Flapper: A Madcap Story of Sex, Style, Celebrity,

and the Women who Made America Modern


Joshua Zeitz



What were the origins of flappers – top down?  Bottom up?


What influence did World War I have on the emergence of the flapper?


Did “flappers” pre-date the 1920s?


Why did some women want to be flappers?


How many women considered themselves flappers?


How was the emergence of flappers related to trends within the African American community?





Is being a flapper a function of age or attitude?


Does being a flapper transcend race, class, and sexual orientation?


Are flappers feminists?  (According to what definition of “feminist”?)


Is “flapper” more than just a look?


What made flappers “modern”?


Did the emergence of the flapper constitute a “sexual revolution”?


Were there rural flappers?  If so, what impact did they have on rural communities?


Were flappers always single? Could they be married or mothers?


Who did flappers date?  Were there male flappers?  What did men think of flappers?


Were flappers well educated?


Was there a relationship between flappers, debt, consumerism, and the Great Depression?





How did flappers affect the women’s movement?


Did suffragettes or flappers contribute more to women’s liberation?


How did flappers affect younger teens?


What was the relationship between flappers and prohibition?


How did advertisers use the flappers?


What did the guys during the 1920s think of all of this?


What did flappers’ families think of them? How did the broader community react to flappers – particularly in rural areas?


Is there a male equivalent to the flappers?




Where have all the flappers gone?  Did the Depression kill the flappers?