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Review for final exam Semester 2:  (Make sure you bring your poly-atomic ion cards and your formula cards!!!!!)

1.                  What is stoichiometry and why is it used in chemistry?

 

2.                  What is Avagadro’s number?

 

3.                  What is a mole and how is its mass determined

 

4.                  In a balanced reaction, what is the coefficient?

 

5.                  What is the law of conservation of mass and how does it relate to balanced equations?

 

6.                  How bond formation and bond breaking related to enthalpy?

 

7.                  What is thermochemistry?

 

8.                  How do the terms endothermy and exothermy relate to the energy (temperature) of the reactants, products, & the environment.

 

9.                  What is the symbol for enthalpy?  What is the standard unit?

 

10.              Write a balanced equation for endothermic and exothermic reactions using the symbols A, B, & AB.  Remember to place heat on the proper side of the equation.

 

11.              What are standard conditions for enthalpy?

 

12.              How is the quantity of enthalpy determined?

 

13.              What are the 3 most abundant gases in air?  What are there percentages?

 

14.              List the basic properties of gases.

 

15.              What volume does a mole of gas occupy?

 

16.              What is Boyle’s Law? (give the literal definition and the equation)

 

17.              What is Charles’ Law? (give the literal definition and the equation)

 

18.              What is Avagadro’s Law? (give the literal definition and the equation)

 

19.              What is the Ideal Gas Law? (give the literal definition and the equation)

 

20.              What is the Kinetic molecular theory?  How does it relate to gases?

 

21.              List the different intermolecular forces and describe how they are formed.

 

22.              List the different intramolecular forces and describe how they are formed.

 

23.              Compare the relative strengths of inter and intramolecular forces.

 

24.              What are colligative properties and how do they relate to the strength of the intramolecular forces?

 

25.              What are the basic properties of a solution?

 

26.              Define the following solution words:

 

a.      Miscible

b.      Dissolution

c.      Precipitation

d.      Solvent

e.      Solute

f.        Solubility

g.      Alloy

h.      Homogeneous

i.        Aqueous

 

27.              What are the chemical symbols for a solid, liquid, gas, & aqueous solution?

 

28.              What is chemical equilibrium?

 

29.              What is meant by the term reversible-reaction?  What symbol is used?

 

30.              How is the rate of a reversible reaction related to the amount of product produced in a reaction?

 

31.              What is the symbol for the solubility product and how does its value relate to the solubility of a substance?

 

32.              What are the following definitions for an acid?

 

a.      Arrhenius

b.      Bronsted-Lowry

 

33.              32.      What are the following definitions for a base?

 

a.      Arrhenius

b.      Bronsted-Lowry

 

34.              List the products of the following neutralizations:

a.      strong acid + strong base

b.      strong acid + weak base

c.      weak acid + strong base

d.      weak acid + weak base

 

35.              List the basic properties of an acid.

 

36.              List the basic properties of a base.

 

37.              What is an electrolyte?  How is its strength related to the concentrations of acids and bases?

 

38.              What is a chemical indicator?

 

39.              What is a buffer?

 

40.              What is meant by the term amphoteric?

 

41.              What is pH?  What is the scale?  How are the values represented in scientific notation?

 

42.              What is the pH of pure water and how does it numerically relate to the concentration of OH- and H3O+ ions?

 

43.              Relate the concentrations of OH- and H3O+ ions in basic and acidic solutions.

 

44.              Define the battery terms:

 

a.      Electrolytic

b.      Electrochemical

c.      Voltaic

d.      Redox

e.      Electrodes

f.        Salt bridge

g.      Half-reaction

h.      Anode

i.        Cathode

 

45.              In an electrochemical cell where is the site of oxidation?  Where is the site of reduction?

 

46.              How is the value of Keq related to the spontaneity of a reaction?

 

 

 

47.              What are the symbols for the following: What would their value be for a spontaneous reaction?

 

a.      Entropy

b.      Enthalpy

c.      Gibbs

d.      Temperature

 

48.              What is a spontaneous reaction?

 

49.              How is the value of DH determined?  How is its sign related to exothermy and endothermy?

 

50.              What are the standard enthalpy conditions?

 

51.              Math examples:

 

a.      What is the percent composition methane? (CH4)

 

b.      What is the molar mass of glucose (C6H12O6)

 

c.      A sample contains 3.2 moles of water (H2O).  How many molecules are present?  (Hint: Avagadro)

 

d.      What is the atomic mass of water (H2O)?

 

e.      A sample of H2SO4 contains 75g.  How many moles does it have?

 

f.        How many atoms are in .5 moles of C?

 

g.      38L of O2 at STP.  How many moles are present?

 

h.      How much product is produced when 1.5 grams of potassium are reacted with excess water?  (2K + H2O = 2KOH + H2)

 

i.        The volume of a gas in a container is 500ml at 760mmHg.  What will the volume be at 900mmHg? (Hint: Boyle’s)

 

j.        The volume of a gas in a container is 500ml at 25oC.  What will the volume be at 125oC?  (Hint: Charles)

 

k.      How many moles of a gas are present at 5L, 1.5atm, & 45oC? (Hint: Ideal)

 

l.        How many moles of Cl are required to prepare 2.5L of a 0.1M solution?

 

m.    What is the molality of a solution containing 300g of Br dissolved in 1250g of alcohol?

 

n.      What is the pH of a solution containing a concentration of 1x10-9 OH- ions?

 

 

 

Last modified: June 01, 2004