Chapter 10 Vocabulary



andswere answer (direct object; feminine accusative singular)

aþas oaths (accusative plural)

cyning king (nominative)

earan ears (plural of eare, accusative)

Eastengle East Angles (nominative plural; proper name)

eastrice east kingdom (dative)

færeld journey (nominative)

geare year (instrumental)

gwritum writings (nominative plural)

Godes of God (genitive singular)

godum with goods (dative plural)

herenesse in praise (dative singular)

hleaperas messengers (nominative plural)

Ifling the River Ifling (nominative)

lar teaching, doctrine (nominative)

mere lake, body of water (dative)

monað months (nominative plural)

mynster monastery (accusative)

Norþhymbre Northumbrians (nominative plural; proper name)

Oswold Oswald (nominative; proper name)

rod cross, rood (nominative)

Scyppendes of the Creator (genitive singular)

staþe shore, bank (dative)

tide time (accusative)

Truso Truso (name of a city; nominative)

twelf twelve (nominative; number)

(ge)weorc defensive work, fort (accusative)

weoruldhade secular life (dative)

word word (accusative)

wurþmynte reverence, honor (dative)

ylde old age (genitive)



arærde erected (past 3rd person singular of aræran)

cwæþ said (past 3rd person singular of [ge]cweþan)

cymeþ comes (present 3rd person singular of cuman)

gehyranne hearing (inflected infinitive of gehieran)

gehyre hear (plural imperative of gehieran)

geseoh see (imperative singular of geseon)

geseted set, placed, located (past 3rd person singular of gesettan)

gehyraþ heard (present 3rd person plural of gehieran)

hæbbe have (present 3rd person subjunctive of habban)

hæfdon had (past 3rd person plural of habban)

næs was not (past 3rd person singular, contraction of ne wæs)

onfeng took, received (past 3rd person singular of onfon)

ongan began (past 3rd person singular of onginnen)

(ge)seald gave (past participle of [ge]sellan)

sende sent (past 3rd person singular of sendan)

singan to sing (infinitive)

standeþ stands (present 3rd person singular of standan)

stod stood (past 3rd person singular of standan)

þafode agreed (past 3rd person singular of þafian)

(ge)worht wrought, made (past participle of [ge]wyrcan)



ylce same

hwelc of what sort

gelyfdre advanced (genitive, feminine)

nan no


þær there

unscyldig un-guilty, sinless, innocent


nu now

siþþan afterwards

sona: soon, immediately

þonne then

wel well


buton except

mid with

ofer over

on in

oþ until

to to, for

ymb about, around, approximately


These sentences for translation can also be accessed through King Alfred.

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