modernity can be taken either as a change from earlier centuries to today, involving something like „development,¾ as the demise of a „traditional¾ society and the rise of the „modern.¾ This is an acultural theory that conceives of modernity as the growth of reason, defined as the growth of scientific consciousness, or the development of a secular outlook, or the rise of instrumental rationality, or an ever-clearer distinction between fact-finding and evaluation. But modernity is not that one form of life toward which every culture converges as it discards beliefs. Nor is it a set of transformations that any and every culture can go through--and that all will probably be forced to undergo. Modernity is a movement from one background of understandings to another. Outlines the terms of a cultural theory.]

Third World Editors. 1990. The World as Seen by the Third World: Third World Guide, 1989-90, Facts, Figures, Opinions. Montevideo, Rio De Janeiro, Lisbon: Third World Editors.

Thomas, Alan & Ben Crow, et al. 1994. Third World Atlas. 2nd ed. Bristol, PA: Taylor & Francis.

Thomas, D. & N. Middleton. 1994. Desertification: Exploding the Myth. Chichester: John Wiley and Sons.

Thomas-Slayter, Barbara et al. 1995. Gender, Environment, and Development In Kenya: A Grassroots Perspective. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner.

Thompson, M. & M. Warburton & T. Hatley. 1986. Uncertainty on a Himalayan Scale: An Institutional Theory of Environmental Perception and a Strategic Framework for the Sustainable Development of the Himalayas. London: Ethnographica, Milton Ash Publications.

Thompson, M. 1993.  "Good Science for Public Policy,"  International Development, v5n6 (1993): 669-679.

Thorbek, Susanne. 1994. Gender and Slum Culture in Urban Asia, translated by Brian Fredsfod. London; Atlantic Highlands, N.J.: Zed Books.

Tiffen, M. & M. Mortimore & F. Gichuki. 1994. More People, Less Erosion? Environmental Recovery in Kenya. Chichester: John Wiley and Sons.

Timberlake, Michael (ed.). 1985. Urbanization in the World-Economy. New York, NY: Academic Press.

Timberlake, Michael. 1985.  "The World-System Perspective and Urbanization," 3-22 in Michael Timberlake (ed.), Urbanization in the World-Economy. New York, NY: Academic Press.

[Intro. chapter. Discusses ways of studying urbanization: Weber, Chicago School, Marxian.]

Tiryakian, Edward A. 1997. „The Wild Cards of Modernity," Daedalus, v126n2 (Spring 1997): 147-181.

[That race, ethnicity, religion, and nationalism, together with gender, form a „cultural bundle¾ of attributes which are neither „ascribed¾ nor „acquired,¾ but rather are subject to continuing construction and reconstruction. A central argument of this essay is that it is critical to treat this „bundle¾ as a dynamic set of factors creating modernity, rather than as constants or residuals in the general process of modernization. At different periods, these elements may have different values in providing motivation for change in the mobilization of social actors.]

Tomlinson, J. 1991. Cultural Imperialism: A Critical Introduction. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press.

[Disagregates cultural imperialism into four categories: as media imperialism, as discourse of nationality, as critique of global capitalism, and critique of modernity.]

Toynbee, Arnold. 1970.  "The Traditional City and the Present Urban Explosion,"  1-39 in Arnold Toynbee, Cities on the Move. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.

Toynbee, Arnold. 1970. Cities on the Move. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.

Trigger, Bruce G. 1972.  "Determinants of Urban Growth in Pre-Industrial Societies,"  575-599 in Peter J. Ucko & Ruth Tringham & G.W. Dimbley (eds.), Man, Settlement, and Urbanism. Cambridge, MA: Schenckman Publishing Co.

[Reprinted in Press & Smith 1980: 143-167. Proceedings of a meeting of the Research Seminar in Archaeology and Related Subjects, London University, 1970.]

Tsai, Kellee S. 1996.  "Women and the State in post-1949 Rural China," Journal of International Affairs, v49n2 (Winter 1996): 493-524.

[Position of women in rural China in both the Mao and post-Mao reform periods. Persistence of gender inequalities in socialist countries despite their ideological commitment to the emancipation of women. Proposes a synthesis of state-centered and women-in-development (WID) theories for explaining gender inequalities under socialism.]

Turner, B. L. II. & Karl W. Butzer. 1992.  "The Columbian Encounter and Land-Use Change,"  Environment, v34n8 (Oct 1992): 16-20+.

[The 1492 „Columbian encounter¾ set in motion the most dramatic changes in land use and land cover induced by human action up to that time. A historical narrative of the changes that took place around the world is given.]

Turner, B.L. II & W. Clark & R. Kates & J. Richards & J. Mathews & W. Meyer (eds). 1990. The Earth Transformed by Human Action: Global and Regional Changes in the Biosphere Over the Past 300 Years. Cambridge: C.U.P.

Ucko, Peter J. & Ruth Tringham & G.W. Dimbley (eds.). 1972. Man, Settlement, and Urbanism. Cambridge, MA: Schenckman Publishing Co.

Udayagiri, Mridula. 1995. "Challenging Modernization: Gender and Development, Postmodern Feminism and Activism,"  159-177 in Marianne H. Marchand & Jane L. Parpart (eds.), Feminism/Postmodernism/Development. London; New York: Routledge.

[Examines the political significance of postmodern discourse analyses of women in the South. Argument for applying situational and historical contingency to generalization and essentialism.]

UNCHS. 1996.  "New Directions for Human Settlements: Addressing Sustainable Development Goals,"  417-420 in UNCHS, An Urbanizing World: Global Report on Human Settlements, 1996. New York: Oxford University Press for the United Nations Centre for Human Settlements (HABITAT).

UNCHS. 1996.  "The Global Context: Global Population Change and Urbanization,"  11-31 in UNCHS, An Urbanizing World: Global Report on Human Settlements, 1996. New York: Oxford University Press for the United Nations Centre for Human Settlements (HABITAT).

UNCHS. 1996. An Urbanizing World: Global Report on Human Settlements, 1996. New York: Oxford University Press for the United Nations Centre for Human Settlements (HABITAT).

UNEP/WHO. 1994.  "Air Pollution in the World"s Megacities: A report from the United Nations Environment Programme and the World Health Organization,"  Environment, v36n2 (Mar 1994): 4+.

[Excerpts from the Global Environment Monitoiing System/Air (GEMS/Air) 1992 report, Urban Air Pollution in Megacities of the World, published by Blackwell Publishers, 1992, on behalf of WHO and UNEP.]

UNESCO. 1989. World Communication Report. Paris: UNESCO.

United Nations Dept. of Economic Affairs. 1951.. Measures for the Economic Development of Under-Developed Countries; Report by a Group of Experts Appointed by the Secretary-General of the United Nations. New York, United Nations.

United Nations Development Program. 1992. Human Development Report. (1990 et seq., annual.) New York: Oxford University Press.

[1990-1998, plus related material available at < gt;]

United Nations. (1990, 1993, 1995, 1997). World Economic and Social Survey: Trends and Policies in the World Economies. Prepared by the Department of Economic and Social Information and Policy Analysis. New York: United Nations Press.

United Nations. 1993. Integrated Environmental and Economic Accounting: Interim Version. Department for Economic and Social Information and Policy Analysis (Studies in Methods. Series F; No.61). New York, NY: United Nations.

[„Handbook of National Accounting.¾]

Uribe, Victor M. 1997.  "The Enigma of Latin American Independence: Analyses of the Last Ten Years,"  Latin American Research Review, v32n1 (1997): 236-255.

[Useful discussion of key issues and positions. Comparative book review of „Response to Revolution¾ by Michael Costeloe, „La Independencia¾ edited by German Colmenares, „The Independence of Latin America¾ edited by Leslie Bethell, and „Trade, War, and Revolution¾ by John R. Fisher.]

Van Der Hoeven, R. & Anker, R. (eds). 1994. Poverty Monitoring: An International Concern. New York: St Martin¼s Press.

Van Kempen, Ronald & Peter Marcuse. 1997.  "A New Spatial Order in Cities?" American Behavioral Scientist, v41n3 (Nov 1997): 285-298.

[Cities shaped by three categories of forces: those derived from a supracity level, those internal to the city but structural to general city form and those particular to specific cities. General tendencies such as globalization, economic restructuring, demographic shifts, racism, and the declining welfare role of the state affect all cities. But each city has its own historical shape, and political, economic, and social characteristics. No uniform spatial pattern should be expected to be found in all cities.]

Van Rossem, Ronan. 1996.  "The World System Paradigm as General Theory of Development: A Cross-National Test,"  American Sociological Review, v61n3 (Jun 1996): 508-527.

[Defines a role-based rather than stage of development based definition of world system standing (core, semi-periphery, periphery). Case by case discussion of role relations, that roles affect dependencies, and dependencies affect economic performance.]

Venkateswaran, Sandhya. 1995. Environment, Development and the Gender Gap. New Delhi; Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications.

Visvanathan, Nalini & Lynn Duggan & Laurie Nisonoff & Nan Wiegersma (eds.). 1997. The Women, Gender, and Development Reader. Atlantic Highlands, NJ: Zed Books.

Waddell, Steve. 1995. „Lessons from the Healthy Cities Movement for Social Indicator Development,¾ Social Indicators Research, v34n2 (Feb 1995): 213-235.

[Emerging developments of social indicators are examined through the experience of a health planning initiative begun in 1986 under the coordination of the World Health Organization. The three stages of indicator development are understanding, consensus, and commitment. Indicators are client-driven historical artifacts.]

Waggoner, Paul E. & Jesse H. Ausubel & Iddo K. Wernick. 1996.  "Lightening the Tread of Population on the Land: American Examples,"  Population and Development Review v22n3 (Sep1996):531-545.

[That land covered by the built environment increases less than in proportion to population. Declining use of lumber combined with improved forestry kept forest area steady as population rose. Rising yields and changing tastes countered the impact of rising population and wealth on cropland area. A lightening tread of Americans on the land in the next century could spare over 90 million hectares for nature, an area equal to 100 times the size of Yellowstone National Park.]

Waggoner, Paul E. 1996. „How Much Land Can Ten Billion People Spare For Nature?¾ Daedalus, v125n3 (Summer 1996): 73-93

Wallace, Tina & Candida March (eds.). 1991. Changing Perceptions Writings on Gender and Development. Oxford: Oxfam, c1991.

Wallerstein, Immanuel. 1988.  "Should We Unthink the Nineteenth Century?" 185-191 in Francisco O. Ramirez (ed.), Rethinking the Nineteenth Century: Contradictions and Movements, (Studies in the Political Economyof the World System: Contributions in Economics and Economic History, No. 76.) New York: Greenwood Press.

[Identifies four basic premises of social science and history studies: that new is better than old; that simple precedes the complex; that knowledge (scientific) becomes increasingly certain and predictive (nomothetic); and that boundaries of the state express fundamental units of society. Together, these as sources of most "anomalies" in social science. Proposes five steps to undo these: replace "society" with "historical system;" deidealize, historicize and particularize the gemeinschaft-gesellschaft antinomy; erase the separation between "arenas" of activity--economy, polity, and culture (liberals), or base and superstructure (Marxists); undo the association between culture and pastness, and rethink the distinctions between the past and the present; and fifth, undo the notion that science simplifies, or even, is completely distinct from art. No footnotes or citations.]

Wallerstein, Immanuel. 1992.  "The West, Capitalism, and the Modern World System,"  Review, v15n4 (Fall 1992): 561-619.

[Defines capitalism as (and only) "the system based on a structural priority given to the ceaseless (emphasis) accumulation of capital." Argues that the move to capitalism was not progressive, but rather a descent. Suggests four reasons in the collapse of: the seigniors, the states, the Church, and the Mongols. This dismantled the existing world trade system.  "For one moment in historical space-time the protective anticapitalist gates were opened up, and capitalism "snuck in," to the loss of all of us." Wallerstien, 1993.]

Wallerstein, Immanuel. 1993.  "World Systems versus World System: A Critique," 292-296 in Andre Gunter Frank & Barry K. Gills, The World System: Five Hundred Years or Five Thousand? London, New York: Routledge.

[Part of the three way debate between Frank & Gills, Abu-Lughod, and Wallerstein. Provides context for his arguments, shows misunderstnadings in debate. "My "world-system" is not a system "in the world" or "of the world." It is a system"that is a world." Hence the hyphen, since "world" is not an attribute of the system." Many world-systems could and did coexist prior to the 19th century. But after, there was only one--capitalism.]

Wallerstein, Immanuel. 1995. „The Insurmountable Contradictions of Liberalism: Human Rights and the Rights of Peoples in the Geoculture of the Modern World-System,"  South Atlantic Quarterly, v94n4 (Fall 1995): 1161-1178.

Wallerstein, Immanuel. 1995. „What are We Bounding, and Whom, When We Bound Social Research,"  Social Research, v62n4 (Winter 1995): 839-856.

[In the context of dividing research roles within university structures, questions the dichotomies of past/present, West/non-West, and state/market/civil society. Traces the history of their emergence, since 1850. Questions their historical justification. Suggests macro/micro, global/local as one way of dividing the research space, using mechanisms of „overlap¾ and „life-limited floating groups.¾ Discussion of East/West useful in showing the „othering¾ of the non-Western world.]

Wallerstein, Immanuel. 1997. „Social Science and the Quest for a Just Society,"  American Journal of Sociology, v102n5 (Mar 1997): 1241-1257.

Wallerstein, Immanuel. „The Concept of National Development, 1917-1989: Elegy and Requiem,"  American Behavioral Scientist, v35n4-5 (Mar 1992): 517-529.

Wallerstein, Immanuel. „The French Revolution as a World-Historical Event,"  Social Research, v56n1 (Spring 1989): 33-52.

Wallich, Paul. 1990.  "Dark Days; Eastern Europe Brings to Mind the West"s Polluted Past,"  Scientific American, v263n2 (Aug 1990): 16(2).

Wallis, Helen. 1992.  "What Columbus Knew,"  History Today, v42 (May 1992): 17-23.

[The question of whether Christopher Columbus was a master mariner or merely a dedicated amateur is addressed. The state of geographical knowledge at the time Columbus set sail and the use he made of it are discussed.]

Walton, John. 1984.  "Culture and Economy in the Shaping of Urban Life: General Issues and Latin American Examples," 76-93 in John Agnew, John Meercer & David Soper (eds.) The City in Cultural Context. Boston, MA: Allen & Unwin.

Ward, Kathryn B. 1984. Women in the World System: Its Impact on Status and Fertility. New York: Praeger.

Ward, Kathryn B. 1985.  "Women and Urbanization in the World-System," 305-323 in Michael Timberlake (ed.), Urbanization in the World-Economy. New York, NY: Academic Press.

[Review of access and participation by women in different sectors, differences in migration patterns, etc. A bit dated.]

Waters, Malcolm. 1995. Globalization. New York: Routledge.

Weaver, Thomas & Douglas White (eds.). 1972. The Anthropology of Urban Environments, Society for Applied Anthropology Monograph No. 11. Washington, DC: Society for Applied Anthropology.

Weiskel, Timothy C. 1995.  "Can Humanity Survive Unrestricted Population Growth?" USA Today: The Magazine of the American Scene, v123n2596 (Jan 1995): 38-40.

[The Earth is in the midst of a global "extinction event" resulting from an internally generated dynamic--seemingly unrestrained human population growth and the pattern of accentuated parasitism that it has unleashed. Theories of human survival of population growth are discussed.]

Wernick, Iddo K. & Robert Herman & Shekhar Govind & Jesse H. Ausubel. 1996. „Materialization and Dematerialzation: Measures and Trends,¾ Daedalus, v125n3 (Summer 1996): 171-198.

Whalley, John. 1990.  "Non-discriminatory Discrimination: Special and Differential Treatment Under the GATT for Developing Countries. (General Agreement on Trade and Tariffs) (Policy Forum: Multilateralism and Bilateralism in Trade Policy),"  Economic Journal v100n403 (Dec 1990): 1318(11).

Wheatley, Paul. 1972.  "The Concept of Urbanism,"  601-637 in Peter J. Ucko & Ruth Tringham & G.W. Dimbely, Man, Settlement and Urbanism. (Proceedings of a Meeting of the Research Seminar in Archeology and Related Subjects, London University, 1970.) London: Duckworth.

WHO. World Resources Institute. 1996. World Resources 1996-97: The Urban Environment. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Wilkinson, Richard G. 1994.  "The Epidemiological Transition: From Material Scarcity to Social Disadvantage?,"  Daedalus, v123n4 (Fall 1994): 61-77.

[Mortality rates in the developed world are no longer related to per capita economic growth but are now related to the scale of income equality in each society. This represents a transition from the primacy of material constraints to social constraints as the limiting condition on the quality of life.]

Williams, Lydia & Fran P. Hosken & Pamela Sparr. 1998.  "Women and Development,"  WIN News (Women¼s International Network), v24n1 (Winter 1998): 7-21.

[Women¼s issues that were recently dealt with by international development organizations including the International Monetary Fund, World Bank and the USAID Office of Women in Development (WID) are presented. Various WID initiatives and projects within their Gender Plan for Action are described.]

Williams, Raymond. 1973.  "The City and the Future,"  272-278 in Raymond Williams, The Country and the City. New York: Oxford University Press.

[Traces ideas of the future city in literature, from H.G. Wells to science fiction, utopia and dystopia.]

Williams, Raymond. 1973.  "The New Metropolis,"  279-288 in Raymond Williams, The Country and the City. New York: Oxford University Press.

[An account of the way ideas of country as hinterland were projected out to other countries, the "colonies." The rise of Imperialism as a continuum of the process of dichotomizing city and country.]

Williams, Raymond. 1973. The Country and the City. New York: Oxford University Press.

Williams, Stephen Wyn. 1997.  ""The Brown Agenda": Urban Environmental Problems and Policies in the Developing World,"  Geography, v82, n1 (Jan 1997): p17(10).

[Examines the nature of environmental problems in Third World cities and the relationship between the environment, poverty and shelter. Illustrates themes by reference to a case study of Calcutta. The question of how best to manage and plan the urban environment is examined. In particular, recent proposals by influential international agencies such as the World Bank are considered.]

Williamson, John. 1993. „Democracy and the "Washington Consensus",¾ World Development, v21n8 (Aug 1993): 1329-1336.

[It is argued that there is a substantial body of economic advice, roughly summarized in the "Washington consensus," that deserves to be endorsed across the political spectrum. Other economic issues would have to be determined by the outcome of the political process.]

Wilson, James Q. 1995.  "Capitalism and Morality,"  Public Interest, n121 (Fall 1995): 42-60.

[Capitalism is not irrelevant to morality: It assumes the existence of certain moral dispositions, strengthens some of them, and threatens others. For people worried about inequality or environmental degradation, the question is not whether capitalism has consequences but whether its consequences are better or worse than those of some feasible economic alternative.]

Wirth, Louis. 1938.  "Urbanism as a Way of Life,"  American Jouranl of Sociology, v44 (1938): 1-24.

Wong, Linda. 1994.  "China¼s Urban Migrants: The Public Policy Challenge,"  Pacific Affairs, v67n3 (Fall 1994): 335-355.

[An overview of the current situation, from the late 1980s to 1993, focusing on the challenge migrants pose to the state and civil society and the policy responses adopted so far.]

World Bank. 1986. World Development Report: World Development Indicators. Washington, DC: World Bank.

World Bank. 1988. Social Indicators of Development. (Annual, 1988 et seq.; Socio-Economic Data Division, IBRD.) Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, for the World Bank.

World Bank. 1989. Trends in Developing Economies. (Annual, 1989 et seq.) Washington, DC: World Bank.

World Bank. 1990. World Development Report: Poverty. Washington, DC: World Bank.

World Bank. 1991. World Development Report: Development. Washington, DC: World Bank.

World Bank. 1992. World Development Report: Environment. Washington, DC: World Bank.

World Bank. 1993. World Development Report: Health. Washington, DC: World Bank.

World Bank. 1994. Making Development Sustainable: The World Bank Group and the Environment. Washington, DC: World Bank.

World Bank. 1997. Advancing Sustainable Development : The World Bank and Agenda 21. (Environmentally sustainable development studies and monographs series; no. 19.) Washington, DC : World Bank, 1997.

World Bank. 1997. Expanding the Measure of Wealth: Indicators of Environmentally Sustainable Development. (Environmentally Sustainable Development Studies and Monographs Series; no. 17.) Washington, D.C. : World Bank, c1997.

World Bank. 1997. Five Years After Rio : Innovations in Environmental Policy. (Environmentally Sustainable Development Studies and Monographs Series; no. 18.) Washington, D.C. : World Bank.

World Resources Institute. 1997. World Resources 1996-97: A Guide to the Global Environment. (Annual.) Washington, DC: World Resources Institute.

Worster, Donald (ed.). 1988. The Ends of the Earth: Perspectives on Modern Environmental History. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press

Wouter van Dieren (ed.). 1995. Taking Nature into Account: A Report to the Club of Rome. New York: Copernicus, Springer-Verlag.

[Indicators used to direct economic policy (GDP, national income, etc.) may not tell the whole story: continued deterioration of the environment is leading us closer to crisis. Meanwhile, policymakers and the public are basing decisions on dangerously incomplete information. Leading experts make the ethical, historical, economic, and ecological arguments for including environmental factors when measuring fiscal health. Initiated by the Club of Rome (an international group of influential businessmen, statesmen, and scientists), and written in cooperation with the World Wide Fund for Nature, this report reviews existing methodologies and makes recommendations for adjusting the way we think about and measure the economy.]

Wratten, E. 1995. Conceptualizing Urban Poverty, Environment and Urbanization, 7, pp.1136.

Young, Kate. 1993.  "Frameworks for Analysis,"  127-146 in Kate Young, Planning Development with Women: Making a World of Difference. New York: St. Martin"s Press.

Zein-Elabdin, Eiman. 1996. „Development, Gender, and the Environment: Theoretical or Contextual Link? Toward an Institutional Analysis of Gender,"  Journal of Economic Issues, v30n4 (Dec 1996): 929-947.

[The current discourse on gender, development, and the environment has emerged from a convergence of feminist and environmentalist critiques of economic development. Zein-Elabdin proposes an alternative conceptual framework for redrawing this discourse, particularly with regard to the treatment of gender.]

Zimmerer, K. 1996.  "Ecology as Cornerstone and Chimera in Human Geography," 161-188 in C. Earle & K. Matthewson & M. Kenzer (eds), Concepts in Human Geography. Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield.

Zulawski, Ann. 1990.  "Social Differentiation, Gender, and Ethnicity: Urban Indian Women in Colonial Bolivia, 1640-1725,"  Latin American Research Review, v25n2 (1990): 93-113.

[The range of Indian women¼s market participation and the ways in which gender, class and ethnicity interacted to foster considerable diversity in women¼s activities and at the same time limit their economic possibilities are explored.]

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