Sex offenders, such as rapists, pedophiles, and exhibitionists, are among the highest reoccurring offense populations in the United States probation system. These offenders commit crimes that put fear into the general public and pose a threat to people that live in their neighborhoods. These offenders should be punished and not let off or forgiven of their crime(s) just because they have gone through a treatment program, most or which cannot show a significant success rate.
Chemical castration is an ideal punishment for sex offenders. When Depo-Provera is administerd, recidivism rates fall to 5%. Their sexual fantasies are lessened as a result of the reduction of testosterone levels. Although men administered this drug are capable of having sexual intercourse, many people argue that chemical castration is cruel and unusual punishment. This argument is countered by the fact that sex offenders are required to get injections only once a month. What is "cruel and unusual" is allowing sex offenders to attack innocent women and children. This effective therapy will protect future victims. It is an "offender friendly" way of reducing sexual violence. [LaLaunie Hayes.]
This 1997 newspaper article addresses the issue of voluntary surgical castration, which is provided for in a bill introduced in the Texas Legislature by Senator Teel Bivins. [Recommended by Contessa Mendoza.]
Many of the arguments supporting mandatory treatment of sex offenders with Depo-Provera neglect to cite evidence that such treatment would be effective. This study shows a reduction of testosterone levels results in a marked reduction in male aggression. The subjects were given a gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonist that lowers testosterone production and half of them exhibited reductions in anxiety and sexual desire. [Recommended by Laura Matthies.]
This brief article explains the chemical castration law in California. The law is based on the understanding that testosterone level will be lowered, which will decrease sex drive. [Recommended by Kimberley Spitz.]
This article is about how California has mandated chemical castration for repeat child molesters. The author cites some statistics to support this law. [Recommended by Lalaunie Hayes.]
This article explains how the drug used for chemical castration works and gives information about the laws that have been passed and the recidivism rates for sex offenders. Many good arguments are presented to support chemical castration. [Recommended by Dawn Burden, Stacy Baker, and Kimberley Spitz.]
Although there is support by the German public for chemical castration, the German government is only considering voluntary chemical castration. It has no near plans to make chemical castration a mandatory punishment for sex offenders. [Recommended by Anna Lisa Perez.]
This article is about the California bill mandating chemical castration. It suggests that while this may be a solution to a serious problem, it also may be cruel and unusal punishment of sex offenders. [Recommended by Debra Busher.]
The National Conference of State Legislatures released this document about new laws in four states that require medroxyprogesterone acetate (Depo-Provera) treatment for sex offenders. Similar proposals were introduced during the first half of 1997 by legislatures in 16 other states. [Recommended by Laura Matthies.]
This article in the April 27, 1997, Standard Times reports that the State of Montana will approve castration of sex offenders with Depo-Provera because the cost of injections will be $21 compared to the current $44 per day for incarceration. [Recommended by Laura Matthies.]
An in depth look at treatment programs for sex offenders that also gives good statistics.
A statistics page on rape.
Definition of sexual assault and recommendations for dealing with and avoiding such attacks.
Examination of levels of denial and response to treatment. Explores possible gains from therapeutic measures.
Discusses developed rating scale as a potential proces s and outcome measure for cognitive/behavioral sex offender treatment.
Discusses possible measures for predicting l ikelihood of future offense and the nature of offense.
Addresses the Sexual Predator Act.
Explores the Sexually Violent Predator Statute.
Review of current evaluation research on use of incarceration for sex offenders (among others).
Data about offenders aged >55 years who are on probation.
Examines risk of repeat offenses by convicted sex offenders.
Suggests attentiveness to victim's needs and necessity for legal reform.
This paper reviews the literature on programs for sex offenders and whether they "really work," in the sense of significantly reducing the recidivism rates. It concludes that there is no evidence supporting the claim that clinical treatment reduces these rates on sex offenses.
Speaks of the role therapists play in helping sex offenders.
Examines characteristics of sexual sadist and sexual offenders in general.
Results of a questionnaire given to sex offenders indicate that the majority of them have been convicted more than once for a sexual assault. On average they admitted to having committed 2-5 times as many sex crimes for which they were not apprehended.
The ability of clinical and actuarial variables to predict criminal behavior was investigated in a sample of 342 sexual offenders. Discriminant analyses suggested that linear combination of actuarial variables was significantly predictive of sexual reoffense against adults and of nonsexual violent and nonviolent reoffending.
Describes characteristics of dangerous sexual offenders, including rapists and child molesters. Factors indicate an unfavorable prognosis. Thus, a need for increased externally imposed control of sexual offenders are noted.
Discusses results of study on adolescent sex offenders in juvenile correctional facilities.
A study that looks at the effectiveness of treatment programs for sex offenders.
Discuss the dance of denial that sex offenders exhibit.
Study looking at the emotional states of sex offenders.
Deals with reactions to treatment of sexual abuse offenders.
Presents factor profile to assess treatment need and risk of re-offending.
A study that looks at personality characteristics of sex offenders.
Discusses the "criminal sexual psychopath" and what should be done with a person who falls under this category.
Examines role of criminal justice experience in victim distress level.