RELIGION AND Western Civilization Mid-Term EXAMINATION (try an interactive version of this test)

(Choose the best answer from among the listed possibilities)


A. Cosmology B. Anthropology C. Metaphysics D. The Sacred

E. Myth AB. Ritual AC. Symbol AD. Descriptive Disciplines

AE. Normative Disciplines

1. Usually characterized by a transcendent referent

2. Sacred communication

3. Asks what, where, and even how it is

4. These disciplines ask "why"

5. Concerns itself with human reality

6. Concerns itself with "God" or the absolute and ultimate ground of being

7. Not only is Astro-physics the quintessential example of Descriptive Disciplines but of this traditional discipline as well

8. a sacred person, place, or object

9. sacred behavior

10. In the Semitic religions God is the transcendent example of this

11. paradigmatic reality

12. a crucifix

13. theology and philosophy are these types of disciplines

14. sacrifice

15. sacred texts


A. a Literal or as literature reading of a text B. as theology/metaphysics C. historical/scientific D. existential

16. "what really happened"

17. "what it says to me"

18. hermeneutic/semiotic reading

19. "what the story says"

20. "what it says about God/Ultimate Reality"









A. Abrahamic/Semitic/Prophetic Religions in General B. Judaism

C. Christianity D. Platonism E. Aristotilianism

AB . Stoicism AC. Epicurean

21. emphasizes the pure light, the higher self, soul as an ideal in the mind of God

22. Pleasure is good

23. Concerned with the maximum good for the maximum amount of people; sociologically concerned... the founder connected with Alexander the Great

24. produced the prophetic dynamic

25. God has an agenda

26. though it does not advocate it, it has an offshoot in hedonistic abandonment to pleasure

27. emphasizes being the master of your soul, maintaining equilibrium and moderation in all things as a way of controlling your reactions to adversity

28. emphasizes social and religious critique

29. has a particular hermeneutic about the kingdom of God as revealed by the suffering servant

30. emphasizes a linear philosophy of history

31. the lineage out of which Karl Marx could be said to draw his social and religious critique

32. emphasizes anamnesis or un-forgetting

33. the source of Neo-platonism

34. stuff happens, donít project expectations, no one promised you a rose garden, deal with it philosophy.... good poker strategy

35. produced the apologists

36. Origen of Alexandria was into this as well as being a Christian

37. "A loaf of bread, a jug of wine, and thou...."

38. the philosophy of Marcus Aurelius

39. the religion of choice for Constantine

Cultural Stages

A. Egyptian Civilization B. Assyrian Empire C. Babylonian Empire D. Persian Empire

E. Greek/Hellenistic AB. Roman Empire AC. the pre-constantine church AD. post-constantine

40. Zoroaster

41. the pre-socratic philosophers

42. Caesar Augustus

43. fierce warriors noted for impaling victims upon stakes

44. the councils of Nicea, Constantinople, Ephesus, etc.

45. Alexander the Great

Multiple Choice and True/False Questions on the Text

46. Division of labor between men and women appears to have originated in

A. constructing monuments and canals

B. obtaining different foodstuffs

C. making clothing

  1. making tools and weapons

47. The Paleolithic Age is characterized by

A. a hunting and gathering existence

B. domestication of animals

C. the beginning of agriculture

D. the first religious organizations

48. The shift to agriculture in the Neolithic Age coincided with

A. the first religious organizations

B. a division of labor according to sex

C. advances in stone tool technology

D. the arrival of civilization

49. Civilization is best defined as

A. writing, literature, and cities.

B. urban living, smelting metals, and writing.

C. ways of living passed on from one generation to another.

D. abstract thought and peaceful policies.

50. The Code of Hammurabi reveals a

A. "hands-off" approach to regulating business.

B. deep concern for maintaining social equality.

C. relaxed, flexible society that practiced mercy

D. rigid unequal class structure favoring the elite.

51. The Jewish God

A. was pictured in a variety of artistic forms.

B. is a strict but fair judge of human behavior.

C. is conceived of as very much like a human.

D. rarely intervened in human affairs.

52. Ancient literature appears to suggest that the function of humanity is to

A. understand the gods.

B. develop personal capacities.

C. serve the gods.

D. control nature.



53. For the Greeks, laws

A. were made by men, not gods.

B. were important only for regulating the poor.

C. came directly from Mount Olympus.

D. were obeyed out of fear of powerful leaders.

54. The earliest Greek philosophers were concerned with questions involving

A. the behavior of the gods.

B. a rational explanation of phenomenon

C. the differences between people and gods.

D. the ideal political system

55. Throughout Egyptian history, Aton was the most important god.



56. Hippocrates believed that some diseases had purely supernatural or divine




57. How did the Mycenaeans differ from the Minoans?

A. They were more interested in beauty and truth.

B. They were more warlike.

C. Actually, they were similar

D. They were more dependent on trade.

58. The Homeric epics refer to

A. Oedipus Rex and the Odyssey

B. Works and Days and the Theogony

C. The Iliad and the Golden Fleece

D. The Iliad and the Odyssey

59. Which qualities would a Homeric hero prize most dearly?

A. wealth, love of country, the good life

B. strength, teamwork, artistic ability

C. individual skill, courage, excellence

D. charity, individual skill, speaking ability

60. The rise of the hoplite phalanx created

A. a bond between the aristocrats and the peasants.

B. a demand for an all-powerful tyrant.

C. a strong oligarchical state in Athens.

D. class tensions which later resulted in civil war.



61. The Greeks held an open-air assembly in a place called the

A. tholos

B. acropolis

C. agora

D. arete

62. Democracy in Athens is best represented by

A. the Council of 500.

B. the people's right to ostracize.

C. the assembly of citizens.

D. the board of ten generals.

63. A short spear was the normal weapon of a hoplite.



63. Which of the following best describes the content of Euripides' plays?

A. Powerful cosmic themes and thundering language.

B. Pride in the superiority of the Greek city-state system.

C. Behavior of individual human beings.

D. Political satire.

64. Philip's settlement of Greece in 338 was

A. harsh and brutal.

B. liberal in form, but Macedonian rule in fact.

C. an expression of his belief in the brotherhood of man.

D. gentle and altruistic.

65. Socrates was condemned to death for

A. bringing new gods into the city and corrupting the youth.

B. writing dialogues against the state and corrupting the youth.

C. inciting riots among the youth.

D. atheism and treason.

66. Hellenistic culture tended to be

A. mainly a rural one.

B. limited to the Athenian state.

C. concentrated in Greece proper.

D. rooted in the cities of Alexander's empire.




67. In the philosophy of Stoicism, the principle aim of man is

A. a pleasurable life.

B. a virtuous life.

C. a life spent in isolation.

D. worshipping the temple gods.

68. Scientific achievements of the Hellenistic Age were made possible to a

great extent by

A. support for research by Alexander and his successors.

B. theft from Persian centers of learning.

C. the great amount of gold taken from Egypt.

D. patronage by the wealthy citizens of Alexandria.

69. For Empedocles of Acragas the four basic elements were fire, earth, love,

and strife.



70. The popular courts of Athens to which any citizen could appeal contained

between 9 and 12 jurors.



71. Athenian women had no choice of husbands, or control of their dowry

throughout the marriage.

  1. TRUE
  2. FALSE

72. Ptolemy I, Seleucus I, and Antigonus I are the names of the Macedonian

generals who assassinated Alexander and divided up his conquests.



73. Most of our knowledge today of Aristotleís work is from his personal




74. The humility and disdain for worldly things exemplified by Socrates was

carried to extremes by Diogenes and the Cynics.






75. Epicurean philosophy attempted to eliminate one's fear of death.



76. The early Roman Republic came to be dominated by

A. the tribunes of the people.

B. the senatorial aristocracy.

C. the army.

D. the consuls.

77. Near the end of the Roman Republic slaves accounted for what portion of

the population of Italy?

A. 40%

B. 30%

C. 50%

D. 15%

78. Etruscan influence on the Romans was greatest in

A. politics.

B. religion.

C. societal structure.

D. the military.

79. The duties of the tribune were to

A. protect the plebeians from the arbitrary power of the magistrates

B. maintain the financial records.

C. sacrifice to the gods

D. protect the interests of the patricians

80. Central to the reform program of the Gracchi brothers was

A. reduction of senatorial power.

B. freeing of slaves.

C. increased authority for tribunes.

D. redistribution of land.

81. Latifundia were

A. a political alliance

B. gladiatorial training schools

C. large plantations used for growing cash crops and worked by slaves

D. large houses of the aristocracy




82. The war against the Italian allies resulted in

A. full Roman citizenship for the allies

B. a Roman alliance with Philip V of Macedon.

C. annihilation of the allied forces

D. further restriction of allied rights

83. Caesar was assassinated because he

A. had personally offended Brutus and Cassius.

B. was regarded as a tyrant.

C. had confiscated money from the senatorial aristocracy

D. had violated the laws of the state.

84. Caesar was responsible for the conquest of

A. Britannia (Britain)

B. Palestine

C. Gaul (France)

D. Spain

85. Pompey and Caesar defeated the slave revolt led by Spartacus.




86. Many volunteers for the Roman legions viewed enlistment as an opportunity

to obtain land and other rewards in exchange for their service.



87. As the Romans increased their role in the Mediterranean world, it became

clear to them that military campaigns would be very costly.



88. The center of Roman life was the family.



89. By the second century CE members of the upper classes were reluctant to

accept municipal office because

A. they considered the jobs degrading

B. they were personally responsible for taxes due

C. the army offered better opportunities

D. they wanted to serve in the emperor's court


90. The word princeps means

A. military leader

  1. B. first citizen.

C. prince

D. none of the above

91. Jesus of Nazareth taught all of the following EXCEPT

A. sinners would be condemned to hell.

B. Jews would triumph over their earthly enemies.

C. the good will be rewarded with immortality.

D. the faithful must give up their worldliness.

92. The primary foundation of Augustus' power was

A. the aristocracy

B. the army

C. the people of Rome

93. The economy of Rome during these centuries appears to have suffered for

all the following reasons EXCEPT

A. government confiscations of private property.

B. a surplus of agricultural labor.

C. little reserve funds beyond normal budget allocations.

D. no system of credit.

94. Paul's major contribution to Christianity was

A. the sacrament of communion

B. the establishment of the papacy in Rome.

C. preaching the gospel only to true believers.

D. one did not have to be a Jew to believe in Christ.

95. The "secret of Empire," according to the historian Tacitus, was the

knowledge that

A. the aristocracy must be placated

B. harshness of rule results in obedience

C. poverty and hunger cause rebellion

D. an emperor could be made outside the walls of Rome.

96. The Council of Nicea in 325 rejected the views of

A. Matthew

B. Athenasius

C. Arius

D. James


97. The capital was moved to Constantinople by Constantine because it

A. was easily defensible.

B. could easily protect the western and Danubian frontiers.

C. all of the above

D. could control trade into the Caspian Sea.

98. One of the great problems facing the early Christians was their relationship

with Paul of Tarsus.



99. The greatest influence on the cultural development and civilization of Rome

during these centuries remained Hellenistic.



100. In Greek the word Christos means messiah.